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Full text of "Aramaic incantation texts from Nippur"

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UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA 

THE MUSEUM 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE BABYLONIAN SECTION 



ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS 
FROM NIPPUR 



BY 

JAMES A. MONTGOMERY 

PROFESSOR AT THE PHILADELPHIA DIVINITY SCHOOL 
AND ASSISTANT PROFESSOR AT THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



ECKLEY BRINTON COXE JUNIOR FUND 



PHILADELPHIA 
PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY MUSEUM 



1913 



P7 



630411 



TO 

MY FATHER AND MOTHER 

FIRST AND BEST OF TEACHERS 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

PREFACE 7 

INTRODUCTION 13 

I. SURVEY OF THE MATERIAL 

§ 1. The Material in the Museum 13 

§ 2. The Material Hitherto Published and in Other 

Collections 16 

§ 3. Some Notes on the Texts Hitherto Published.. 23 

II. SCRIPT AND LANGUAGE 

§ 4. Introductory 26 

§ 5. The "Rabbinic" Texts 27 

§ 6. The Syriac Texts 32 

§ 7. The Mandaic Texts 37 

III. THE MAGIC OF THE TEXTS 

§ 8. The Praxis of the Inscribed Bowls 40 

§ 9. The Exorcists 46 

§ 10. The Clients 49 

§ 1 1. The Incantations 51 

§ 12. The Objects of Exorcism; the Demons, etc 67 

§ 13. Propitious Angels, Deities, etc 95 

IV. HISTORICAL CONCLUSIONS 

§ 14. Age of the Bowls 102 

§ 15. Relations of the Bowl-Magic 106 

(5) 



CONTENTS. 

TEXTS : PAGE 

Nos. 1-42. Transliteration, Translation, Notes 117 

Nos. 1-30. "Rabbinic" Texts 117 

Nos. 31-37. Syriac Texts 223 

Nos. 38-40. Mandaic Texts 244 

Appendix: 

No. 41. An Inscribed Skull 256 

No. 42. A Form of the Lilith Legend 258 

GLOSSARIES: 

Prefatory Note 267 

A. Personal Names 269 

B. Personal Names and Epithets of Deities, Angels, 

Demons, etc 274 

C. General Glossary 281 

GENERAL INDEX. 309 

PREFATORY NOTE TO THE PLATES 319 

REGISTER OF THE BOWLS 321 

PLATES 

Texts 

Alphabetic Tables 

Photograph of Bowl 



PREFACE 

The primary purpose of this pubUcation was to edit, with 
translation and necessary notes, the incantation texts inscribed 
on bowls from Nippur, now in the possession of the Museum. 
But it soon became apparent that full account should be made 
of all other published texts of like character, both for my own 
advantage in securing a larger material for collation and also 
for the convenience of scholars by presenting in one work a 
survey of a rather remote and scattered field, in which many 
have labored but none has attempted a treatment of the sub- 
ject at large. I have accordingly not only given a description 
of all the earlier material but also collated it as fully as possible 
both in the Glossaries and in the references of Introduction 
and Commentary. The Introduction, thus extended beyond 
the field of the Nippur texts, has grown to still greater dimen- 
sions with the enlarging perception of the intimate relations 
between the bowl-inscriptions and the broad fields of ancient 
magical literature. Previous editors, working before the pres- 
ent great development of the study of magic, had taken little 
notice of these connections with a wider world. Analogies 
with the Talmud and possible connections with the Kabbalis- 
tic lore had been pointed out, but the bowls still remained 
without definite place or links in the general field of ancient 
magic. Withal the relations of Jewish magic to the larger 
whole have not yet been ascertained. 

But within the last few decades an immense advance has 
been made in our knowledge of ancient magic and of its prime 
importance as a study in the history of mankind. The chief 

(7) 



8 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

stimulus to this has come, first, from the anthropologists and 
the students of comparative religion, who have taught us not 
to ignore the most primitive or most degraded manifestations 
of the human spirit. Then there have been the rapid strides 
in the advance of Egyptology and Assyriology, where at every 
step the student faces the problem of the identities and differ- 
ences of magic and religion. Further, the classical philologists 
have at last condescended to examine the vulgar magical records 
in the Greek and Latin tongues, and have found an interest 
in them as revealing how the ancient "man of the street," 
and wiser men as well, actually talked and thought, in modes 
different from the traditional standards of the classical civiliza- 
tion. Of this large increase in material and understanding 
I have been fortunately able to avail myself, with the result 
of the discovery of innumerable clues proving that the bowl- 
magic is in part the lineal descendant of the old Babjdonian 
sorcery while at the same time — and this is the more impor- 
tant because a less expected discover}^ — it takes its place in 
that great field of Hellenistic magic which pervaded the whole 
of the western world at the beginning of the Christian era. 
My chief contribution to the study has been in these two direc- 
tions, the relations with the cuneiform religious texts and the 
Greek magical papyri. The writer's knowledge of Egyptian 
magic was wholly at second hand, and in any case that earlier 
influence was mediated to this special field through Hellenism. 
The Christian Syrian literature is shown to have its close con- 
nections, being thoroughly infused, as was the early Church, with 
magical ideas. Magic within Judaism has been the subject 
of capital monographs by competent Jewish scholars, and in 
that direction I have not been able to do much more than to 
appropriate their results, except so far as to show the absolute 



J. A. MONTGOMERY— ARAMAIC INCANTATION' TEXTS. 9 

community of ideas and terms and practice between Jewish 
and Gentile sorcery. It remains a subject for an interesting 
investigation to discover just what Judaism gave to, and what 
it received from, the Hellenistic magic, but probably a hope- 
less study, for, as someone has remarked, in the history of magic 
we must pursue not the genealogical but the analogical method. 
As a result of these comparisons, the conclusion must be drawn, as 
indicated in § 15 of the Introduction, that the magic of the bowls, 
and in a general way, all Jewish magic, has come out of the crucible 
of the Graeco-Roman world, which, on account of its dominating 
civilization, we call Hellenistic; it is not Jewish but eclectic. 

However, with this broadening of the scope of the work, 
it has been the fixed purpose not to attempt any general study 
of magic; this would have been but to confuse my work and 
cloud my results. With a single eye, the facts of the texts 
have been illustrated in as objective a way as possible from the 
phenomena of locally inherited and contemporaneous magic, 
with the intent of establishing the immediate bonds of connec- 
tion. My work would be a contribution from a very small 
and limited field to the study of magical thought and practice 
within a definite age and region. At least there has come to 
the writer the satisfaction of finding a place for the membra 
disjecta of these out-of-the-way texts in the huge colossus of 
that system of magic which was once almost the actual religion 
of our western civilization. 

If I appear to have gone into much detail in the treatment 
of these non-literary texts, I trust that the results will justify 
my undertaking; the expansion of the work has proceeded 
naturally and subtly much beyond the editor's desire and 
convenience. From the philological point of view these vulgar 
inscriptions are of as much interest to the Semitist as are the 



10 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

magical papyri to the classicist. Careful study shows that, 
with the exception of intentionally unintelligible passages, 
mystic phrases and the like, the words and the syntax of the 
texts are the autograph representatives of the language of their 
writers. Three different Aramaic dialects, each with its own 
script, and one script a peculiar variety of the Edessene, are 
offered in the bowls from Nippur, and they are of importance 
as original documents of the dialectic forms of the speech of 
Babylonia about the eve of the rise of Islam. Other original 
monuments are well-nigh lacking for this field; we are confined 
almost entirely to the school-literatures of rehgious sects, of 
the Jews, Christian Syrians and Mandaeans, whose books are 
preserved mostly in late manuscripts. The Jewish magical 
literature is all documentarily late or uncertain as to age, and 
our texts have a historical worth as almost the earliest records 
in that line which can be exactly dated. Further, the obscure 
and crabbed condition of the texts compelled an exact philo- 
logical examination in order to test hypotheses of interpreta- 
tion. And as to matters beyond philology, it will not, I hope, 
be set down to wilful acriby if I have attempted to work out 
very small clues. In such work as this there is no immediate 
compensation on the surface, and it is onlj- by following out 
the fine tendrils of connection that results worth while can 
be obtained. The writer's experience in his study is well 
expressed by some words of Professor Deissmann: "It may be 
that hundreds of stones, tiresomely repeating the same monoto- 
nous formula, have only the value of a single authority, yet in 
their totality, these epigraphic results furnish us with plenty 
of material — only one should not expect too much of them, 
or too little" {Bible Studies, 82). 

In regard to the representation of the texts it might have 
been technically more correct to present them in their several 



J. A. MONTGOMERY— ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. H 

scripts. But apart from the difficulty of procuring two of 
these types in American printing houses and compositors who 
could set them, it must be patent that the general convenience 
is far better subserved by presenting the texts in the well-known 
Hebrew character, while those who desire the original scripts 
can satisfy themselves with the facsimiles published in the 
second volume. The peculiar Mandaic relative particle is 
represented, according to convention, by the diacritical "j; but 
I have departed from the usual custom of editing Mandaic texts 
by representing the pronominal suffix in -h by H and have 
used n for the radical H or H, which two sounds fall together 
in the dialect. In the Glossaries words containing this common 
character are arranged according to its etymological distinction 
as n or n. In the transliterations inferior points indicate 
doubtful readings, superior points are used for the diacritical 
marks of the Syriac texts. The numbered lines of the texts 
represent the spiral lines, taken as beginning from the radius 
where the inscription begins. 

The Prefatory Note to the Plates describes how the fac- 
similes were made. I have to express my deep obligation to 
my friend and colleague, the Rev. Dr. R. K. Yerkes, for his 
careful reading of the volume in proof. 

• 

James A. Montgomery. 

The University Museum, February 2, 1912. 



I. SURVEY OF THE MATERIAL 

§ I.. The Material in the Museum 

The University Museum contains a large number of inscribed 
earthenware bowls found at Nippur belonging to the category of the 
so-called "Incantation Bowls." These vessels are generally of the 
size and shape of a modern porridge-bowl, except that in most cases 
the bowl is somewhat cone-shaped, so that when set down it balances itself 
in a state of unstable equilibrium. Some few have the boss expanded into 
a rim, thus giving a flat surface at the bottom of the bowl. The most 
common size is of about i6 cm. diameter at top, by 5 cm. full depth. There 
is one large bowl, 28 x 16 cm.' 

The bowls are made of a good clay, and are wheel-turned and kiln- 
dried; they have no surface, slip or glazing of any kind.' They were a 
domestic ware, intended for foods, and in no way differ from the simple 
vessels which to this day are made in the Orient for household use. 

The bowls in the Museum were excavated at Nippur, in Babylonia, by 
the University of Pennsylvania Expedition ; so far as I know, they are 
finds of the first two campaigns, conducted by Professor Peters in the 
years 1888, 1889. According to Peters' account,' these bowls were found 
on the top, or in the first strata of the mounds, in several places. They 
appear generally to have been discovered in the ruins of houses, amidst 
what Peters suggests were Jewish settlements ; the whole surface of one 
hill, he says "was covered with a Jewi.sh settlement, the houses of which 
were built of mud-brick, and in almost every house we found one, or more, 

' Many such large specimens are in the British Museum and at Constantinople. 

' I am indebted to Mr. D. Randall-Maclver, late of the Museum, for the 
characterization of the pottery. 

' See his Nippur, the Index to which, sub "Jewish incantation bowls" gives the 
references. 

13 



14 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

Jewish incantation bowls."* At least in one case bowls were found in 

connection with a cemetery; "we found ourselves in a graveyard 

It was interesting to find, between one and two metres below the surface, 
in the immediate neighborhood of slipper-shaped coffins, inscribed Hebrew 
bowls.'" As for the chronological light thrown upon these bowls, Cufic 
coins were found in the houses of these "Jewish" settlements,' and one 
of the most extensive finds of inscribed bowls was in the strata above the 
"Court of Columns," a Parthian building.' Peters holds the seventh 
century to be the latest date for the Jewish settlements where Cufic coins 
were found.' 

The Museum Catalogue counts over 150 numbers of this class of 
specimens, but the enumeration includes a large number of fragments. 
About 30 of the bowls are what I would call "original fakes" ; they are 
inscribed with letters arbitrarily arranged, or with pot-hooks, or even in 
some cases with mere scrawls, and I judge that these articles were palmed 
oflf on the unlearned public as "quite as good" as true incantations.' A still 
larger number of the bowls are so broken and their inscriptions so defaced, 
that I have not been able to use them. Others again were inscribed by so 
illiterate scribes that so far as they can be made out, they offer only some 
magical jargon, which adds nothing to our knowledge. Again there are 
a few texts which are fairly written and without those self-betraying 
combinations of letters that suggest a mock inscription, but which neverthe- 
less are not Semitic. They may be in some non-Semitic tongue, whether, 
for example, in Pahlavi, I am not able to say. One of the neatest of the 
bowls. No. 2954, containing only four circular lines of inscription, inter- 
ested me as presenting a novel alphabet ; but I soon came to the conclusion 
that this is but another "fake." produced we may suppose by some learned 
impostor — or wag. 

* ii, 182 f . ; cf. p. 194. 

• i. 24s. 

' ii, 183. On the following page the writer says that .Arabic bowls along with 
Jewish and Syriac were found ; but the Museum contains no Arabic specimens. 
' Hilprecht, Explorations in Bible Lands, p. 447. 
>'. 153, 183, 186. For further discussion of the date, see § 14. 
In many cases the inscriptions were written by laymen, who thus saved them- 
selves the exorcist's fee. Schwab notices some forged bowls at Constantinople, 
PSBA, xiii, 595. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 15 

All the relics from Xippur came to the University as the gift of the 
Sultan of Turkey, and in the matter of these incantation bowls I understand 
that the best specimens, the largest and fairest, have been retained in the 
Imperial Museum at Constantinople. At all events those in Philadelphia 
in almost all cases prevent complete decipherment because of mutilation." 
A large segment of the spherical surface may be missing, or an extensive 
portion of the interior, a side, or the upper or lower portion of the bowl 
may have become illegible, probably through the action of water. The 
inscription being spiral, such mutilations intrude their annoyance into every 
line. The damaged nature of this collection has added much to the toil 
of decipherment, for every break in the text and every eflfacement necessi- 
tates speculation as to the missing contents. On the other hand it is cause 
for remark and gratitude that these fragile vessels have been preserved as 
intact as they are, and that the scribes used such excellent ink that what 
they wrote has largely survived in defiance of "the powers of the air," the 
elements and the corroding chemical agents. 

As a result of the investigation of the whole collection I have selected 
40 bowls for publication, to which number should be added the one pub- 
lished earlier by Myhrman (accompanying No. 7). The remaining bowls 
and fragments are on the whole too illegible or too undecipherable to 
make it worth while to add them to this material. The languages of the 
inscriptions are three Aramaic dialects : — ( i ) the language with which we 
are familiar from the Babylonian Talmud, to which belong Nos. 1-30; 
(2) a Syriac dialect, Nos. 31-37; the Mandaic, Nos. 38-40. Each of these 
has its own script. .'\s an appendix, I publish, as No. 41, a human skull 
inscribed with a magical inscription of like character to those on the bowls, 
and Xo. 42 is a text of peculiar magical contents which has come to my 
hands, but with its original now lacking in the Museum. 

" With few exceptions, all the bowls I have deciphered have been put together 
from fragments into which they had fallen, in the Museum. 



§ 2. The Material Hitherto Published, and in Other Collections' 

The first publication of Mesopotamian incantation bowls appeared in 
Layard's notable volume. Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh and 
Babylon^ In describing his finds at Tell Amran, near Hillah, the great 
explorer tells of discovering "five cups or bowls of earthenware, and 
fragments of others, covered on the inner surface with letters written in 
a kind of ink" (p. 509). He notes that like material had been discovered 
before. Two from the collection of a Mr. Stewart had been deposited in 
the British Museum, which had also acquired through Colonel Rawlinson 
eight specimens obtained at Bagdad, their provenance however being 
unknown. In a later passage (p. 524) Layard records the discovery of a 
similar bowl, along with many fragments, at Nippur, — the precursor of 
the collection in Philadelphia. 

Layard committed his bowls to Mr. Thomas Ellis, of the staff of the 
British Museum, whose results are given in Layard's work, appearing 
pp. 509-523.' Layard himself takes up the discussion p. 523 lif. with 
criticism of Ellis's results. The latter presented five Judaeo-Aramaic 
bowls, and one in Syriac, with summaries of fragments of others. Of 
these only four were given in facsimile, nos. i, 3, 5, 6.* Subsequent 
scholarly investigation has proved not only that Ellis was wild in his 
interpretations of the bowls, but also that the facsimiles were unreliable. 
Hence the latter can only be used with caution or with the aid of later 

' Stiibe, Jiidisch-habyhnische Zaubertexte, 1895. gives a good review of the 
literature up to date, although requiring some corrections and additions. See also 
Wohlstein, in ZA, viii (1893), 313 f. 

' London, 1853. There is a German translation by Zenker, the bowls appearing 
there in Plate xx. 

' Layard leaves it somewhat indefinite which bowls were treated by Ellis. 

* Ellis's first bowl turns out to be a duplicate of our No. 11, under which I am 
able to present the restored text of the former. Was this the bowl which Layard 
reports was found at \ippur? 

(16) 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 17 

copies, while the bowls published without facsimiles are absolutely worth- 
less as scientific copy. Layard's publication therefore did little more than 
attract the attention of scholars to a fresh field of philology and religious 
lore. 

The first scientific treatment of this new material came from M. A. 
Levy, of Breslau, who devoted a long essay to Ellis's bowl, no. i, in the 
Zeitschrift d. Deutschen M orgenldndischen Gesellschaft for 1855 (ix, 465).' 
He was the first to grasp the peculiar lingo of the inscription, and in his 
commentary drew largely from Judaistic and Mandaic stores of learning. 
He also gave an elaborate treatment of the palaeography of the bowl, 
overthrowing the claims that had been advanced for a pre-Christian origin. 

Twenty years later J. M. Rodwell published a bowl from Hillah that 
had been procured by the British Museum, under the title. Remarks upon 
a Tcrra-Cotta Vase, with a photographic facsimile.' This second English 
venture at decipherment was no better than the first, its sole merit lying 
in the fact that the French scholar J. Halevy was induced to take up the 
same bowl on the basis of the facsimile, and to give it a scholarly translit- 
eration and translation, with commentary, under the title, Observation sur 
tin vase judeo-babylonien du British Museum!' Four of the bowls that 
had been published were presented by the great Hebrew epigraphist 
Chwolson in his monumental Corpus inscriptionum hebraicarum' The first 
(Chwolson's number, 18) is Ellis no. i, the second (no. 19) is Ellis no. 3, 
the third (no. 20) is the bowl pubhshed by Rodwell and Halevy; and the 

' Vber die von Layard aufgefundenen chalddischen Inschriften auf Topfge- 
fassen. Bin Beitrag zur hebrdischen PaVdographie u. s. Religionsgeschichte, with 
Ellis's facsimile. Levy again treated the same inscription under the title "Epi- 
graphische Beitrage zur Geschichte der Juden," in the Jahrbuch f. d. Geschichte d. 
Judeii, ii (1861), 266, 294. 

' In TSBA, ii (1873), ii4- 

' In Cotnptes rendus de I'Academie des Inscriptions et Bclles-Letires, series iv, 
vol. V (for 1877; Paris, 1878), 288. He re-edited his material in his Melanges de 
critique et d'histoire, 229. 

' St. Petersburg, 1882, col. 113 f. The facsimiles are reproduced at the end 
of the volume. The Russian edition of this work (St. Petersburg, 1884) publishes 
five bowls and considerably varies from the German edition (so Wohlstein, ZA, viii, 
315). For nos. 19, 21, Chwolson made use of improved transcripts prepared for him 
by Halevy. In his review of the Corpus in the Gottingische Gelehrte Anzeige for 
1883, Landauer comments on these bowls (p. 507). 



18 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYl^ONIAN SECTION. 

fourth (no. 21) is Ellis no. 5. Chwolson adopted a skeptical position to- 
ward the speculations and guesses of his predecessors, and his commentaries 
are valuable as a restraint upon their theories. Of special interest is his 
discussion of the age of the bowls from the palaeographic point of view — 
a subject which I take up in § 5. 

The most extensive editor of the material under discussion has been 
Moise Schwab, the author of the French translation of the Talmud. In 
1882 he published, in collaboration with E. Babelon, a bowl in the 
possession of the French government, under the title Un vase jiideo- 
chaldeen de la Bibliotheque Nationale' along with a facsimile and com- 
mentary. In 1885 he published a bowl at the Louvre in an article entitled 
Une coupe d' incantation" without facsimile. He then presented a large 
series of bowls in the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, 
for the years 1891 and 1892." He included several bowls already pub- 
lished, with the old facsimiles, but failed to offer photographic copies of 
the bowls he brought to light. It seems strange that the English scholarly 
world rested content with the poor facsimiles of the relics in the British 
Museum, made almost forty years before, and that Schwab did not avail 
himself of better texts than his predecessors had used. Between the articles 
appearing in the two volumes of the PSBA Dr. Schwab contributed studies 
of two bowls to the Revue d'assyriologie, etc., under the title, "Deux vases 
judeo-babyloniens."" These he numbered F and G so as to align them 
with those appearing in the other publications. The material thus presented 
by Schwab is as follows : 

A, in PSBA, xii = Ellis, no. i; Levy; Chwolson, no. 18. 

B, in PSBA, xii = Ellis, no. 3 ; Chwolson, no. 19. 

C, in PSBA, xii := Rodwell ; Halevy ; Chwolson, no. 20. 

D, in PSBA, xii = Ellis, no. 5; Chwolson, no. 21. 

* In Revue des etudes juives, iv (1882), 165. 

" In Revue de I'assyriologie et d'archeologie orientale, i (1886), 117. 

" In vol. xii, 292: Les coupes magiques et I'hydromancie daus I'antiquite orientale, 
with introductory remarks, and, p. 296, a description of the 22 bowls then in the 
British Museum; in vol. xiii, 583: Coupes a inscriptions magiques. This material 
was first presented to the French Academy of Inscriptions in the years 1883, 1885, 
1891. At the end of the first article is a glossary to the bowls published therein. 

" ii (1892), 136. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 19 

E, in PSBA, xii; a bowl in the National Library at Paris, also in RBJ, 

iv, (without note in the Proceedings that he had published it before). 

F, G, in Rev. d'ass., ii ; bowls in the Louvre. The exterior inscription on 

G is given under G in PSBA (p. 327). 
H, in PSBA, xii; a bowl in the British Museum. 
I, in PSBA, xii; a bowl in the Louvre, also in Rev. d'ass., i (without 

note that he had published it before). 
L, in PSBA, xiii; a bowl in the Lycklama Museum at Cannes (other than 

that published by Hyvernat). 
M, in PSBA, xiii ; a bowl in the Louvre, acquired by Heuzey. 
N, O, P, in PSBA, xiii; three bowls in the collection Dieulafoy from 

Susiana. 
Q, in PSBA, xiii ; a bowl in the Musee de Winterthur. 
R, in PSBA, xiii ; a bowl in the coin department of the Bibliotheque 

Nationale. 

Meanwhile there had appeared, in 1885, a study of a bowl in a 
provincial French museum by H. Hyvernat (now professor in the 
Catholic University, Washington) : Sur un vase judeo-babylonien du musee 
Lycklama de Cannes {Provence)" Unfortunately the accompanying 
photographic facsimiles are barely legible as published ; however there is 
little doubt as to the text and its meaning. " Schwab also refers" to a bowl 
published by B. Markaug in the Zapiski of the Imperial Russian Society 
of Archaeology, iv, 83, which I have not been able to procure. 

A few years later the collection of incantation bowls at the Royal 
Museum in Berlin was made the subject of study by two young scholars, 
working contemporaneously but independently. J- Wohlstein published, 
under the title, Ueber einige aramdische Inschriften auf Thongefdssen des 
koniglichen Museums zu Berlin, five bowls, with introduction to the general 
subject and commentary." And R. Stiibe published a Berlin bowl in his 

" In Zeitschrift f. Keilschriftforschung, ii (1885), ht,. 

" This publication received criticism from M. Griinbaum on a subsequent page 
of the same journal (p. 217), especially for its dependence upon Kohut's notions 
of Jewish angelologj' ; and on p. 295 Noldeke expressed some comments on the text, 
especially animadverting on its age. 

" Rev. d. Assyriologie, ii, 137. 

" ZA, viii (1893), 313, and ix (1894), iii In vol. viii appears no. 2422; in vol. 
ix, nos. 2416, 2426, 2414, 2417. 



20 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

J iidisch-babylonische Zaubertexte" The text he pubHshed, the longest yet 
edited, is the same as the second given by Wohlstein; his treatment is 
fuller than that of his contemporary, to whom he is able to refer in his 
printed notes. Stiibe gives a description of nineteen bowls in the British 
Museum. Unfortunately neither publication is enriched with facsimiles. 
Subsequently S. Fraenkel contributed some notes to Wohlstein's bowls 
in the same journal, in part on the basis of his own transcription." 

Pognon, French consul at Bagdad, broke the ground of a fresh dialect 
of bowl-inscriptions with the study of a Mandaic bowl — Une incantation 
contre les genies malfaisants en mandaite, appearing in 1892." The bowl 
was purchased from Arabs at Bismaya. In 1898 the same scholar published 
an elaborate work upon bowls found at Khuabir 55 km. NW of Musseyib, 
on the right bank of the Euphrates; he visited the locality but was unable to 
reach the site where the bowls were found. His work, entitled Inscriptions 
mandaites des coupes de Khouabir," contains some valuable appendices, of 
wider interest than the title suggests, and is furnished like the earlier 
monograph with full apparatus. Five more Mandaic bowls were published 
by Lidzbarski in his Ephemeris, i, 89, "Mandaische Zaubertexte." The 
fifth of these texts is a duplicate of my No. 11 and is given there in 
parallelism. Three of the texts are in the Berlin Museum, and two in the 
Louvre. 

Professor Gottheil contributed to Peters' Nippur (ii, 182) a translation 
of one of the bowls at Pennsylvania (^ No. 12 below). Dr. Myhrman, 
of Uppsala, published from the same collection no. 16081, with commentary; 
his monograph appeared in Le monde orientale, Uppsala, 1907-8, and with 
revision as a contribution to the Hilprecht Anniversary Volume'' under 



" Halle, 1895. 

" ZA, ix, 308. 

" In the Mhnoires de la Socicte de Linguistique (Paris), viii, 193, and in separate 
print. 

'" Paris, 1898, with facsimiles and full glossary; reviewed by Noldeke, WZKM, 
xii, 141; Lidzbarski, TLZ, 1899, col. 171; Schwally, OLZ, ii, 7, iii, 458; Chabot, 
Revue critique, xlvi, 43, xlix, 484. Pognon also saw some bowls in the square 
character, some in Estrangelo, and some which he presumed might be in Pahlavi (p. l). 
In my citations to Pognon, I cite his two books as A and B respectively. 

" Leipzig, 1909; p. 342. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 21 

the title An Aramaic Incantation Text; this text is given below in parallel 
with No. 7. 

It is in place here to notice the location of incantation bowls in the 
various museums. Despite a query addressed over a year ago I have not 
received any information from the authorities as to the number and char- 
acter of the bowl-texts at the Imperial Museum in Constantinople ; its 
collection from what I hear must be large and fine, and has been particularly 
enriched from Nippur. 

Dr. L. W. King has kindly informed me that the British Museum con- 
tains 61 bowls of our class, exhibited in the Babylonian Room. Some of 
the specimens, I also learn, are of very large size. The texts are in the 
square script, Syriac, Mandaic and Arabic. 

Schwab thus sums up, for the year 1906, the bowl-texts in the French 
museums:" 2 in the National Library, 7 in the Louvre, 2 in the Museum 
Lycklama, Cannes ; also one in private hands. 

Through Professor Ranke's kindness I learn that in the Berlin Museum 
there are 69 bowls with "Hebrew" (i. e. Aramaic?) inscriptions, 9 with 
Syriac (presumably inclusive of Mandaic). Stiibe gives a description of 
19 of these. In the same museum there are two inscribed skulls, similar 
doubtless to the one published below as No. 41. 

At the National Museum in Washington are found five bowls, four in 
square script, one in Estrangelo; but from photographs kindly lent me by 
Dr. Casanowicz, two of the former are to be designated as "fakes" in the 
sense used above. These bowls are said to have been found at Hillah. 
The German Orient-Gesellschaft has recently announced the discovery of 
three bowls at Asshur," and Koldewey, Tempel von Babylon u. Borsippa, 
58, speaks of numerous Aramaic bowls found at Borsippa. 

Of bowls in private hands, I note one unpublished Syriac text in the 
possession of Professor Hyvernat, of the Catholic University, Washington; 
and three which Mr. Wm. T. Ellis purchased at Nippur in 191 1, one of 
them containing a Syriac text similar to those published in this volume; 
this text I have prepared for publication in the Journal of the American 

" Journal asiatique, X, vii, 8. 
" Mittheilungen, no. 43, p. 13. 



22 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

Oriental Society, where it will shortly appear. A few citations of this 
text are given in the glossaries under the abbreviation "Montg."^ 

The provenance of this material is thus confined to a small region, 
extending from Nippur and Bismaya on the south to Asshur on the north, 
and lying on both sides of the Euphrates. 

" The "Roman bowl from Bagdad" described by O. S. Tonks in the Am. Journal 
of Archaeology, 1911, 310, on which he would find some magical syllables, has been 
proved by A. T. Olmstead (ib., 1912, 83) to be a late Arabic forgery. A Pahlavi 
bow! inscription reported by A. V. W. Jackson, JAOS, xxviii, 345, does not belong 
to our category. 



§ 3- Some Notes on the Texts Hitherto Published 

I offer in this section some critical notes on the texts described in the 
last section. The texts would in many cases have been simplified if the 
editors had recognized that there is no distinction in the script between 
n and n, and most often none between 1 and ■> . The glossary will indicate 
emendations of simple words, but here I present corrections necessary for 
the construction. 

Ellis I has been recovered, as remarked above, through a duplicate in 
the Pennsylvania collection; see to No. ii. No facsimile is given for 
ElHs 2. 

In Ellis 3 the opening lines should read :' na'nsi 'JtiD '1 nans n pnn 
(3) smo'si nan na'nD b:> . . . n:'n -13 ni'sno to ]'\nb'\2 (2} poN Nnto^ 
'Ji Nnobi '["ilTJ nj'n na rnsno p ]^nb^2 pox n&rn 'ja ba dibi xrupu. 
The discovery of the proper names, Mehperoz' son of Hindii 
(see Glossary P>), clears up these lines. xmD'X = xmnD\S ? but see 
Glossary C under latter word. After the first word the scribe intended to 
write ''in ; inadvertently he broke into the word with 'D , and then leaving 
the error uncorrected (as is the rule of these scribes) continued with the 
first word. — Read in 1. 4, pi^'^i^'J''^ ( ?) for p.T'r-iK'O ; cf . NnJiaCD in 
glossary. — In 1. 4 f . there is a parallelism to the opening lines of Schwab G : 

Ellis 3 Schwab G 

'a'sn n'DC (?) miD nysn naen Dica njjiN na'sn n'ou* nasn nasn nasn 

'ja ban pn'VK' na'sn 'bro •'aani 'jia anmb sa'sn 'bro na^sn aaia na'sn 

'31 N3KT NHDi^ (?) nncn XE'JX '31 xasT snn^ s3''Bn snivc na'sn 

DIE'3 introduces a magical formula which can accomplish the bouleverse- 
ment ( na'sn) of all things and hence of evil arts. 'Jia = aaia, and must 

' The numbers in the text represent the spiral lines. 
' This reading is certain in 1. 8. 

(23) 



24 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

be the Assyrian kewdn (biblical \V2 ), used in the general sense of planet. 
\tn>\!&, NDiVE', are used in the sense of derisio, etc. (see Payne-Smith, Thes., 
col. 4249 f.). — What follows is to be read thus: "The curse of father and 
mother, of daughter and daughter-in-law and mother-in-law is loosed 
(K''^B'), what is far and what is near, what is found in country or city — 
what is found in the country is loosed, and what curses ( ?) in the city 
is loosed, and what falls by the way." 

In Ellis 5, 1. 2, read Nn'a (for K'oa) and the following word possibly 
\VKiWi ID, and translate — "a house, whatever its name (i. e. whoever owns 
it), let them read and depart from it ( n'n"' ipiS'l^i np'S lip'^), even 
all who dwell in it — (i. e.) any vows," etc.; that is, the evil, spirits are to 
read the kamea and depart. The jussive with h is exceptional. 

For the bowl edited by Rodwell, Halevy, Chwolson and Schwab, I give 
the following transliteration : sn»!?E'Nl nT-Ji xnoi^l t'D'pn piaw fCU ptnn ^3 
■"Kma!? n'b t''^3V^1 n'l^ 'nnvn 'CJni na^n soNom n'^'H .I'anpii I'p'n-n sn^l^oi 
pnocc p^-'Ni p^'N tii^^i^i chv njn pn nov jd nl^sbia jin'bm n'lrrp^i ^I'nvnbi 
I»i pn^noip •'DTn ba pi P'TEJU ID p^D3Di ppsDi \''\^y>'s pi'ani pivj *pT3Di 
*'ix 'Vin nms hv n^xbia (for n'Dp-ii ""smm) n'Djn "xmani iTnvm pnTi-no. 
So much is clear. — Then follows an apostrophe to a certain star, which 
appears also in Schwab E. With this parallel to our aid I read: K3313 'IS 
Kircnnb ''B'^^ nd^d 'niiTJ niDX xrai n'^VT: i. e. "Oh (or, woe), the star 
on which rides salvation (healing),' the one which teaches arts to witches;" 
that is, some star potent in medicine and black arts, which may be invoked 
for good or evil. — Towards the end is to be read: KDE* K'DiDD "13 n'De"3 
E'^1SD K3T. "in the name of Bar Mesosia (a master-conjurer evidently), 
the great Ineffable Name." 

For Schwab E, see notes on the bowl just discussed. — In the middle 
of the inscription for n'DDlp 'Din , read 'p 'Din . 

* Perfect, followed by futuritive ppl. 

* Not an Arabism, as Halevy suggests. 
' Pael pass. ppl. 

' A Syriac interjection ; or do these characters belong to 'Sin ? In the parallel, 
Schwab E, we have S K'Sin. 

' Cf. the Rabbinic m'J. 

* Cf. Mai 3 : 20. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 25 

A new collation might contribute much to the understanding of 
Schwab F. In 1. i, nntJ* ("strong one") is an epithet of the "evil spirit." 
Read rryat^'S at end of line. — L. 2, read msJN tijk ''ybv, ':» being the 
name of the demon, and occurring again below. — L. 3, read sntj'oa, "like 
oil they (the spirits) are dipped into the vessel of his heart," i. e., the 
man's inwards are suffused with diseases as with oil. — L. 9 again 'DTn for 
''D^^ .— L. 10, 'Dinn for 'Dinn .— L. 11, n3'3 s3xt pxi jor itoj nv. "(ye 
angels go forth from him) until the consummation of time and that time 
is known," — with reference to the day of judgment. 

In Schwab G, 1. 9, ':^ rryoB' rtbp itchv = "wherefore have I heard a 
voice? I have heard the voice of a man, Mesarsia," etc. 

Schwab I, 1. I, read snapiJ pLslTisi naTis . — L. 5, fDio f|it5'i3, 
"sorcery I exorcise." — L. 12. read .'i^ KDE' D'EH : "inscribed is the name 
whereby heaven and earth are bound." 

The transliteration of Schwab M is almost untranslatable. As the first 
word read sroio , "I adjure," which disposes of one of Schwab's proofs 
that these bowls were used in hydromancy. 

In Berlin Museum no. 2416, 1. 4 (Stiibe = Wohlstein, 1. 5)' and 
repeatedly below, pnJT'DbT = "whom I have cursed." In 1. 20, etc. the 
demons are bidden to depart from the sorcerer's client and transfer them- 
selves to any persons he has cursed. — For rran, 1. 6 (W. 8), see below, 
to 2: 2, and for n'ann = "of Yahwe," 1. 15 (W. 22), see 13: 7 and 26: 4. — 
KH bv, 1. 22 (W. 31) = "on ground of, in the name of the Mystery." 

In Wohlstein, no. 2422, 1. 16, KniVD is plural of the Targumic )VQ, 
"false deity;" the same plural is meant in Knj?0, no. 2426, 1. 5. — In no. 
2417, II. 3, 6, for TiZl read 'nai. Then 'Dai 'DS = "my grandmother," 
and '1 Knnbx = "the great goddess." 

• Stube's text is much the better. 



II. SCRIPT AND LANGUAGE 

§ 4. Introductory 

In the following notes I shall confine myself almost entirely to the 
bowls at Pennsylvania. The absence of facsimiles or of good ones in a 
large number of the published texts prevents a proper control over those 
texts. Moreover there is some advantage in confining the study to a single 
collection of texts whose age and provenance can be exactly fixed as in 
the case of the bowls from Nippur. At the same time what is true of 
these texts is found to hold good for other published inscriptions. 

Our material may be divided epigraphically and dialectically into 
three classes: (i) Of the "Rabbinic" dialect in the square character; (2) 
of a Syriac dialect, in a novel form of Estrangelo script; (3) of the 
Mandaic dialect in its peculiar alphabet. Bowl inscriptions of the first 
and third classes have been published; but so far no Syriac text has 
appeared with the exception of one essay noted p. 16 and in § 6. 

Some apology may be necessary for the term "Rabbinic" dialect. As 
used here, it does not imply that the rabbis or the Jews in Babylonia had 
a special dialect, — they spoke the native dialects; nor that there is any 
unity in the language of the Talmud, which is alive with dialectic varieties.' 
But the Talmud is practically our only source for a certain family 
of Aramaic dialects in Babylonia, easily distinguished from the two other 
literary dialects, the Syriac (Edessene) and Mandaic. The name chosen 
is a convenient handle.' 



' Our texts themselves, as the discussion will show, are frequently of non- 
Jewish origin. 

" "Babylonian" or the old-fashioned "Chaldaic," might be used, but each is 
equally indefinite and the former would be most confusing. 



(26) 



§ 5- The Rabbinic Texts 

A. Script and Orthoepy 

Ellis, who made the first attempt at decipherment of bowls in the 
square character, was inclined to find in them a very primitive script, 
antedating the Christian era/ Levy proceeded in a scholarly fashion and 
analyzed each character — to be sure, with rather scanty epigraphical 
resources;^ he came to the conclusion that the bowl he was treating was 
to be assigned to the seventh century. Chwolson severely criticized Levy's 
method, and on the basis of the palaeographical material in his Corpus 
assigned the bowls of Ellis to various early dates (col. ii8). Ellis i he 
assigned to the first Christian century ; for three others he gave a graduated 
chronology, placing them in the second, third and fourth centuries 
respectively. But Chwolson's own method is somewhat of a reductio ad 
absurdiitn.' It is hazardous to assign a date for these bowls on palaeo- 
graphical grounds ; it is impossible to relate the various variations of 
script to each other by a chronological scale. For instance the contempor- 
aneous character of many bowls at Nippur is shown by the recurrence 
of the same persons and families in the texts ; indeed the same persons 
appear in texts of different dialects, yet these inscriptions differ greatly 
in script. But there is no reason, at least in the Nippur bowls, to assign 
them to different ages ; from the interrelations between them, personal and 
phraseological, I am inclined to assign them to the same period. Indeed 
they might all have been written in the same year, so far as palaeography 
may say anything. The differences are chirographical, not palaeographical. 
Some of the scribes wrote a neat, even a beautiful hand ; but many were 
written by careless scribes, and many by illiterate ones, probably often by 

' In Layard, o/y. cit., 510; so Layard himself for no. i, p. 525. 

' ZDMG, ix, 474- 

' See Hyvernat, p. 140, on Levy and Chwolson's arguments. 

(27) 



28 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

laymen, who affected to write their own prescriptions. The comparative 
plate of characters presented by Levy offers a large number of variations 
in the forms of many letters : for 3 and "i eleven each, for t3 eight, for 3 
and c six, etc. Now when one short text offers so many varieties in 
forms, it is impossible for palaeography to give any nice chronological 
estimate. In fact the ruder the letters are, the more archaic they appear; 
yet they may be mere degenerations of the standard type or survivals of 
an elder one persisting in obscure quarters. 

One need but take a glance at Euting's alphabetic tables at the end 
of Chwolson's Corpus to recognize that the Hebrew square character has 
remained essentially the same since near the beginning of the era. The 
earlier evidence is drawn from monuments, the later from manuscripts, 
while in the long centuries of scribal reproduction the Jews have developed 
as it were a conventional ductus, whereas earlier there was far more room 
for variation when this family of the alphabet was not confined as a vehicle 
of a school of religious scribes. Thus : is one of the most Protean of 
forms, but apparently all varieties are found in almost every century of the 
first millennium, according to Euting's showing. 

In the palaeographical table attached to this work I give specimen 
alphabets drawn from the bowls. But a fine analysis for chronological 
results would be unprofitable. For a round date the bowls might be placed 
on palaeographical grounds at about 500 A. C, but this date might be carried 
further back or further down according as other evidence might be 
adduced. 

The finial letters are used, but with few instances of finial V. A 
phenomenon that presents some difficulty is the practical identification of 1 
and ' and of n and n. In the case of the former pair, they are often 
distinguished, the ' being then represented by a short stroke or sometimes 
by a small angle, the 1 by a long stroke; but there is no consistency in this 
differentiation, and the ' is easily prolonged into a stroke like 1 ; within the 
same text or line or even word, the ' may be written both ways. This 
confusion has led to the barbarous appearance of many of the edited texts, 
on which Noldeke has animadverted.* The confusion throws doubts on 
certain vocalizations, — e. g. is it NDSlts* or ^?t23'C^' ? — and it is of grammatical 

* Zeits. f. Keilschriftforsch., ii, 2q6. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ^ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 29 

moment in the verbal endings ]! and f, where, because of the recession 
of the stroke of the ), the vowel letters are not at all distinguished. 

There is no distinction between n and n in the Nippur bowls, and the 
same is true of the other published bowls, so far as I can observe. The n 
includes n. It is the same phenomenon that appears in the Mandaic, where 
n has been retained only as a pronominal suffix. This identification is 
the representation of actual speech, in which our scribes no longer dis- 
tinguished between the two gutturals, even as in the Mandaic. As the 
Babylonian Talmud distinguished between them in its text, we may 
surmise that the better educated preserved the difference at least in spelling.' 

The final a-vowel is expressed by K. less frequently by n. Some texts 
use the latter consistently, and there is hardly a text which does not give an 
instance of this spelling. It is used regularly for certain common words, 
e. g. rT'b'b; and especially when the word contains an K, e. g. njx, mBK. 
This is a primitive type of Aramaic orthoepy, but the Samaritan dialect 
has preserved it. and an early Palestinian amulet, published by me else- 
where, shows the same features.' The phenomenon is unique in late 
Eastern Aramaic. 

The vowel letters 1 and ' are used abundantly, always in terminal 
syllables and for long vowels, and very commonly for short vowels. Yet 
there is variation in this respect, even in the same text. On the whole 
X is sparingly used as a vowel letter, preferably to indicate the feminine 
plural, e. g. xnK'^'b, yet indistinguishable sn'b'^ is as frequent. 

It goes without saying that there are no vowel points. In one bowl 
(No. 13) a kind of pothook has been used to separate words, and here 
and there a point has been used, but this is the extent of the punctuation. 
Sometimes a scoring is found between the lines of script and by means of 
vertical lines phrases are blocked oflf; these are generally magical combina- 
tions. In No. 22 one word is written in a clumsy Syriac script and in 
one of Ellis's bowls a Syriac n is once used. Quite a peculiar script is 
found in No. 30, and B has a unique form in No. 22. 

' In the elder type of n, the left leg was attached to the upper bar, hence the 
confusion with n was easier. The Rabbis preferred this form; see Men. 29b. 
The close assimilation of the two letters appears in the Assouan papyri of the fifth 
century B. C. 

• JAOS, 1911, 272. 



30 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYI<ONIAN SECTION. 

B. The Language 

The grammatical phenomena in the bowls from Nippur can for the 
most part be exemplified from the Babylonian Talmud, and like the latter 
they present various dialectic types. On the one hand they have close 
connections with Mandaic and on the other they show some Syriac idioms. 

As in the Mandaic orthoepy the seiva is frequently designated by \ a 
circumstance which throws light upon the minor vocalizations. I may 
notice jin'CK, pnTi'a, "their mother, house." etc.; Knav'^. pl-, Nn^'X; 
with prefixes: nans'a; sono"^; ]-\nbn^f , "their left hand;" and with 1, 
Nnn^l, "and daughters;" tnn^EJ'!5''1, N^TI (a punctuation appearing also 
in Targum Onkelos, see to 3: 3). 

In the consonants there is the yielding of the harder sounds, e. g. 
KHBOD'S, TDmjSD^X , varying with 'pD'X, 'V'X ; indeed S has become 
a very rare character. In general the gutturals are preserved, though n and 
n are no longer distinguished. In one bowl. No. 6, which has other 
Mandaizing characteristics, are found NtlS = xnv, KpB'J, V VpB; •\y3, ■/ nay. 
The same bowl oflfers pt3^'B"n, with the intrusion of a new vowel, 
as is particularly characteristic of Mandaic' 

For the pronouns I may refer to the lists at end of Glossary C. For 
their suffixal forms may be noted n'3n, 2: 4, and even n:2, 11: 9 (etc), 
"his sons," nbv = 'nibj? in duplicate texts (see to 11: 9), as common in 
Mandaic, and appearing also in the Talmud. For the 2nd per. pi. fern. 
'3- is used for l'D-(see to 7: 3). 

The masculine plural is in ''- and )'- indifferently, even in close 
association, k'iid 8: 6 and the nouns in 13: i ending in n' are probably 
Mandaic forms of spelling, e. 

As for the verb, along with ' as dominant prefix in the impf., 3 takes 
its place in Nos. 6, 13 (along with two cases in '), 19, 25, 28. A Nifal 
with Aramaic ending appears in 25 : 2, imnoj , along with the ppl. pno'J. 
In 28: I appears a Syriac Ethpai'al, inTiCTi. The n of the reflexive is 
rarely lost, yet e. g. jiDnn'n, jlpnTD . 

The 1st pers. sing, appears as rbop or n'^Dp, for a verb of i-stem 
we have n^p'^D. There is found a perfect plural, pnanCK, as in Syriac. 

' Noldeke, Mand. Cram., § 25. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 31 

Second feminine plurals, which are lacking in the Talmud, are found ; 
unfortunately as the notes show, it is not always possible to decide whether 
a form is singular or plural, and there is the awkward confusion of \y and 
]•<-. In 6: 9 pcaanTi is certainly plural, and doubtless the masculine 
plural termination (as in Hebrew) is to be understood in preference to 
-in, which would be the singular. It is uncertain whether ■''?'\pv, 1 1 : 8, 26 : 6, 
is fern, singular or plural; in the duplicate text to No. 11, the plural is 
evident. 

For the few cases of the quiescence of V in verbal forms, see above. 
In S"B roots we have. e. g., nDNHK, 'Drrn. Unique is the final loss of the 
b of ^tK in the participal form srtK ,6:6. For forms of Kin we have 
'irrn, 'rrn (both in the same text), spelt elsewhere ''inn, 'nn. The masc. 
plural of the participle appears as ;in, 'in; cf. ;no, tO"i, from nhd, NDi. 

As to the prepositions there is the interchange of h and by, as in 
Mandaic. Also observe the occurrence in the same line of ^^lD^p and 
n-DKnp ,3:7. 

There is almost nothing peculiar in the syntax. I note the occurrence 
of an old- Aramaic idiom in Jinijn'a, "their house," 1:6; also the unique 
idiom, if the text is correct, — -l D'yi, "and also," i : 3 (cf. Latin, simul ac). 

' See Levias, Grammar of the Aramaic Idiom Contained in the Bah. Talmud, 
§ 188. 



§ 6. The Syriac Texts 

In our collection appear seven bowls of Syriac script and language, — 
the first of this category to be published with the exception of the poor 
facsimile of a probably similar bowl, accompanied with an unintelligible 
transliteration, in Layard, Nineveh and Babylon, p. 521 f.' 

A. Script and Orthoepy 

The script reveals itself as belonging to the Palmyrene-Syriac type, 
and that we are dealing not with a mere autographic "sport" is clear from 
the fact that two or three hands have written our seven texts. It agrees 
with the Palmyrene and Edessene in pointing i, and with the former in 
not distinguishing 1. The Seyame or double points are used; this mark 
is generally written on the last letter, but occasionally , generally for 
reasons of space, on an earlier character. Once the two points are 
written vertically, 33 : 5 ; they may include the points of "i, and in 34 : 6 T 
appears to have the two points one above and one below. The script 
provides the pronominal fem. suffix n with an upper point, an ancient 
distinction in literary Syriac' But there is marked distinction from the 
Edessene type in the absence of ligature ; letters may touch one another, 
but they are not purposely written together. 

In examining the individual characters (see my Alphabetic Tables) 
we find that J, t, n, v agree with the types of the Estrangelo alphabet, and 
3 and O approximate the latter; but evidently our novel alphabet has had 
a history independent of Estrangelo. 



' Chwolson thinks that the script of this bowl is of older type than that of the 
Edessene MS. of 411 (CIH, col. 116). 

' In 34 : 4 stno , "Moses," is written with a point over « — to represent the e 
sound ? 

(33) 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ^ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 33 

It reveals a family likeness with the types found in early Edessene 
inscriptions' (where the characters are independent and no points used). 
But the genealogy for the peculiarities of our script is to be found in the 
cursive Palmyrene script, with which the Estrangelo is also to be connected. 
See Euting's alphabetic tables, cols. 17-28, in Chwolson CIH; his tables 
in Noldeke, Syrische Grammatik; the atlas to Lidzbarski's Handbuch z. 
nordsem. Bpigraphik, and for the history of the cursive Edessene script, 
the latter work, p. 193. 

This relationship appears in 3 (n. b. the curving stroke of the head) ; 
in n (the type in No. 36 is identical with the Palmyrene) ; in 1 (with the 
head at almost a right angle) ; in n (our character is practically identical 
with the Estrangelo, but the origin of the type is to be found in Palmyrene, 
and a type in No. 32 is the replica of the angular form presented by Euting, 
col. 26) ; in t3; in ' reduced to a small stroke or coarse round mark on the 
line; in h (with parallels in Euting's table only in cursive Palmyrene, see 
cols. 24-28) ; in D, which tends to a closed figure, and D; in B (a small 
half-oval figure, primitive, in form, corresponding most closely to the 
cursive Palmyrene) ; in p; in c (preserving the ancient type against the 
Edessene development), v is not found. 

Of the remaining letters, l is distinguished from T by the diacritical 
point as in Palmyrene, but the figure of both characters faces to the right, 
a unique phenomenon. The character a is unique, with its long curve 
extending far to the left, so that this feature becomes the characteristic 
and the head degenerates to a point;* but here again the Palmyrene type 
may be compared. The letter j is sui generis, the medial character may be 
related to the Palmyrene; the finial with its long stroke recalls the 
Estrangelo finial 3, but terminates in a fork, n also stands by itself. 
There is a general resemblance between it and the Syriac types presented 
by Euting, in Noldeke, cols, viii-xiii, representing the fifth to the seventh 
century. But those Syriac forms have arisen from the tendency to ligature, 
whereas our n is innocent of any such purpose. I am inclined to think 

" E. g. Sachau, "Edessenische Inschriften," ZDMG, 1882, 142; n. b. no. 8. 

* The nearest approach to this type appears in a similar character with a long 
tail in the Syriac MS. from Turkestan published by Sachau in the Sitaungsberichte ' 
of the Berlin Academy, 1905, 964. 



34 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

that it is to be related to a rather primitive form of n which consisted of a 
downward stroke to the left with a crosspiece near the top. Our type has 
simply reversed this, making the stroke downwards to the right, while the 
crosspiece comes at the bottom. 

This analysis of the script presented in our Syriac bowls exhibits 
accordingly an older type than the literary Estrangelo and the Edessene 
inscriptions ; its most pronounced relationships are with the cursive Pal- 
myrene, and it is to be regarded as an independent sister of the Edessene 
script. Withal no character shows a distinctly late type. 

Epigraphically then this script is of much interest, as exhibiting an 
early local form of Aramaic alphabet, of Palmyrene type, existing in 
Babylonia. It may have been a commercial script which spread from the 
metropolis Palmyra." In § 14 the age of the bowls will be discussed; the 
script itself does not stand in the way of an early age, perhaps the fourth 
century, though other evidence may induce us to date the texts some 
centuries later. 

Since the above paragraphs were finished and regarded as closed, my 
attention has chanced upon the Turkish Manichaean fragments from Turfan 
in Chinese Turkestan, and I find a striking resemblance in many characters 
of the alphabet there used (which is an offshoot of the Syriac script) to 
those of the Syriac type before us. I may refer here to the discussion 
of the script by F. W. K. Miiller in the Sitcungsbericlitc of the Berlin 
Academy, 1904, 348 flf., and the facsimiles published in subsequent volumes 
of the same journal, e. g. that facing p. 1077, in the volume for 1905. In 
my Alphabetic Tables at the end of this work I shall present the correspond- 
ence in parallelism. The Turkish script is very much younger than ours, 
but has steadfastly preserved the type inherited from Babylonia. Mani 
came from Babylon, a few miles distant from Nippur, and we must 
suppose that our script was the local use of that region, which came to be 
adopted by Mani and his sect as the vehicle of their literature. 

' It may be worth while to suggest that we possess in this peculiar script the 
script of the Harranian pagans, vulgarly known as the Sabians. As Chwolson has 
shown in his monumental work, Die Ssabier und der Ssabismiis. these heathens 
spoke a pure Syriac (i, 258 f.). although the peculiar alphabets assigned to them 
by Arabic writers are fictitious or kabbalistic (ii, 845). 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 35 

The history of our script is thereby carried back to the third 
century, by which time it was well established. What was thus 
a local script came to be perpetuated as the literary instrument of the 
Manichaean sect, — a fate which has so often happened to various forms 
of the Aramaic alphabet. I have given further discussion of this matter 
in articles now in press for the Museum Journal and the Journal of the 
American Oriental Society. It may be added that there are no Manichaean 
traces in the bowls. 

In the matter of orthoepy, while the forms without matrcs lectionis 
abundantly appear (e. g. KH'^'^, plural; NOJns, etc.), plcne writings are 
also frequent, e. g. xax^D, ko'N, xipri'D, nt'D, xob'n, nd80, etc. There also 
occurs at times the confusion of n and n , characteristic in the square 
Aramaic texts and in the Mandaic : n for n in J'^'no 31 : 5, nrn 38: 3, N^iB 
32: 4; and n for n in tinnno'S and pnnnaN 36: 5, T3nn''S<36: i. The same 
sorcerer or family appears to have written bowls in both the Rabbinic and 
Syriac dialects (see Nos. 33-35), and hence the natural contamination of 
the one by the other. 

The extensive use of the Seyame in all plurals is to be noted : in the 
pronoun j'^n 31:5, the plural of the verb e. g. |vnj 31:6, the participle 
pns 37: 8, etc. 

B. The Language 

The dialect belongs to the Edessene type; this is evident from the 
forms of pronouns and verbs. But there is extensive corruption from 
the type of dialect which has been literarily preserved in the Mandaic. 
This appears, as we have seen, in the Mandaic confusion of n and n. 
The 3rd sing. masc. or fem. suffix to a plural appears as n; e. g. n:3, "his 
sons," 33: 13 (with Seyame), the same for "her sons" (with single point 
over n), nilj'y (with Seyathe), 2,7- 8, etc. We have observed the same 
phenomenon in the Rabbinic texts. 

For other similar Mandaisms we may note : the equivalence of b and 
bv, 34: 10; the verbal form ji^'VJ (from bbv), 34: 10 (see my comment); 
the pronoun ni^'j?, 37: 8; kt3 for ntv3, 34: 8, cf. niis for KiniQ; [max for 
t'33l«, 37 : 10 ; the construct Ditr, e. g. 34 : 6. There are also some peculiar 



36 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

forms, e. g. }'Oinn 34: i, snjntro 34:2, «!3't3lD 35 ^ 4! and a few rare or 
unknown words : s^usn ('Sm/JoXoO. xnuriDi, kjoit . The numeral with the 
suffix jin^nn 34: 4, is not classical, but is found in Targumic, Palmyrene, 
and Neo-Syriac. In 33 : 10 pDpss^ is Afel infinitive of pB3. 



§ 7- The Mandaic Texts 

A. Script and Orthoepy 

The script of the Mandaic bowls is exactly similar to that of those 
published in facsimile by Pognon. The peculiarities of certain characters 
distinguishing them from those in the MSS. of the fifteenth and following 
centuries, as noted by that scholar (Une incantation, 12 f.), appear likewise 
in these bowls.' 

The 3 is a large letter dropping its shaft obliquely below the line and 
recovering itself by an up-stroke at an acute angle. 3 is a zigzag figure, 
or has an open, round flourish at the top. Following the traditions of the 
early alphabet 1 and T are similar, often indistinguishable; the former 
tends to a smaller head and a square angle at the top, the latter to a curving 
form like the end of a loop. T is ligated at the top with the preceding 
letter, n has, in Nos. 39, 40, a long leg to the right. D appears in angular 
form, and also in a balloon-shaped figure. 3 is a large letter rising well 
above and dropping below the line, sometimes in a free curve. Except that 
the drop is vertical, it is similar to 2; we may compare the like similarity 
in the Palmyrene. In No. 39 h has the primitive form of two strokes at 
an angle, but leaning backward, and so allowing of ligature to the left by 
the foot. The left foot of D projects itself obliquely in a straight line, and 
the extended stroke at the top distinguishes the character from n. In No. 
39, D has the later form, similar to the Arabic <_;*; with others, the body 
is fuller, approximating the p. j? is generally an angle lying upon the line, 
but in No. 39 it drops below the line, in two rough curving lines. B has 
a large head, but does not drop below the line, s is not found in these 



' Compare now the early Mandaic amulet published by Lidzbarski in the de 
Vogiie Memorial Volume, p. 349, and the editor's notes, p. 350. His facsimiles are 
too indistinct to permit satisfactory comparison. 

(37) 



38 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

bowls, p appears as a closed figure, like a roundish Estrangelo p, with the 
left stroke failing to reach the upper line and curving back — probably for 
distinction from D. The r consists of two rough loops, which lie on top, 
or below, or on opposite sides. The n has often the simple form of the 
Hebrew n. 

The suffixal n (which I represent by the same character in my trans- 
literation) occurs at the beginning of No. 38, and is then dropped by the 
scribe ; it may perhaps be intended in one or two other cases in these 
bowls. Otherwise it cannot be distinguished from x ; however, following 
the general practice I have always indicated the suffix by n . A similar 
uncertainty of distinction appears in Lidzbarski's amulet; in Pognon's 
bowls the distinction is generally preserved. 

The peculiar sign for the relative, n , has the shape known from the 
MSS., except that the vertical stroke at the left hand is often written 
without attachment to the first part. It always appears as a separate word, 
as is the case in Codex B of Petermann's edition of the Ginza, and 
apparently in Lidzbarski's bowls. I have followed the common editorial 
use of attaching it, like the Aramaic relative in general, to the following 
word. See the arguments of Noldeke, Mand. Gram-, 92, for regarding the 
sign as a peculiar development of 1, not as a ligature of n . But it must 
be asked why such a special sign should have been used. It appears to be 
a survival of the older Aramaic n , and I would argue that the pronuncia- 
tion di had survived until the formation of the Mandaic script. In these 
texts, as in the MSS., the relative when internal (e. g. after 1) is expressed 
by t; but this does not prove that T = T , only that with the support of 
a preceding vowel the vowel of the relative was rejected. 

The characters are spaced unevenly and in the case of unligated char- 
acters it is often difficult to ascertain with which word they are to be 
combined. The ligation is haphazard, there is no consistent attempt at 
consecutive chirography as in the later texts. 

Apart from the bowl-inscriptions and Lidzbarski's amulets, all the 
Mandaic texts are preserved in late texts; the former are therefore 
important as the earliest monuments of the script. In § 14 I give evidence 
to prove that the Nippur texts are to be dated circa 600; at that period then 
the Mandaeans had elaborated their own alphabet with its peculiarities. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 39 

Investigations, which I may not expatiate on here, have led me to the 
beHef that for the most part the Mandaic alphabet represents an early type 
of the "Syriac" alphabets ; it is indeed often closely connected with the 
Palmyrene and Nabataean scripts. The sect itself must have arisen in 
the age when Gnosticism was rife in the Orient and before the domination 
of Christianity, and we have to suppose that it early developed its own 
peculiar calligraphy, after the wont of the various oriental sects of that 
age. Compare the remarks on the Manichaean alphabet, § 6. 

As Pognon says of his text from Bismaya,' the language of the bowls 
is identical with that of the Ginza and Kulasta. The only difference is 
formal, in the sparse or varying use of the matres lectionis.' I may cite : 
Nnt<''3i''n, Non^n; xniay, '"V; ndj;; n'H; snssnn, Nmt23, where later x 
was used in the first or second syllable or both ; we actually find xnnt, 
'sr, 'Nit.* 

B. The Language 

We may note the following syntactical peculiarity : the apparent use 
of the anticipatory pronominal suffix n without the following relative 
particle T, the suffix itself creating a kind of construct case-ending, the 
regimen being in apposition to the suffix. E. g. 40: 3: '3 nns ns nn^JO 
"the word of B's granddaughter." A similar construction occurs through- 
out Nos. 21, 22, 23 {q. V.) ; also a parallel instance in the Palestinian amulet 
published by the writer in JAOS, 191 1, see note there, p. 278. In 40: 24 
such a "construct" form in n is used before a plural noun : nnx'jxvn nJX'J^a. 
Was it in the way of becoming a stereotyped case? 

Apart from the references to "Life," these bowls are not specifically 
Mandaic in religion. Pognon's bowls are much more colored with Mandae- 
ism. Under No. ii it is to be observed that the Mandaic text there 
compared is secondary to the Rabbinic texts; probably in the Nippur 
community the Mandaeans got their magic from the peoples of other 
dialects. In Pognon's texts the spirit of the ancient Babylonian magic 
appears more strongly than in any other of the bowl-inscriptions. 

' line incantation, 13. 

' Which Pognon strangely enough regards as "errors." 

* Noldeke's e.xpert judgment, in his review of Pognon, p. 143, that the language 
of the bowls is later than that of the Mandaic classics, may be noted here. 



III. THE MAGIC OF THE TEXTS 
§ 8. The Purpose of the Inscribed Bowls 

The incantation bowls belong, with few exceptions, to one very 
specialized form of magic. They spontaneously suggest the art of "bowl 
magic," which, in various forms, is spread over the world, and which has 
a straight genealogy from Joseph's drinking cup to the spinster's teacup 
of our own day.' Ellis, the first commentator on the bowls, advanced the 
theory that, following an ancient and widespread therapeutic device, they 
were filled with a liquid which was drunk off by the patient who thus 
absorbed the virtue of the written charm.' This explanation has been 
generally given up. Layard objected that then the inscriptions would have 
been effaced by the liquid,'— which argument, though repeated by subse- 
quent scholars, is not conclusive, for the magic vessel may have been 
preserved as itself a permanent prophylactic. Layard himself thought 
that they were used in places of sepulture and were charms for the dead, 
apparently relating them to the utensils placed in primitive graves. A 
number of Pognon's bowls are in fact endorsed with xnup n'3T , "for 
the cemetery,"* and Wohlstein's no. 2417 appears to be directed against 
the ghosts of the dead. But the bowls at Nippur were found in ruined 
houses, and in no case is a bowl intended for the service of the dead. 

Schwab argued for the hydromantic use of the bowls.' He makes 
reference to Babylonian hydromancy,' and proceeds to quote a number of 

' Rodwell expatiates on this kind of magic, TSBA, ii, 114. 

' Layard, Nineveh and Babylon, 511. Cf. R. C. Thompson, Semitic Magic, pp. 
Iv, Ixi. 

• Op. cit., 526. 

* Inscriptions mandaites, nos. 5, 7, etc., and p. 3. 
■ PSBA, xii, 292 f. 

' Cf. Hunger, "Becherwahrsagung bei d. Babyloniern," 1903 in Leipciger Semit- 
ische Studien, i. 

(40) 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TgXTS. 41 

Talmudic passages referring to Joseph's cup, magical beverages, etc., but 
he shows no connection between his numerous inscriptions and the method 
and purpose of hydromancy, which affects to give an oracle to men by 
the movements of oil or other floating objects in the liquid contained in 
the cup.' 

Wohlstein attempted another explanation in the line of a kabbalistic 
dictum that no work of magic can be effected without the aid of a vessel 
( 'ba ) .' It was Hyvernat however who first, from the field of Jewish 
demonology, obtained the clue to the right interpretation of the practice we / 
are considering.' He refers to the Jewish legends of Solomon's magical 
ability to confine demons in vases, etc., and the parallel fables in Arabian 
lore of bottled up jinns, etc." As we shall immediately see, this is the cor- 
rect explanation. 

Pognon did not himself see in situ the large collection of bowls which 
he published in his Inscriptions mandaitcs, but he learnt from a native that " 
such bowls were found buried just below the surface of the earth, and, 
generally, reversed, the bottom of the bowl uppermost, while at times 
bowls were found superimposed upon one another, the mouth of the one 
fitted to the mouth of the other (p. i fif.). Pognon does not guarantee the 
truths of these statements, but suggests in accordance with them the theory 
that the inverted bowls were prisons for the demons, who were confined 
by the virtue of the magical praxis. The expeditions of the University of 
Pennsylvania to Nippur have corroborated this theory by ocular evidence. 
Referring to the find of bowls above the Parthian temple, Hilprecht reports 
that "most of the one hundred bowls excavated while I was on the scene 
were found upside down in the ground,"" and he gives a photograph 
showing some of the bowls in this position. He draws the same conclusion 
as Pognon concerning the magical use of the vessels. 

Finally, one of the Pennsylvania texts demonstrates that this was the i 
conscious purpose of the bowl magic. No. 4 opens thus: ^a'tsbl 'i^tO'lD 

' For the correction of his hydromantic interpretation of fOID ^Wi, see above 

§3. 

' ZA, viii, 325, quoting from the book Raziel, 32. 

* Sur une vase judeo-bahylonien, 137 f. 

" Comparing Thousand and One Nights, ed. Bulak, i, 15 (= Burton's tr. i, 38). 

" Explorations, 447. 



42 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

'J1 xntJ^a 'nn bai pK'np I■'^^?^D: "covers to hold in sacred (accursed) 
angels and evil spirits," etc." The same inscription announces to the 
demons that they are "bound and sealed in each one of the four corners 
of the house."" This magical method in fact gives a special name to the 
bowls; it is called a SCa'S, which literally means a "press." The same term 
appears in No. 6, which opens as follows : 'i^ 'Tcb Jir,^ pcaan NtJ-ao 
"a press which is pressed down upon demons," etc. The theme is continued 
throughout the text: "This press I press down upon them" (1. 4); "who 
ever transgresses against this press" (1. 11), etc. In a word we have to do 
with a species of sympathetic magic, the inverted bowls symbolizing and 
effecting the repression and suppression of the evil spirits." 

The quadruple use of the bowls also explains the frequent recurrence 
of identical inscriptions, e. g. Nos. 21, 22, 23, all made out for the same 
client. The four charms thus placed at equidistant points, which as 
cornerstones represented the security of the house, formed a circle of 
magical influence about the dwelling." 

In the Babylonian magic we find a similar use of phylacteries buried 
under the pavement of the house. Botta, Layard and George Smith dis- 
covered under the pavement of buildings small receptacles in which were 
placed magical figurettes, of composite human and animal form." The use 
of the circular lip of the bowl is also in line with the magic circle which 
appears to have been practised by sprinkling a circle of lime, flour, etc. 
around a group of small images of the gods." 

" See the commentary to the text. 

" The binding at the four corners of the house appears also in Pognon, B, nos. 
I, 2, 3, 4, 24., 

" If my interpretation of the introduction of Nos. 9 and 14 be correct, we 
have also a reference to the formal depositing of the bowls. 

" Cf. the cylinder and prism texts deposited at the four corners of great 
buildings in ancient Mesopotamia. 

" Botta, Monument de Nineve, v, 168 f. ; Layard, Nineveh and its Remains, ii, 
37; Smith, Assyrian Discoveries, 78. See Fossey, La magie assyrienne, 114 f. For 
a like Jewish and Christian use, see Reitzenstein, Poimandres, 30. 

" Zimmern, Beitrdge z. Kenntniss d. bab. Religion. 169, no. 54, and cf. Thompson, 
Semitic Magic, p. Ixiii, translating usurtu "circle" (Zimmern. "Gebilde"). Cf. the 
charm with a circle made by a ring presented in the Papyrus Anastasi, Wessely, 
Vienna Denkschrif ten. hist-phi\. Classe, xxxvi.2, p. 34, and further PSBA, xiii, 165. 
The circle of the magical seal possessed the same efficacy. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 43 

But there is proof that the praxis of bowl magic existed in ancient 
Babylonia. In a passage of the magical Utukki series presented by 
Thompson," we read a ban on an evil spirit: (a demon) "which roameth 
loose in an upper chamber, with a bason (kakkultu) without opening may 
they cover it." The editor in his note has recognized the form of magic 
indicated, without comparing it to the later bowls." 

The bowl is then primarily a domestic phylactery, to be classed with y 
the abundant forms of this species of magic, e. g. the Jewish Mezuzoth. 
An exorcism given by Wessely^" from the papyri recalls much of the very 
wording of our texts : that evil spirits may not injure the wearer of these 
exorcisms, hide not "in the earth,""' nor under the bed nor under the door 
nor under the gate nor under the beams nor under vessels nor under holes. 
The lurking of devils in the house (e. g. i : 6), in the beams and on the 
thresholds (e.g. 6: 4), frequently appears in our texts, as also in the Talmud, 
Especially is the threshold named as guarded against the intrusions of evil 
spirits (e. g. 37: 2). The means of entrance are extravagantly detailed in 
a Babylonian text: by gate, door, bolt, etc., lintels, hinges, etc.;" and door 
and bolt and threshold are exorcised." The bedchamber is the special 
object of care, and the endorsement on No. 12, "of the room of the hall," 
may refer to a bowl which was deposited in that apartment. 

A different application of the same magic is found in the bowls 
published by Pognon, which were found in a cemetery, many of them being 
inscribed "for the cemetery" ( xnup n'an). This is the worldwide 
practice of laying the graveyard ghosts. I am inclined to think that dupli- 
cate inscriptions were made out, some for the house and some for the 

" Devils and Evil Sfirits of Babylonia, ii, 124. 

" I must leave it open whether the phrase in B. Mef. 29b (= Hull. 84b), »D3 
I'lireT KD3 m"?! Vfim (the last word is variously spelt), is a reference to our 
magical art ; it could be translated "the cup of the sorcerers and not the cup of 
those who break sorcery," i. e. of bowls used for malicious (cf. § 12) or for 
preventive magic. Tanhuma makes the second cup mean an ill-prepared brew which 
is ground for divorce; see Levy, Hwb., iv, 151a. 

" Denkschriften, xlii, 2, p. 66. 

" Was there a duplicate buried in the house? 

" Jastrow, Reliyion Babyloniens u. Assyriens, i, 377, where the full translation 
is given. 

" E. g. Tallquist, Maqlu, p. 93, 1. 10; Thompson, Devils, ii, 123. 



44 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

graveyard ; this would explain the reference to the four corners of the 
house in Pognon, nos. i, 2, etc. None of the Nippur bowls are so marked. 
Wohlstein's bowl no. 2417 is a detailed exorcism of ghosts. 

But Nos. 13 and 28 pass from prophylactic to aggressive magic; they 
are love charms such as we meet in an early age only in the Greek world. 
I leave their consideration to the commentary, and only note here that a 
love charm is as much a KaTn(kafio(: or dcfixio, to use the words of classical 
magic, as a ban of evil spirits. It is interesting to note that the Greek 
charms for defixing a rival in the circus or a lover were often buried in 
cemeteries, for the powers of evil were in any case invoked." 

The bowl itself is called simply, SD3 or XD13, also occasionally nycp 
amulet = ij>v7mkt!/piov ^ applied secondarily to a phylactery that is not sus- 
pended or worn (/vop)." For other terms applied to it as a magical 
instrument, see § 11. 

The tradition of this species of bowl-magic has lasted down into Islam, 
to fairly modern times. In his Monumcns arabes, persons ct tares, Paris, 
1828, Reinaud has given (ii, 337 ff.) a careful description of several Arabic 
magical bowls of brass and glass, contained at his day in private French 
collections and at the Vatican. They are talismans (to quote one of the 
bowls) against snakes, scorpions and dogs, against fever,' pangs of child- 
birth and maladies of nursing, enteric diseases, sorcery and dysentery." 
They are introduced "in the name of the merciful and compassionate God" 
(cf. the similar formula in our texts, e. g. 3 : i and note), and are elaborately 
provided with quotations from the Koran and with references to holy 
legend and the power of God (cf. § 11). One reference indicates that 
they were inscribed at the propitious astrological moment, cf. below, § ii- 

This is the only literary reference to bowls of this character I have 
been able to discover. In the possession of the Hon. Mayer Sulzberger of 
Philadelphia is a small, finely engraved brass bowl, with Koran quotations 
in Nashki. The text has been translated by Dr. B. B. Charles, Fellow of 

" E. g. the Cypriote charms published by Miss L. Macdonald, PSBA, xiii, 159, 
and the Hadrumetum tablet, discussed in No. 28. 

" See Blau, Das altjiidische Zauberwesen, 87, and "Amulet" in Jewish Encyc. 

" So in Schwab L and Q charms against dog-bites, and a reference to scorpions 
is found in Pognon B ; see Glossary C, .?. v. 3ipJ? . 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 45 

the University, who has kindly allowed me to present his rendering, as 
follows : 

"This blessed bowl wards off all poisons, and in it are assembled tried 
virtues; and it is for the sting of the serpent and the scorpion, for fever, 
for dysentery (?), for indigestion, for the mad dog, for stomachache and 
colic, for headache and throbbing, for fever of the liver and spleen, for 
facial contortions, for lack of blood (insufficient blood supply), for 
annulling magic, and for the eye and the sight, and for use in giving to 
drink of water or oil, or for harm to enemies and for poison in the conclave 
of (two) lands, when the imams of the religion and the orthodox caliphs 
are thereon agreed for the advantage of the Muslims." 

Probably many such phylacteries are to be found in oriental house- 
holds. Evidently the peculiar practice of the inversion of the bowl has 
disappeared ; the vessel itself with its magical inscription has become 
"blessed," an efficient phylactery. But the use of the bowl is doubtless a 
survival of the magic we are discussing. 



§ 9- The Exorcists 

The exorcist is in general anonymous ; his personaHty is lost in his 
professional possession of occult powers which range far above personal 
limitations. By the age of our texts he had long been differentiated from 
the temple priest, or maintained connection with a cult only in out-of-the- 
way shrines or in the new theosophic circles that sprang up in the 
Hellenistic age.' A few points however may be noted. 

Several of the Nippur texts" contain magical formulas worked in the 
name of Rabbi Joshua ben Perahia (Syriac, Rab Jesus bar P.), who is 
none other than one of the early Zugoth or Pairs who handed down the 
Tradition from the Great Synagogue to later ages (see to No. 32). 
Whether this magical tradition concerning the venerable Joshua be 
authentic may be dubious f but the case is illustrative of the tendency in 
magic to appeal to ancient great masters of sorcery, and to use their names 
as though their full powers were possessed. We may compare the many 
references in the magical papyri to such ancient masters, whose spells 
have become the stock in trade of their successors.' The assumption of 
these quacks is well illustrated by a Jewish mortuary charm in which the 
magician thus introduces himself: "With the wand of Moses and the plate 
of Aaron and the seal of Solomon and the shield of David and the mitre 

' For the Babylonian asipu and masmasu, see Zimmern, Beitrdge, 91 ; Thompson, 
Semitic Magic, 21. 

" Nos. 8, 9, 17, 32, 2Z, 34- 

' For the Talmudic doctors and others who practised "legitimate" magic, see 
Blau, Das altjiidische, Zauberwesen, 23. In 34: 2 the sorcerer claims to be a 
"cousin" of Joshua and there is reference to his "house," i. e. school in 8: 11. 
Compare the inherited magical powers of Choni the Circle-maker, Taan., 19b, 23. 

* See the list of such magical authorities in Wessely, Vienna Denkschriften, 
xxxvi, 2, p. 37; of. xHi, 2, p. 10 (I shall hereafter refer to these volumes simply as 
xxxvi and xlii). Also Apuleius gives a similar list, including Moses, xc, loo, 1. 10 
(ed. Helm), see Abt, "Die Apologie des Apuleius," 244, in Dieterich and Wiinsch, 
Religionsgeschichtliche Versuchc v. Vorarbeiten, iv, 2. 

(46) 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 47 

of the chief priest" (I perform this spell) ;° and this Palestinian charm 
has its parallel in our text No. 2: "I Pabak come, clad in iron and fire, 
vested with garments of Hermes the Logos, and my strength is in him 
who created heaven and earth." In 7: 12 the authority of Prangin bar 
Prangin is exercised — some sorcerer of the hazy past, if not a figment of 
the imagination. 'The great Abbahu' in 1. 9 is to be explained in the same 
way, if it is not a misunderstanding of a Gnostic term, and so too Bar- 
mestael in 1. 13, literally the 'son of the oracle-giver.' In some cases, e. g. 
the latter two and instances in No. 19, it is difficult to decide whether we 
have to do with men or divinities; the line was not drawn between the 
sorcerer and the deity, as in the Hermetic identification of Moses with 
Hermes' and in the lively incident in Acts 14, where the people of Lystra 
deify Barnabas and Paul. 

In one case, the pagan text No. 36, the exorcist presents his commission 
from the deities : "The lord Shamash has sent me against thee, Sina (the 

moon) has sent me, Bel has commanded me, Nannai has said to me 

Nirig has given me power." This is the survival of well known old 
Babylonian formulas, e. g. the Maklii series, i, 1. 52 flf :' "Anu and Antu 

have commissioned me, I am ordered, I go, I am sent, I speak. 

Against the might of my sorcerers Marduk the lord of incantation has 
sent me." 

I am inclined to think that some of the texts, especially the more 
illiterate ones, were written by lay people. The "word of power" had 
become the essential element (see § 11), and like a physician's prescription 
might be copied by anyone, or even invented — for along with the belief 
in sorcery always goes a subconsciousness of its hocus-pocus. For 
instance, No. 2 is a mutual charm in which two men, in the respective 
halves of the text, exercise each his powers for the other. Are they 

' Montgomery, JAOS, iQii, 272. For the identification with Moses cf. the 
Hermetic phrase, tyu clfu Muva^c ■ Wessely, xxxvi, 129, 1. log ff. ; also see Dieterich, 
Abraxas, 68, and Reitzenstein, Poimandres, 279. For the Egyptian use, cf. the Harris 
papyrus, "I am Amon," Brugsch, Religion u. Mythologie d. alt. Aegypter, 725. Or 
the sorcerer may identify himself with some mighty demon; e. g. GiN., 69a, "I ara 
Papi Shila son of Sumka," cf. Blau, op. cit. 83. Also cf. 27: 9 with 2: 6. 

' Dieterich, /. c. 

' Talkjuist, p. 37. Cf. the commission of the Old Testament prophets, e. g. Jer. 
i, and the adoption of soothsaying formulas; cf. Num. 24: 4 and Is. 50: 4. 



48 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

professional magicians or not rather laymen who felt they could make a 
stronger defence against the powers of evil by standing shoulder to 
shoulder? The texts are often indited in the first person, e. g. Pognon 24; 
in No. 27 the clients of No. 7 appear as making the charm, and use the 
form of No. 2. But in general there is a breaking down of the distinction 
between personalities in magic ; compare the Babylonian rituals, in which 
priest and suppliant appear to fuse in one another. 

In one place Wohlstein calls attention to what appears to be an 
attestation of the incantation, inserted into the middle of the text." The 
obscure passage is: inis tW" N'3n ps 'b a'na xim so'p. It may be 
translated: "It is correct for it has been written for me (or 'p = KJJ'Op?), 
we recognize it here." Cf. the attestations of the scribe in the Babylonian 
magical texts, e. g. the Maklu series. 

• ZA, ix, 36. 



§ lo. The Clients 

Most of the inscriptions are of domestic character, being made out 
for a married couple, their children, their house, and their property, cattle, 
etc. Frequently it is the wife and mother who procures the charm, with or 
without reference to the husband. In many of the inscriptions there is 
special intention against the evils that disturb the domestic sexual life. 
And so No. 36 gives an exorcism for the bridal-chamber. No. 24 is a charm 
for the safe delivery of a pregnant woman. The bed-chamber is often 
specified ( X23t;'''D iT'a). There is frequent reference to the demons that 
slay the unborn babes (e. g. Nos. 36, 37), the charm is often made out for 
the children that shall be, as well as for those that are. It would seem that 
where women are concerned, the greater part of magic has to do with the 
mysteries and maladies of the sexual life. The Lilis and Liliths which 
predominate in the categories of demons are personifications of sexual 
abnormalities. 

At times the idea of the family is extended to a wider scope, so as to 
include a large household ; No. 29 is a good example ; from the long list of 
male names enumerated, some of them of foreigners, it appears that the 
woman who procured the charm was landlady of a lodging house. On 
the other hand sometimes a single individual feels that a whole bowl is 
necessary for his own maladies; so in the case of the invalid who is the 
client of Schwab's bowl F. 

As the individuals must be exactly specified we have a rich list of 
names, which is enlarged by the required naming of the mother, more rarely 
the father of the client.' In the Rabbinic texts we find the Aramaic names 

' Shabb. 66b: KO'KT Koca <3"3l3f)3: "all repetitive incantations are in name of the 
mother." The "sacred" name of a person includes that of his mother with the 
Mandaeans (Brandt. Mand. Religion, 116). The same rule appears in the Greek 
magic; see Wiinsch Antike Fluchtafeln (Lietzmann's Kleine Texte, no. 20), p. 9 for 
examples and literary references. The practice is now attributed to the original 

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50 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

familiar in the Talmud, etc., Persian names, probably more frequent than 
the former, and but few typical Jewish names. In the Syriac and Mandaic 
texts the names are by a large majority Persian.' My texts contain one 
evidently Greek name, xanDDS, Astrobas, and a Christian name, STno n3, 
Martyrofilia; the former is paralleled in a text of Lidzbarski's by TVn«»'D, 
Timotheos, the latter by lE'V^ xnayo, 'His-hope-in-Jesus' in a text of 
Pognon's. Some of the names of obscure etymology may be of Indian 
origin; cf. the frequent name Hinduitha. 

The large proportion of Persian names even in the Rabbinic texts 
might lead us to think that the clients were non- Jewish. The argument 
is somewhat fallacious as the Jews by no means stickled for their native 
names, in fact seem to have adopted foreign names with great avidity.' And 
so in one family of nine souls the names are Persian, and only one son bears 
a Jewish name (No. 12). But as we shall have reason to conclude (§ 15), 
the magic of our bowls is so eclectic that even a "Jewish"-Aramaic text 
does not imply a Jewish exorcist, nor Jewish clients. We have to think 
of a clientele partly Jewish, partly non- Jewish, to which the religious 
affinities of the magic were indifferent. 

But the power of the charms is also extended beyond the actual house 
and its inmates so as to include the whole property of the client. Not only 
are house and mansion detailed, but also the cattle and possessions in 
general (srjp). In like manner Greek phylacteries provide a general 
property insurance, e. g. that the demons "shall not injure or approach 
N. or M. or his house or his vineyards or lands or cattle."* 

matriarchal condition of society rather than to the elder principle, pater incertus, 
mater certa. Naming of the father probably occurs where the mother is unknown; 
for instances see to 10: i. 

' See Glossary B ; also Pognon, B, p. 97. 

* See Zunz. "Die Namen d. Juden," in his Gesammelte Abhandlungen, ii. 

' Reitzenstein, Poimandres, 294; such charms are frequent in the Graeco-Italian 
exorcisms published by Pradel, in Religionsgeschichtliche Versuche u. Vorarbeiten, 
iii, no. 3. For amulets worn by cattle, see Blau, Das altjiidische Zauberwesen, 86. 



§ II. The Incantations. 

I have discussed in § 8 the particular praxis of our magic — the inver- 
sion of the inscribed bowl. There remain for consideration many details, 
for elaborateness is characteristic of magic and even in our comparatively 
simple field there are many phenomena which are suggestive links binding 
it with more complicated magical science. 

Magic consists of two elements : the physical operation or praxis, and 
the incantation, or to use the Egyptian term, "the word of power.'" They 
are distinguished in the Babylonian as the epesu "work" (also kikittu"), and 
the siptu, words which appear rubrically in the magical texts. In the Greek 
the terms for the practice are irpayua, vpa^ig, xP"'^'-; for the incantation 
(ifpof) Uyo^' So in Latin facere is the word for the operation, and it 
has had an interesting history through factura, fattura, feitigo (Portuguese), 
into fetich. 

The same distinction and similar terms are found in our magic. The 
root nay, "work, serve"" (late Hebrew HB'j? (cf. 14: i), nc^D} is used of 
the practice.' It is the common root also for the service, the worship of the 
gods in West-Semitic, and this fact illustrates the parity, often equivalence 
of religion and magic. Hence the technical terms N13J? {'abada), Niaiy 

' Budge, Egyptian Magic, 26 f. 

" E. g. in the Labartu texts, Myhrman, ZA, xvi, 141. 

' For the first two words see indexes in Wessely's two volumes in the Denk- 
schriften; for ;rpf'° , Dieterich Abraxas, pp. 136, 160. All three words occur close 
together in Dieterich's text p. 204 f. For rsXcrii (Dieterich, p. 136) = the Kno^ts-K 
of our texts, see § 12. 

' Cf. Latin, colo, cultus. This Hebrew-Aramaic root is more religious than 
epesu, etc., with its idea of service. N. b. Arabic umra, used of the cult at Mecca, 
Wellhausen, Skizeen, iii, 165. 

* A magical connotation of this root may exist in Is. 28: 2: nn33 imaj? l^yh 
imaj? , where the divine operation is contrasted to the magic arts of the necromancers. 

(51) 



52 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

{'iibbdda), XIUJ?, N13V» (ma'badd), occurring frequently in the bowls, and 
in such expressions as snnj; SJTaj? (9: 2), and inin T2yl snuj?.' 

The spoken Word is represented by nrhli, p^'O , "words," etc., also 
technically by Knnp, once Knpn hp r\2 16: 10, = the Greek i-W/rimQ (also 
K-'/.^m^ ) used both in magic arts and also in the Christian liturgy (in 
baptism, eucharist, exorcisms),' though as we shall see, most of these 
words came to be regarded as part of black magic and were avoided by 
our exorcists. The incantation as written is called a xnn'na and by the 
unique word dastabtraj and also a xn, "mystery," 3: i." 

A very large number of terms is used to express different practices 
and nuances of magic, but most of them only in the lists of dreaded black 
magic (see § 12), and hence they are avoided by our exorcists.' The 
exorcist gives himself none of the technical names, e. g. from the roots 
eiC3, eiETS ; he speaks of his Nnuv. but snajfO is avoided. His adjuration 
is a NJi'DiD, the Babylonian mam'itu, "ban," and he employs the correspond- 
ing verb Ni'mn ; a more frequent equivalent is yaf , Afel. Once he uses 
the root flK'N : ND-T NSC'sa NJS'B'N ,2:3. But his favorite terminology for 
his own practice is derived from IDS, "bind," exactly equivalent to the 
Greek KaTaddv^ Latin dcfigerc; the charm is an N1D''N, NilD'K . Also the 
synonymous roots are used less frequently: "IIV, it2p, "iD^ IDD, nvo, 13E, nan. 
The last root is used of magical practices in this sense in the Old Testa- 
ment," where also the obscure ninoa, Ece. 13: 18, is probably from a 
Babylonian root of like import." In the Babylonian the "binding" power 
of magic is as prominent as in the western magic; I cite such passages as 

' For insyo and the Syriac use see Noldeke, Z. f. d. Keils.-forsch., iii, 296, and 
Frankel, ZA, ix, 308. A frequent attributive is si'pn. 

° After summing up the various terms used for exorcism Heitmiiller concludes, 
in his "Im Namen Jesu," p. 212: "Der Ausdruck nar' e^ox'/v ist irriKa/daiiai tu bvofia. 
Our word snnp is the liturgical equivalent in the Syriac for epiklesis. 

' See 32: 4, and Kent's discussion in JAOS, IQH, 359- 

' The original use of this word (= Ttlcrii ) appears in its designation of black 
arts; see § 12. 

" Cf. the modern fine distinctions between magic, sorcery, witchcraft, etc. 

^ See Davies, Magic Divination and Demonology, 55, as against W. R. Smith's 
view in Journ. of Philology, xiv, 123. 

" Friedr. Delitzsch, in Baer and Delitzsch' text, p. xiii. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 53 

the Maklu-series iv, 1. 9; vii, 66, in which this idea is expressed by several 
synonymous verbs. 

The roots boa, Pa., "annul," in, "prohibit," Din, "be in taboo," noc 
"lay under ban,"" frequently appear. Also Dnn, Peal and Pael, is frequent 
with the sense of sealing the demons with the magic word or device 
engraved on a seal — often with explicit mention of Solomon's Seal ; hence 
the reference to the 70 seals of Solomon (Hyv.), or the seal of the house 
of Enoch, 19: 17, the seals of the angels of the Most High (Hyv.)." Our 
magicians will work only white magic, and their whole effort is for the 
NniDK," saliis of their clients." The great magician Joshua b. Perahia is 
an Nan K^DK, "great healer," 17: 12 = 34: 2. In this prophylactic nature 
of the magic, our texts differ favorably from the western KaT&Seafioi and 
defi.viones. The incantations largely consist in the monotonous repetitions 
of these equivalent roots. 

As to the praxis of our magic we have little information additional 
to that presented in § 8." From Pognon's texts we learn that the bowl 
was a new one (B. no. 24) and that the sorcerer sat upon an uncleft rock, 
a survival of primitive religion." 

The rude figures and designs which can hardly be said to adorn the 
bowls are part of the praxis. They come down from the earlier and more 
realistic age when gods and demons were represented by simulacra and 
in this wise were manipulated so as to do the sorcerer's will." Most of the 

" Stiibe explains the equivalent 'llE'C in his text as denominative from "lElB' 
the horn of excommunication. 

" For sealing as equivalent to placing the magical name on the object, see Heit- 
muller, op. cit, 143, 249, etc. 

'* The charm itself is called an «niD». — Cf. the New Testament aiiCeiv. aorripia 
is used in the papyri, e. g. Wessely, xlii, 31, 1. 341. 

" This includes their defence, HfilBO , and supernatural arming «ruit (cf. "the 
panoply of God," Eph. 6: 13), and involves the breaking of counter charms and 
wiles of the devils: ipj.*, Kitr, ICK, 113, Sea, "itsB, itTD, etc.: 3SVH. "lay a spirit"; tras, etc. 
In the Talmud 'iVC is the technical opposite to "IDH; Blau, op. cit., 157. 

" In No. 12 is a bit of rubric for forming a figure of an angel ; see the com- 
mentary. And probably at end of No. 13 occurs an aphrodisiac recipe. 

" Cf. the unhewn altar, Ex. 20: 25, and for the primitive aversion to iron, see 
Elworthy, The Evil Bye, 220 ff. 

" Budge describes how as far back as the third millennium in Egypt pictures 
came to be used in place of material objects in the magic of the dead (op. cit., 107). 



54: UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

figures represent the demons, generally as bound and hobbled — i. e. TJ"), 
TDX , etc., to use the words of the incantation." Especially the liliths are 
so represented, e. g. No. 8, but also there are masculine figures like the 
military-looking demon, in Persian style, of No. 3. Some of the gruesome 
caterpillar-like designs are intended to "raise the hair" as did the demons 
of elder Babylonia."" 

In one specimen. No. 15, the figure is the design of the serpent with 
its tail in its mouth. This is surely of Egyptian origin, doubtless through a 
Hellenistic medium. Such a figure is described in the "Book of Apep." of 
Ptolemaic compilation," and prescriptions for drawing this magical figure 
are found in the Greek papyri."'' Very common— so in the Syriac bowls — 
is a circle with a cross in it; or the circle is divided into segments with a 
cross in each. These signs probably represent the magical seal. There 
also occur rough rectangular figures divided into compartments, represent- 
ing the walls of protection which magic casts about the chent." Wessely 
gives a facsimile of such a magical design:" a square within a square, the 
former being divided into three compartments ; I suppose after the plan of 
a double-walled and many-chambered castle, indicating the protective char- 
acter of the charm. 

In one case, no. 8835, a cross-shaped figure may represent a dagger, 
and so indicate one of the magical forms of defixio or fastening down of 
the evil spirits."" 



" Cf. the operation performed on the figure of the Labartu, Myhrman, o/i. cit., 
150. For Palestine, see the figurettes found in the Seleucidan debris of Tell Sanda- 
hannah, in Bliss and Macalister, Excavations in Palestine, 154. For Egyptian usage, 
e. g. Budge, op. cit., 83. 

^° See the description in Myhrman, p. 148: also the seven evil Utukki, Thompson, 
Devils, tablet 16, and ii, p. 149. 
" Budge, ot>. cit., 79, 83. 

°' Wessely, xlii, 39 f., 69. The like design appears in a bowl depicted by 
Hilprecht, Explorations, opposite p. 447. Within the circle so formed are a number 
of magical figures, the most elaborate that appear in the bowls. The specimen is 
presumably at Constantinople. 

"" For similar sympathetic magic in old Babylonia, see Jastrow, op. cit., i, 303. 

" Ibid. 64. 

" Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encyc, "Defixio," col. 2373 ; Thompson, Sem. Magic, 
17. For modern instances of this kind of sorcery, see Elworthy, The Evil Eye, 53. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 55 

In No. 4 it is evidently the sorcerer who is depicted, waving in his 
hand a magic bough. This is the use we find in Babylonian magic, in 
which a branch of the datepalm or tamarisk was held aloft to repel the 
demons." 

One detail of universal magic appears in the praxis of our bowls: the 
assumption of a suitable season for the exorcism. So 6 : 5 : "this day out 
of all months, this year out of all years" ; cf. the mutilated (and probably 
misunderstood) form of this formula in 17: i. In Wohlstein 2422 a day 
is given: "If you come on the first of Nisan, go away," etc. Nisan i was 
an auspicious day for expelling demons;" this was probably due to the 
belief that the great turning points of the year, the solstices and equinoxes 
were times of supernatural determinations of human fate, when responsive 
action on the part of man was especially effective; in the Babylonian 
calendar Nisan i was the day of Destinies, the Jewish New Year's day in 
Tishri has the same character, and compare the magic time of midsummer 
night and the Christmas season in more modern superstition." In old 
Babylonia certain days were propitious for exorcism, and they are listed, 
as personified, in a Surpu text, among them the 7th, isth, 19th, 20th, 25th, 
30th, of the month." We have fuller information of this notion from Egypt ; 
papyri are preserved giving all the days in the year according to their 
character as propitious or unpropitious for magical rites." The same use 
of seasons appears in the Hellenistic papyri, those continuators of 
Egyptian magic. Among the numerous passages I note the following: 

eviavroiif ff ivcavriiv, fijjva^ ff iir/vov, tiiikpa^ «f rjfiepCiv, apac ef iipuv, ipKi^u Trdvraf roif 

" Thompson, Devils, p. xlix, and instances pp. 23, ill, 197. Compare the 
religious use of the barefma, a bunch of datepalm, pomegranate or tamarisk, in the 
Persian religion; Spiegel, Branische Alterthiimer, iii, 571. Thompson in his note 
draws attention to our design. 

" Wohlstein, p. 399, with references. 

" See Carl Schmidt, Aberglaube des Mittelalters, 1884, 205 S. (on Die Tage- 
wdhlerei). 

" Zimmern, tablet viii, 24 ff. Cf. the exorcism of a demon at full moon, in 
Lucian, Philopseudes, 16. 

•• Budge, op. cit., 224 ff. ; Gods of the Egyptians, ii, c. xix, for lists of the deities 
of times and seasons. The earliest appearance of this system among the Jews is 
the angelic calendar system in Enoch, 82. 



56 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

daifiova^ " This IS exactly the equivalent of the passage cited above, 6:5: NOV 

'JTj; pnbia^D, and there can be no reasonable doubt that we have here the 
reminiscence of the Hellenistic formula. So again in the papyri : io ry 
at//iepov >//iepa, fv rii apn ijpif." At Icast the later magical calendar is connected 
with astrology; one Greek exorcism adjures "by the God who has the 
power of the hour."" These references to an appropriate magical time are 
in our texts however quite conventional; we may judge that no horoscopes 
were cast by our sorcerers. 

But the praxis is a minor part of the bowl-magic. In this it differs 
from the Babylonian in which the praxis was primary, the texts being 
illuminative of the action. The reasons for this shifting of the center of 
gravity I shall touch upon in § 15. In the bowls the incantation, the spell, 
is almost the all in all. It consisted in the utterance or writing of certain 
phrases, words, syllables, which possessed in themselves a magic power 
to bind equally the favorable powers and the demons." This use of spells 
has gone so far that magic appears to have divorced itself from religion; 
the inversion of the bowl and the monotonously repeated declaration that 
the demons are "bound, sealed, countersealed, exorcised, hobbled, silenced," 
etc., e. g. Nos. 2, 4, is in itself sufficient, without invocation of, or reference 
to, the divine powers. 

Generally however appears the formal adjuration of Deity or of 
deities and other favorable genii, the invocation of their name securing 
their assistance." This may be specifically the Jewish deity, e. g. No. 14, 

" Wessely, xxxvi, 53, 1. 341 ff. My colleague Professor Heffern sagaciously 
notes the illumination thus cast upon the difficult reference in Rev. 9: 15 to the 
angels appointed for an hour, day, month, year ; the verse is reminiscent of magical 
phraseology. Note also the phrase, "in a good hour and a good and auspicious 
day," in the Paris Magical Papyrus, 1. 3000 (given by Deissmann, Light from the 
Ancient East, 251, 255). 

" Wessely, xxxvi, 92, 1. 1932 flf. = xlii, 42, 1. 665 flf. N. B. the like stress laid 
upon "this day" in the Babylonian exorcisms, e. g. ^wr/iM-series, iv, 1. 65. 

" Wiinsch, Antike Fluchtafeln, no. 3, 1. 20. 

" The conscious manipulation of words, phrases, pronunciations to extract their 
magical sense, appears in 9 : 5 = 32 : 6. 

" Even as in earlier times the images of the gods were used ; e. g. Fossey, La 
magie assyrienne, 315. — The magical value of the use of the name in religious rites 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 57 

"in thy name Yhwh"; or it may be quite indefinite as in the recurrent 
introductory formula, "In thy name, O Lord of heahngs, great Healer of 
love" ; the same form also appears in the pagan text No. 19. I discuss 
under No. 3 the origin of the phrase. 

There is nothing new in the adjuration of many angels" or deities 
along with the appeal to some one Name;" the former is the Jewish phase 
of polytheism, while even with polytheistic adjurations there may be 
recognition of "God," as in the pagan text No. 19 with its reference to "the 
one true God," 1. 17. Noticeable is the easy passage from the invocation 
of celestial beings into that of mere names or words ; but this illustrates 
the arrant nominalism into which magic had fallen, losing the religious 
phase of divine personality. So Abraxas is invoked — though probably here 
we have a very ancient divine name, inherited from Egypt." Of this "the 
holy Agrabis" may be a perversion, 14: 2. In 7: 9, as noted in § 9, "the 
Great Abbahu" may be a magically deified sorcerer.'" Many of the odd 
names which are invoked may be kabbahstic (gematriac, etc.) names of 
angels or gods (see § 13). They may soon have worn down into unintel- 
ligible words — just as A,^pafaf = 365 becomes D'3";2K (and other forms) 
without reminiscence of the numerical value of the letters." We have the 



has been established in late years by a series of discussions from scholars working 
in various fields. I name: K. Nyrop, Navnets magt ("the power of the name"), 
1887, noted and analyzed by Giesebrecht (see below) ; F. v. Andrian in Corre- 
spondenzhlatt d. deutsch. Gesellschaft f. Anthropologie. Bthnologie u. Urgeschichte, 
xxvii (1896), 109-127; F. Giesebrecht, Die alttestamentUche Schdtzung des Gottes- 
namens u. ihre retigionsgescliichtliche Grundlage, Konigsberg, 1901 ; W. HeitmuUer, 
'In Namen Jesu,' Gottingen, 1903 (especially Part II). Cf. also, on the use of the 
name, Jacob, "Im Namen Gottes," Vierteljahrsschrift f. Bibelkunde, i (1903), Heft 
I seq. (which I have not seen in full) ; J. Boehmer, Das biblische 'Im Namen,' 
Giessen, 1898. (on the philological origins of the baptism formula) ; and an essay 
by W. Brandt, '"Ovo/ia en de doopsformule in het nieuwe testament," Theol. Tijd- 
schrift, 1891. 

" For the adjuration of angels in Judaism, see Heitmiiller, op. cit., 176 fl. 

" See § 13. 

" According to Budge, Egyptian Magic, 180, originally the name of a form of 
the sungod; according to Wiedemann, Magie u. Zauherei (D. Alte Orient, vii, 4), p. 
23, the Egyptians from of old worshipped as god "the Magical Formula." 

" Cf. the early and frequent use of the name Jesus in the papyri magic; and cf. 
Acts 19: 13. For Jesus as a sorcerer in the Talmud, see Blau. op. cit. 29. 

*" See Pognon, Inscr. mand., 107. In 34: 19 he is "mighty lord." 



58 UNIVERSITY MUSBUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

same unintelligent invocation of names in the magical papyri, e. g. the 
exorcism "in the name of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Jesus Chrestos, Holy 
Spirit."" This is not Jewish magic, any more than we can say that the 
erotic charm from Hadrumetum is Jewish in its present form with its 
barbarous spellings for the patriarchs: A/3paav, laxov, lapaa//." These are 
specimens of eclectic magic with pagan and Jewish elements, overlaid 
with Christian." It is in this eclectic character of our texts, as in all so- 
called Jewish magic, that they part company from the old Babylonian magic 
and relate themselves to occidental conjuration. 

The invocation of angelic names in Jewish magic may be regarded as 
in part the parallel to the pagan invocation of many deities, and in part 
as invocation of the infinite (personified) phases and energies of the one 
God." Both Jewish and pagan magic agreed in requiring the accumulation 
of as many names of the deity or demon as possible, for fear lest no one 
name exhaust the potentiality of the spiritual being conjured. The aggre- 
gation of divine epithets in the Old Testament, as also in the Christian 
liturgy, goes back to the root-idea of the efficiency of a knowledge of all 
the names if possible; the fifty names of Marduk, the hundred names of 
Allah, are similar cases. In the Babylonian magic" and also in the 
Egyptian" this practice was established. For Hellenic magic may be cited 
the many names of Hekate, the ^<5y"' haTiKtoi" In this accumulation 

" Wessely, xxxvi. 75. 1. 1227. Cf. the list of invocations in a "Christian" amulet: 
Adonai, Thodonael (= Toth -f- Adonael), Sabaoth, Emanuel, the holy angels, etc. 
(Reitzenstein, Poimandres, 293). 

*" For the text and literature see to No. 28. 

" I suppose the formula read originally : "in the name of the God of Abraham," 
etc. See Heitmiiller, op. cit., p. 180 for the invocation of the patriarchs, etc. Origen 
{c. Cels, iv, 35) appears to admit its efficacy. 

" Cf. the Gaonic maxim that there are many things in which the angels are 
independent of God. Blau, op. cit., 92 ; with which contrast the notion of the ephe- 
meral existence of the angels who proceed from the Dinur of God; Weber, Jiid. 
Theologie, 166. Eisenmenger, Entdecktes Judenthum, ii, 371 — all but Michael and 
Gabriel according to a dictum of Bereshith R. (Lueken, Michael, 39). For the 
equivalent efficiency of divine and angelic names see the magical text, The Sword of 
Moses, published by Gaster, 1896. 

" Jastrow, Religion Babyloniens u. Assyriens, i, 291. 

" Budge, op. cit., 171. 

" Wiinsch. Ant. Fluchtafeln, 6. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 59 

of divine names there lurks the uncertainty whether they are names of 
one being, or, as so many potencies, names of as many beings. This con- 
fusion appears in the parallel texts under No. ii, where the second 
(Myhrman's text) turns the three names of the Jewish God in the first 
into a polytheistic trinity. But except in the case of accumulated magical 
syllables, the "barbarous names" of Greek magic, the Deity is not in our 
texts given many names ; this is due to the fact that the reference to the 
Deity is not much more than a passing compliment. However the names 
of the demons must be exactly known, and especially is it the Lilith who 
receives an extravagant accumulation of designations ; she is akin to Hekate 
and the "Hekatian names" are showered upon her. For the demoniac 
names I refer to § 12. 

The use of so-called kabbalistic names — letters," syllables, phrases — 
as potent charms, may next claim our attention. The roots of this usage 
are many, and the origin or etymology of specific cases mostly defy 
explanation. The practice is rare in Babylonian magic," but is common 
in the sorcery of ancient Egypt" and in its lineal descendant the Hellenistic 
magic," and hence it was reflected to the Jewish sorcery, the Talmud 
abundantly illustrating the use of these barbarica onomata."' One primitive 
source of this usage is the mystery which is thrown about magic rites ; "the 
wizards that squeak and gibber" (Is. 8: 19) are universal; the Babylonian 
priest generally whispered his formulas (cf. the title masmasu) ; the solemn 
parts of Christian rites have likewise tended to inaudible pronounciation. 
There exists a tendency toward intentional obscuration of the formulae, 
which by psychological necessity would tend to even greater corruption. 
But magic is in its purpose a scientific exercise, and we must suppose that 
in general something intelligible was once expressed by the now unintelligi- 

" For the mysticism connected with letters see Dieterich's interesting discussion, 
Rhein. Mus., hi, 77, "ABC — Denkmaler." 

" A case in Myhrman, ZA, xvi, 188 (cf. Jastrow, i, 339), for the text of which 
see 15: 4. 

*■ Budge, op. cit., c. S, e. g. p. 172- 

" See Heitmiiller, op. cit. 197 K.; Abt, Apuleius, 152. For the Ephesia grammata, 
see Kuhnert, in Pauly-Wissowa, s. v. (the papers of Welcker in his Kleine 
Schriften, iii, and of Wessely in Program of the Franz Joseph Gymn., Vienna, 1886, 
I have not seen). 

" Blau, op. cit., 61 f. ; Griinbaum, ZDMG, xxxi, 269 f. 



60 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

ble term. Much of the later nonsense was the survival of phrases of the 
lost tongue in which the charms had their rise." Such a part may have 
been played by Sumerian phrases in later Babylonia, and the great western 
sorcerer Apuleius recognizes the origins of his magical lingo as magica 
nomina Aegyptio vel Babyloniaco ritu," and the Hellenistic sorcerer is 

said to alyvTTTia!;eiv. 

Some of the phrases are still intelligible, such as cnn, "quick" (off with 
you), with abundant parallels in the Babylonian and the Greek magic (the 
repeated raxr),'' also brief imperatives, as J?T, nr, or nt, from yyt, etc., 
"fly away." But the great majority of the forms are unintelligible. It is 
to be observed that raucous sounds, e. g. YP (kas) and especially sibilants 
are very frequent; in Pognon's texts K" (sh) is often inserted between 
words." May we compare the hissing implied by the ancient Hebrew 
sorcery terms, E'n? and tJTlJ ? 

Many such syllables or letters are surrogates for the divine name nin% 
which especially lent itself to this treatment." So we find the changes rung 
on this word: ~\ flV, in'', nynx, etc. Or abbreviations are used like 
the repeated X, = DTI^K bn 'JIX;™ in 20: 2 it is extravagantly repeated six 
times, in 31 : 8 eight times. In irrnx'', 31 : 6, we have a play on the three 
vowels as in Greek magic. 

Then there enters in the use of the principle of Athbash, in all its 
various forms, e. g. I'SVO (Stiibe, 1. 66) = nin'' . Such prima facie 
unintelligible forms themselves became corrupted in course of time ; perhaps 
MS MS, PS PS, 14: 2, are from the former theme. Probably too the 

" See Deissmann's remarks on the distinction between hocus-pocus and survivals 
of Egyptian and Babylonian magic in the vocabulary of the papyri ; Bibelstudien, i ff. 

" Abt, Apuleius, 152. 

" See to 14: 4. 

" In our texts cf. i: 13, 3: s, 14: 2, 25: s, 29: 10. 

" For extensive magical formulas based on the Name, see Nos. 3, 6, 31, 35. I 
give a list of these terms at the end of Glossary A. 

" Cf. the introduction to Schwab's Dic<to«»oiV? rf'o«(7e/o/o(7ie; Blau, o/". ci/., 117-146. 
Against Jewish orthodox use, our texts do not hesitate to write ni.T ; cf. the Samar- 
itan usage. In one case it is vocalized in a proper name, n<3!T3>l3, 36: 4, q. v. The 
reminiscence of the ancient pronunciation survived in the lower classes and certain 
sects, e. g. among the Samaritans, and in magic, cf. the forms Ia/3c, etc 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 61 

principle of (mathematical) gematria may be supposed/' of old standing 
in Judaism,** but also found in the theosophy and current use of the 
Greeks." The passage in 9: 5 f. which speaks of "letter out of letters, 
name out of names, interpretation out of interpretation," doubtless refers 
to the abstraction of such hidden meanings and values out of words. 

In one case, 15: 4 f., occurs a rhyming "nonsense" couplet used with 
magical intention. For this as noticed to the passage there is one example 
in the Assyrian magic. Assonance of succeeding words is found, e. g. 
35: S."" Both assonance and rhyme are found in the western magic; e. g. 
adam alam bctttr alam hotiim;" and 

op^h) jiaviiu votipe xoSripe 

Svar/pt avpe avpoe ■KavKtBTtj SudcKaKtar^."* 

Rhyme appears in the lines : 

TovTo ypd(pe : £tg^^ QvptyA, 
Mi;fa)^X raPpii/Ti,, OvpiijX, 
Miaay}^, 'Ippaijl^ 'larpaf/?..^ 

I do not find much proof of intentional misspelling; most of the 
apparent cases are cleared up on inspection of the text. In fact a good 
deal of care is exercised in this regard (n. b. a case in 4: 4), and erroneous 
letters or words are often erased or repeated correctly; in form most of 
the texts compare favorably with the magical papyri. 

" Schwab, I ; a case in No. 42. 

*" Found by ancient tradition in Eliezer = 318; cf. Gen. 15: 2 and 14: 14. 

" Deissmann, Light from the Ancient Bast, 275; Wiinsch, op. cit., 23. 

" The Talmudic shabriri briri riri ri is different in character; the gradual 
peeling off of the word finally destroys the demon. 

" See Wessely, xlii, 13, from Marcellus, xxviii, 72. 

** Wessely, xlii, 45, 1. 747, = 1. 964- 

" This identification of the angels recalls the assimilation of the gods in the 
famous Babylonian passage; "Ninib the Marduk of strength, Nergal the Marduk of 
battles," and similar astrological identifications; see A. Jeremias, Monotheistische 
Stromungen, 26. 

" Wessely, xxxvi, 90, 1. 1814 ff. For assonance and rhyme in Greek magic, see 
Heim, in Fleckeisen's Jahrbiicher f. dassische Philologie, Supplementband xix (1903), 
544 ff. ; M. C. Sutphen, "Magic in Theokritos and Vergil," in the Studies in Honor 
of B. L. Gildersleeve (Baltimore, 1902), 318; Abt, Apologie d. Apuleius, IS4- For 
similar cases in our texts see 19: 18, 25: S, 35 : 5- 



62 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

An important part of the Word of Power in developed magic is the 
use of sacred scriptures, the epics, legends of the people, and the citation 
of appropriate precedents. Babylonian, Egyptian, Jew, Greek, each had 
his thesaurus of sacred legend, which age had consecrated as veritable 
words of Deity and hence in themselves potent." These are "the ancient 
runes," N'onp NT'C, of 32: 9." 

Early house amulets have been found in Assyria inscribed with 
quotations from the legend of Ura the pest-god ;°* and there are other traces 
of the use of epic myth in the Babylonian magic." In the same way that 
portion of the Book of the Dead known as "The Chapters of the Coming 
Forth of the Day," largely consisting of myth, and the Legend of Ra and 
Isis, were used in Eg>'pt as magical texts." In the Greek magic we have 
the prophylactic and divinatory use of the Homeric verses." Nor were 
the Jews behind their neighbors, with their fast fixed canon of sacred 
scripture. The book of Deuteronomy ordered or at least suggested the 
use of the weightiest "word" in the scriptures, the Shema, as a phylactery 
to be inscribed on the hands and between the eyes (in place of totemistic 
tattoo-marks)" and on the sideposts and gates of the house (where earlier 
prophylactic amulets like the Babylonian had hung). Or certain passages 
appeared palpably appropriate, just as the Ura-legend was used as a pro- 
phylactic; so Ps. 91, especially v. 5 f . ; or the divine scolding of the evil 
spirit, "Yhwh rebuke thee, Satan," in Zech. 3:2. A few of the bowls 
published by Schwab, G (exterior)," H, K, O, are mostly or largely 



" Cf. Is. 55 : II. 

" For 'V, cf. ivufai , carmina, incantamenta, etc. of occidental magic. Cf. the 
use of the same root in Arabic ; 'V in Ju. 5 : 12 has this sense. 

" King, ZA, xi, 50; Fossey, op. cit., 105; Jastrow, op. cit. i, 285; Thompson, Sem. 
Magic, 83. 

'" Jastrow, op. cit., i, 363. 

" Budge, op. cit. 125, 137, and p. 141 for remarks on this magic. 

" See Heim, "Incantamenta magica graeca latina," in Fleckeisen's Jahrbitcher, 
as in n. 66 and Wessely, xlii, 2 ff. 

" Cf. Eze. 9: 4, Is. 44: 5, Gal. 6: 17, Rev. 13: 16 f., etc. The practice was con- 
tinued into Talmudic times, Sabb. 120b, etc.; see Blau, op. cit., 119. 

" PSBA, xii, 327. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 63 

composed of scripture verses." We find in them the Aaronic blessing, 
Num. 6: 24 ff., Is. 44: 25, Cant. 3: 7; K contains the whole of Ps. 121, 
Ex. 22: 18, Cant. 3: 7 f., Ps. 16: i, 17: 8, 32: 7. O is an amalgam of Dt. 
6: 4 and Ps. 91, with the first word of the former followed by the first of 
the latter, etc. G reads Dt. 29: 22 and then reverses the order of the 
words." But these genuinely Jewish eflfusions are exceptional, and may be 
comparatively late. The Nippur bowls are marked by their lack of 
scriptural quotation and reference. Very frequent is "The Lord rebuke 
thee, Satan,"" at the end of the inscription. No. 26 opens with the first 
words of the Shema, followed by Num. 9 : 23 and Zech. 3 : 2. Num. 9 : 23 
is of value as containing the root 1D£5', a frequent and potent theme in 
Jewish magic. Biblical and of good magical tradition is the use of Amen 
(generally twice or thrice repeated), Selah," Halleluia. These are also 
used in Talmudic charms, e. g. Yoma 84a : "kanti, kanti, kaloros, Yah, Yah, 
Yhwh, Sabaoth, Amen, Amen, Selah." The magical Halleluia recalls the 
probable use of Hallel-like forms in incantations." These Jewish terms 
are not found in the Mandaic texts, in which the sectarian doxology, "Life 
is victorious" replaces them. In the Greek papyri a/"/" and aXltXmia are 
frequent," and we have a case of syncretism such as this : ^ojirr^cvra to aftf/v koI 

TO aAAe?iOvia Kal to £vayy£?uov.^^ 

But this use of scripture is not such as we should expect to find from 
any Jew even moderately versed in the Old Testament. The spelling is 



" For biblical verses of prophylactic power approved by the Talmud, see Blau, 
op. cit., 70 f., 93 f., and his article "Amulets," in Jewish Bncyc; also Kayser, "Gebrauch 
von Psalmen zu Zauberei," ZDMG, xlii, 456, presenting a Syriac MS. containing 
the Psalm verses useful in magic and divination. For the use of Psalms (especially 
Ps. 91) in the late Italian magic, see Pradel, Griechische «. sUdifalienische Gebete, 69. 

" On this practice in Jewish magic, called S?1BD, see Blau, op. cit., 85 ; the practice 
reversed the hostile charm. With the attempt at disguising the plain meaning, of. 
the intentional confusion of lines in a Greek defixio, published in Wiinsch, Antike 
Fluchtafeln, no. 4. 

" A formula recommended in the Talmud, Berak. sa. 

" This magical use of Selah is not, I think, noticed in the several modern studies 
of the word. It appears also as 2aAa on an Abraxas gem. Diet, d'archeologie 
chretienne, i, 144. 

" Cf. Blau, op. cit., 94 f- 

*• E. g., both together, Wessely, xlii, 28, 1. 279. 

" lb. 66, I. 31. 



64 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYI,ONIAN SECTION. 

not Massoretic, the quotations are not exact." There are but two references 
to the supreme history of the Exodus, 14: 2, 34: 4, and the latter is 
confused. In the Greek papyri there is far more citation of the sacred 
history; cf. the "Jewish" text of the Great Magical Papyrus at Paris, pub- 
lished most recently by Deissmann." This contains a brief summary of 
God's great acts for Israel, although the crossing of the Jordan precedes 
the passage of the Red Sea." The "Judaism" of our bowls is often less 
than that of the papyri." 

There are several references to ancient myth and apocrypha, especially 
in the citation of great spells. So 2 : 4, "the spell of the sea and the spell 
of the monster Leviathan" ; 1. 6, "the curse, etc., which fell on Mt. Hermon, 
Leviathan, Sodom, Gomorra"; 4: 4, "the seal with which were charmed 
the Seven Stars and the Seven Signs" ; 10 : 3. 5, "the seal with which the 
First Adam sealed his son Seth," or "with which Noah sealed the ark" ;" 
also see 34: 4 f. 

All sacred and legendary history is a series of spells, just as the 
Babylonian epic literature is magically used, Ea or Marduk appearing as 
the high priest of exorcism. So also in Egypt the epic of the gods gives 
assurance of present magical help. "My two hands lie upon this child, the 
two hands of Isis lie upon him, even as Isis laid her two hands upon her 
son Horus." "O Isis, save me .... even as thou didst save thy son 
Horus."" And so in the Greek papyri the adjuration is often by the won- 
derful works of the God of Israel, which are regarded as spells; see the 
great Magical Papyrus. 

" I cannot agree with Blau, p. no, that this paraphrasing and variation in 
scriptural quotation was intentional ; magic which perpetuated the pronunciation of 
the Great Name would not have hesitated at using the exact words of scripture. 
The quotations have often come through eclectic mediums. 

".Light from the Ancient East, 250 ff. 

" Cf. the Talmudic charm against the toothache, Sabb. 67a, in which portions 
of the pericope of the Bush were recited ; Blau, op. cit., 69. 

" "Man kann den Aberglauben der Kaiserzeit nicht in die verschiedenen 

Kategorieen heidnisch jiidisch und christlich einteilen Der Aberglaube ist 

seiner Natur nach synkretistisch" ; Deissmann, Bibelstudien, 25. 

" Cf. "the seal which Solomon laid on the tongue of Jeremia," in the great 
Magical Papyrus, 1. 3039, Deissmann, Light, p. 257 ; which has its parallel in the charm 
with which Enoch's brothers charmed him, 3: 4. 

" Wiedemann, Magie u. Zauberei bet den alten Aegyptern, 1905, 22, 26. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 65 

In this connection may be noted a few passages which appear to be 
derived from apocryphal or kabbahstic literature, fragments snatched to 
decorate the lean skeleton of incantation. E. g. 8: 13: "holy angels, hosts 
of light in the spheres, the chariots of El-Panim before Him standing, the 
beasts worshipping in the fire of His throne and in the water, the cohorts 
of I-am-that-I-am" ; 14: 3: "I adjure you by Him who lodged His Shekina 
in the temple of light and hail"; or the poetic description of the angels in 
12: 7: "They are filled with glory who endure and keep pure since the 
days of eternity, and their feet are not seen in the dances by the world, 
and they sit and stand in their place, blowing like the blast, lightening like 
the lightning." — beneficent Annunaki ! These passages, reminiscent both 
of the Apocalypse and the later kabbalistic literature, are recited with 
magical intent." An important part of magic was the epic of the god 
and the praise of his glory; compare the insertion of the Hermetic KoafioKotia 
in the Leyden magical papyrus," and the epic of the attack of the rebel 
spirits against the gods in the i6th tablet of the Utukku series. The story 
of the god's power or the praise of his glory were "words of power" against 
the fiends.*" 

There is a dreary monotony in these texts, yet much variation of 
details. After possibly an invocation, comes the name of the client and 
family, and then the categories of detested demons and ills. Then follow 
the various Names in which the spells are invoked. Noticeable is the 
frequent repetition of the same form, even three or more times (e. g. No. 
3). This insipid use has its parallel in the KarMca/ioi; cf. the examples in 
Wiinsch. op. cit., nos. 3, 4, 5, where with slight changes the exorcism is 
repeated at least three times. Multiplication increased the efficiency of 
the charm; it is the liaTTo?.oyia of the Gentiles {Mt. 6:7). But the relig- 

" Cf. the amulet in Reitzenstein, Poimandres, 294, where the ranks of the 
celestial hierarchy are enumerated as standing by the great and lofty Deity. 

" Dieterich, Abraxas, 182. Herodotus notices the use of a theogony or divine 
history in the incantation of a magus (i, 132) ; see in general Conybeare, JQR ix, 93 f. 

"■ Cf. Fossey, op. cit., 96; and for the western magic, Wunsch, op. cit., 13. 
Scriptural and legendary narratives are found in the Syriac charms published by 
Gollancz, Actes du zieme Congris International des Orientalistes, 1887, sect, iv, 77. 
Cf. also the similar Syriac charms published by W. H. Hazard in JAOS, xv (1893). 
284 ff. 



66 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

ious imaginativeness and poetic invention of the ancient Babylonian and 
Egyptian magic has disappeared. The spell, the i^pk ^iyoc has suffered 
its reductio ad absurdum, personality human and divine is thrown out of 
doors. 



§ 12. The Objects of Exorcism; the Demons, Etc. 

The magic of the bowls is of too late an age to require here a 
dissertation on the rise and spread of the belief in evil spirits. Our sorcery 
is fin de Steele. When the old-world religions began to decay, and the 
gods that once were near to men disappeared in the political convulsions 
which marked the passing of ancient tribe or city and the domination of 
a world-empire, or suffered under the strokes of philosophy and skepticism, 
the spirits of ill were not banished, and the superstition that feeds on the 
fears of men, came to occupy the center of the stage of the spiritual drama. 
Nor did the rise of the great spiritual religions counteract the tremendous 
development of the superstition concerning the powers of evil, for they 
did not deny them, but recognized their existence, often regarded themselves 
in the negative light of prophylactics and antidotes against the great out- 
standing fact of evil agencies. The Persian faith was boldly dualistic and 
magical in its rites for overcoming the powers of ill. Jewish monotheism 
was too tense, and the cardinal doctrine of the one God was saved by that 
unfortunate, though possibly necessary, salvage from antique polytheism, 
in the shape of angels and devils who were nearer and more real to man 
than distant Deity.' The Christian Church followed the tuition of her 
mother and her pagan converts brought along with them the superstitions 
of the Graeco-Roman world ; the doctrine of the Incarnation seemed to 
entail the foil of embodied demons, and diabolology entered into the formal 
Christian theology to an extent unknown in official Judaism.' 



' Cf. Bousset, Die Religion des Judentums im neutestamentlichen Zeitalter, 313 
ff., 326 flf. 

' For the diabolology of the Hellenistic world, see the works of Heitmiiller, 
Reitzenstein, Abt, Tambornino, cited in the previous section ; also in general P. 
Wendland, Die hellenistischrdtnische Kultur in ihren Beziehungen zu Judentum u. 
Christentum, 1907; for Jewish and Christian denionology, see n. 35 for literature. 

(67) 



68 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

Our magic is a degenerate survival of the religious and magical develop- 
ments of ancient Egypt and Babylonia, of the Hellenistic world, of Judaism, 
and in the study of its demonology, we are dealing with a mass of time-worn 
and banal demons, which do not promise much for fresh investigation. 
Nevertheless the analysis of the different kinds of demons may produce 
here and there a note of interest. 

I have noticed above the magical efficacy ascribed to naming the names 
of deities and demons (§ ii).' Personal names for demons, it is true, 
are not very common ; they are generally epithets or generic terms, e. g. 
"the Killer, the Demon, the Satan," etc. One class of demons however 
seems always to have enjoyed the privilege of a long list of names which 
it was the sorcerer's duty to know and to conjure. This is the female 
demon represented in the old Babylonian texts by the Labartu, in the 
Jewish by the Lilith, in the Greek by the Gello or Baskania. Our te.xt 
No. 42 is an exorcism of the evil Lilith and its virtue consists in the 
knowledge it gives of her many names ; I refer to that text for comparative 
details. Likewise the Labartu has her six (seven?) names, which are to 
be carefully pronounced.' We may also compare the accumulation of 
epithets attached to demons in 2: 2 f., 8: 2, 24: 13, etc., and recall a like 
process in the names of Satan in Rev. 9: 11, 12: 9, while Egyptian magic 
similarly amassed the names of the demon Apep.' Also for further identi- 
fication of the demons the names of their parents, or even granddams are 
given,' for every specification enhances the power of the name. Also the 
personal description is efficacious, for this indicates that the sorcerer knows 
exactly whom he is exorcising. Such magical descriptions sometimes rise 
to almost epic tones, as in the delineation of the Seven Spirits in the 
Babylonian Utukki-series.'' A reminiscence of these hair-raising pictures 
appears in the Mandaic bowls published by Pognon and Lidzbarski, in which 

• Cf. also Origen, C. Celsum, i, 24 f., v, 45 f., and the summary of his argument 
given by Conybeare, JQR, ix, 65 f. 

* See the opening of the Labartu texts as published by Myhrman, ZA, xvi, 154; 
cf. a similar text on an amulet published by VVeissbach, Bab. Miscellen, 44. 

" Budge, Egyptian Magic, 171. 

' See below under (l)b. 

' Thompson, Devils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia, i, 51. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 69 

the hurtling, scolding, fighting of the Lilith-witches is depicted in un- 
canny terms. But in general our texts do not extend much beyond the 
mere registration of categories; this decadent sorcery made up for the lack 
of poetical imagination by a mathematical tabulation. Superstition in order 
to be comprehensive encyclopaedically accumulated all the terms of evil ; not 
only the inherited demoniac categories, but all which new races and faiths 
had to offer were gladly accepted. Hence in our texts the naming of the 
devils and ills results in the registration of an indefinite number of species. 

An analysis of our general category may start from a threefold division, ^ 
namely: (i) evil spirits, in the strict sense of the term, as personal beings; 
(2) evil agencies, especially the species of black magic, which have been 
potentized into almost personal existence; (3) natural evils, especially 
physical maladies, but also such mental and moral affections as loss, shame, 
etc. — which are regarded as instigated by demons, or as themselves evils 
with personality, although often the demoniac element is vague. 

This is the order we find generally in our present texts. And it is an- 
tique. It appears in the Babylonian, e. g. in a text where the several evil 
spirits are named (Utukki, etc.), then "the enchantments, sorceries, witch- 
crafts," then "sickness."' All the three categories do not so often appear in 
the Babylonian magic, more frequently those under (2) and (3) are paired, 
but here again we find the same order — the bans (mamitu) and then the 
various human ills.' This order appears also on the whole in the Byzantine 

charms published by Vassiliev :'" rd aKa-dapra nvcvfiara, Si jiaoKavia tj tpap/iOKeia f) 
^^epiafioQ fj ^p'lKTi II TTvpeTOC fi Mjinvlov y avvavr^fia novripov y voaripuv ^ KCMpov Ij ru^/lov, — 

and so on with a list of diseases. Compare a papyrus list, in which are 
all celestial and terrestial spirits, sins, dreams, bans, witchcraft." 

This is the natural order of the evolution of magic: first the animistic 
fear of demons, then the opposition to mortals who have bound the evil 
spirits to their malicious purpose, finally the more exact diagnosis of the 
maladies which are specified in secular terms. At the end of the develop- 

* Fossey, La magie assyrienne, 161. 

• E. g. Surpu-itvxes, v, I. 55 ff., Zimmern, Beitrdge z. Kenntniss d. babylon. 
Religion, 23. 

'• Anecdoia graeco-bysantina, ':, 332. 

" Wessely, Vienna phil.-hist. Denkschriften, xxxvi, 81, 1. 1443- 



\ 



10 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

ment this last category may alone remain, as in the Babylonian medical 
texts or the modern Jewish and Arabic charms. It may here be remarked 
that the never-ending enlargement of categories of evil spirits, apart from 
eclectic causes, may be due to Persian influence, although hardly any of 
the details can be traced to that source. 

(I) 

(a) The most honorable place in the first division is to be assigned to 
the ancient gods and the spirits still haunting their temples, which the de- 
velopment of religion and especially the monotheistic trend had depotentized 
and turned into demons. The religion of yesterday becomes the superstition 
of to-day. Polytheism died hard. Even with the triumph of the One God 
in the Old Testament, there survived the belief in the many deities who 
appear as lieutenants of Yahwe, the D'npsn '33 (Job, i), as capable of 
disobedience and subject to divine wrath {Gen. 6: i ff., Ps. 82), as the 
planetary spirits (Dt. 32: 8 [Greek], Is. 24: 21 ff.), as angels, — a more 
thoroughgoing assimilation with monotheism, though the angels at first 
have an independence and sovereignty recalling the Sons of God (e. g. Dan. 
10: 13, 21, and Satan), or finally as evil spirits. The supreme declaration 
of Second Isaiah that the gods are naught and nothing, unfortunately was 
not sustained, and even onetime beneficent gods, when banished, returned 
as demons to vex the faithful. A classic expression of this demonology 
is found in Paul : "the things which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to 
demons { dai/iovloic ,) and not to God" (I Cor. 10: 20)." The fullest develop- 
ment of this theory is found in Mandaism, where the ancient spirits of the 
planets have become the chief devils. So also Mohammed reduced the 
pagan gods to Jinns. 

These discarded deities may therefore head the list of evil potencies, 
and so we find in 38: 8: "Charmed be all gods (N'niiK)" and temple-spirits 
and shrine-spirits and idol-spirits and goddesses (KriKnnDj?)." The old proper 
name of the goddess Istar had already in the Assyrian become a common 

" So D«S'S« had become Sam6via in the Septuagint, and cf. Baruch 4: 7: 
■KpocKweiv TO dai/j.6via koI to £ldu?.a (also Rev. 9- 20). 
" Cf. the Babylonian Hani limnuti. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 71 

name of goddesses in general (istarati)." In the heathen text No. 19 we 
learn of the sixty gods and the eighty goddesses (1. 8) ; the former figure 
is a survival of the ancient sacred number for the fulness of deity, hence 
the number of Anu ;" the "eighty" is merely cumulative." Once the rare 
feminine Knn^N (in the Syriac, Pesh., etc.) is found, used of a female 
spirit (Wohlstein, 2417: 5)." 

Probably it is under Mandaic influence that we find the planets re- 
garded as baneful spirits; n. b. the old myth of their fall cited in 4: 6 
and the charms against sun, moon, stars, planets, 34: 6. For other demons 
of Mandaic origin" see Pognon's list, Inscriptions Mandaites, 93 ; to these 
may be added from Ellis i : 3 J^TJ, the Mandaic form of Nergal = the 
unlucky planet Mars, and "i1t33N,'" who here is transformed into an evil 
genius." 

Under this head there is one interesting species, that of demons which 
are the spirits of the pagan shrines and simulacra, and so are regarded 
as haunting them.'' Again the forceful protest of Second Isaiah, of Ps. 115, 

" So Hani u. istarati. KAV, 180. Cf. Heb. tss mntPi", Dt. 7: 13, etc., of ewes. 
Also n. b. Ju. 2 : 13, with Moore's comment. 

" For the survival of this mystical number in Judaism, see Griinbaum, Zeits. f. 
Keilschr.-forsch., ii, 222. A list of 50 gods is given in one Babylonian hymn, see 
Reisner, Sumerisch-babylonische Hymnen, no. iv, 1. 152 ff. ; cf. the ^wr/iM-series 
(Zimmern, Beitrage), no. iv, 1. 68 ff., viii, I ff. Sometimes the number alone (6, 10, 
15, 60) sufficed by way of abbreviation ; Jastrow, Rel. Bab. u. Ass., i, 289. In No. 38 
are mentioned the 360 broods of evil spirits ; cf. the 366 Uthras in the Mandaic 
religion and the 360 gods which Islamic tradition claimed were housed at Mecca. 
According to Pesah. iiib, seq., a service tree near a city has not less than 60 demons 
in it. 

" According to old Semitic use, cf. Mic. 5: 4, Prov. 30: 15 ff. N. B. "the 7 sealers 
and the 8 brothers" in the Mandaic amulet published by Lidzbarski in the Florilegium 
to de Vogiie (1. 7 f.). Cf. 19: 4- 

" I find nrhit in Sayce-Cowley's Elephantine papyri, and two Nabataean inscrip- 
tions, see Lidzbarski's glossary ; also notice the Arabian goddess al-Lat, = the 
Babylonian Allat, goddess of the nether-world. For occurrence of rhn in Phoenician, 
see Baethgen, Beitrage, 58 f. 

" See Brandt, Mandiiische Religion, 43, n. 2. , 

" Brandt, ib., 51, 199; Mand. Schriften, 184. • 

" For a list of these planetary spirits in the Mandaic cf. Lidzbarski's amulet 
just cited, 1. 247 ff. 

" Cf. Origen, C. Celsum, vii, 35 and 64: the localities especially haunted by the 
demons are temples and shrines where they can enjoy the incense, biood, etc. Also 



72 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

the satire of Bel and the Dragon, had failed; there was a virtue in the 
cults and sanctuaries of the old religions. So the ekure appear in our 
bowls, as in the Mandaic books," as established deities. The word ekurru, 
once the name for a temple had already in the Assyrian become applied to 
deities, ekurrati." The temples themselves were personified and practically 
deified ;"* later superstition retained the idea by regarding the ekiire as the 
gods of the temples, and so as gods in general; e. g. Lidz., iv: Dica 
sna't Nniay pn'K', where as the number 60 shows, xmay = K'hIjn (cf. 
19: 8)."° Of like character are the nans, or na'ns , = nsTiKS (once, in 
Schwab Q: 5 npna),"' properly "images, idols," but used at large of gods 
in general ; e. g. we read of "invocations of the gods, 'S, and the goddesses."" 
There are 'B of the upper, lower and middle regions." In some of the lists 
they appear rather far down; e. g. 5: 2, nitji 'bi noNl 'ini 'TC ; cf. 
the Mandaic passage, quoted from the Ginza, in Pognon B, p. 75, where 
they occur after the demons, devils, spirits, amulets, liliths, being thus 
much reduced in grade. Levy translates the word by Gespenster;" in the 
eclectic magic of the time the word may have come to be identified with 
eUulov , ^ both phantasm or ghost, and idol." There is the distinction 

in the Talmud the reality of oracles at those shrines is admitted, although explained 
apologetically; see the argument in Aboda Z. S5a, cited by Joel, Der Aberglaube, 
i, p. 86. Cf. I Cor. 10: 28. 

" Brandt, Mand. Schriften, 81. 

" Delitzsch, Ass. Hwb., 21. 

" Reisner, Sum.-bab. Hymnen, iv, 1. 165 ; Jastrow, op. cit., i, 282. Beth-el 
appears in the same use in West Semitic: the god Bait-ile, KAT*, 437 f., the name 
Bethel-shar-ezer, Zech. 7 : 21 and now the many similar names in the new Elephantine 
papyri published by Sachau. 

" The word also survived in its original sense, e. g. Pognon, B, no. 13. 

" For the form, see Noldeke, Mand. Gram., § 25. 

"2:7, Lidz. 4, Wohls. 2422: 5. 

" Pogn. B, no. 25, erd. 

" ZDMG, ix, 467, n. 5. 

'° The Persian word was early introduced into the Occident. According to one 
MS. and Symmachus's testimony (margin of Cod. Marchalianus) Tzaraxpa (+ eifa/.a 
as gloss) translates the vn'^N of Is. 8: 21, where the unintelligible -arpm is generally 
found. See Nestle in Transactions of the IXth International Congress of Orientalists, 
(1892), ii, s8. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 73 

between male and female 'B : xmansi nans and srapiJ ['"Til^nB (Schwab 
I ).*"'■ 

I am inclined to associate with these patkaras the Kona of 38: 8 and 
40 : 19, where they are listed between the smsj; and Nns^ns or the xmay 
and 8n^5^nD'y. The word would then mean "shrine-spirits" (Syriac />^ro^ifea. 
Ass. parakku). The change of the first vowel (a to i) is possible." But 
another etymology may be proposed— from the Persian pairika = Pahlavi 
parik (the modern Persian Peri)." These creatures are described as beau- 
tiful seductive witches, are connected with comets, and also according to 
de Harlez are companions of certain genii invoked by magicians. Philologi- 
cally, this would be the most fitting etymology for our word; but its pre- 
cedence in the lists indicates a higher rank than that assigned to the little 
known (so Spiegel) and insignificant Pairikas. 

For the false gods also appears Nnj?D ,«nij?t3 (sing. 1J?to), = "error," 
— used like ^'^N, etc. in the Old Testament. 

(b) I pass now to those groups of demons which immemorially had 
stood as the evil spirits par excellence. Like the iitukki of the Babylonian 
religion" they mostly appear in tribal groups, without personal distinction. 
Most constant among these classes are the pVT and p'E' , which may be 
expressed by "devils and demons," with as much or as little of a definite 
idea as these English words convey to us. The DHB' occur in the Old 
Testament, the word having an obscure history in connection with the 
Assyrian sedu; in function the IK' is the Babylonian sedu limnu, "evil 
sedu."^ In the later Jewish demonology the pT'tr are the hobgoblins, the 

"* With 'D =r a deity or demon, cf. the use of a^ita, "tomb," as grave-demon; 
so in a Greek amulet published by Reitzenstein, Poimandres, 293, and see his note 2. 
Also in the Syriac »n'3J, "shrine" comes to mean a god, a false god, and in Peshitto 
of I Sa. 7 : 3 translates nnriB'V • In Islam the false gods were called asndm, "idolsj" 

" Cf. Noldeke, Gram. d. neu-syr. Sprache, § 6, or Mand. Gram., § 20; cf. 
ti3'n'Sn, 8: 3. Or an assimilation to Ni3>ne ? 

" See Spiegel, Eranische Alterthumskunde, ii, 138; A. V. W. Jackson in 
Geiger and Kuhn, Grundriss d. iranischen Philologie, iii, p. 665 ; C. de Harlez, Manuel 
du Pehlevi, 1880), s. v. in Glossary. 

" See, for the Babylonian demons, Fossey, La magie assyrienne, c. 2; Jastrow, 
Rel. Bab. u. Ass., i, c. xvi ; Thompson, Semitic Magic, 43 ff. 

** See, inter al., Baudissin, Studien s. sent. Religionsgeschichte, ii, 131, and his 
art. "Feldgeister," in Hauck's RE'; H. Duhm, Die bosen Geisler im Alter, Testament,. 



I 



74 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

prevailing class of demons ; they are the ^aifiovta of the Greek, for which the 
Peshitto returns to the Jewish term." 

As Judaism has its feminine niTC, so once we find reference to the 
sriN^JTtr , 7: 14.'" In II : 5 = 18: 4 = Ellis I, = Lidz. 5, we learn of a 
"king of demons and devils," with which compare Asmodaeus, the king of 
the demons." But in these texts his name is given as N31J3, NJNnJUX, 
which is found in 19: 10 as name of an evil deity (?X3n na), while the 
plural in the same text, 11. 6, 13, has evidently the meaning demons or 
deities. In a broken text (Pognon B. no. 24. 1. 19), a X'TBH N3^0 occurs. 
In 29: 9 the sedht are described as X71D '33, "sons of shadow," cf. the ^ibo 
of the Targum. 

The ]^Vt inherited a good name from the old Aryan theology (^ 
gods), were depotentized in the Persian system, and came into Semitic 
currency through the Mandaic and Syriac. (The word does not occur in 
Targums and Talmud.") In the Peshitto use of the term it appears to 
apply to the demons of mental and moral disorders, thus indicating some- 
thing distinct from the sedm.'° 

The "spirits" or "evil spirits" ( nv"i nn, Nnt"a Nnn, pe"3 I'mi — 
both masc. and fem.)" form a triad with the preceding species. Levy 

49, 20; Thompson, Semitic Magic, 43; and the discussions by the students of Assyrio- 
logical magic, Zimmern (Beitrdge and KAT"), Tallquist, Jastrow, Fossey. Fossey, 
p. 50, quotes IVR 6a, 26, to the effect that the sedu is the demon of the evil eye — 
another proof that demons and their functions were interchangeable. 

" For these and the following demoniac species in Judaism, see Eisenmenger, 
Entdecktes Judentum. ii, 408 ff. ; Grunbaum, in his admirable "Beitrage z. vergleich- 
enden Mythologie aus d. Hagada." in ZDMG, xxxi, — esp. 271 ff. ; Weber, JUdische 
Theologie, p. 242 ff. ; Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus, ii, 759 ff. ; Blau, Das 
altjiidische Zauberwesen, 10 ff. ; Levy, ZDMG, ix, 4S2 ; T. Witton Davies, Magic, 
Divination, and Demonology among the Hebrews and their Neighbors (London, n. 
d.) ; the art. "Demonology" in Jewish Encyc; Conybeare, "Demonology of the New 
Testament," JQR, viii, ix ; Everling, Die paulinische Angelologie u. Ddmonologie; 
also V. Baudissin and H. Duhm as cited above, note 34. 

" Cf. SaijiQve^ 6aift6viaaai, of the Leyden Papyrus, Dieterich, Abraxas, 194, 1. 10. 

" Also simply the king, saSrj , Eisenmenger, op. cit., ii, 422 (a tradition of the 
"Molek" of the Old Testament?). 

" According to Levy, not found in Jewish literature, op. cit., 488. 

" Ace. to Baudissin, op. cit., 131, the Harclean version replaces Vittv of the 
Peshitto w. !*in . 

" Cf. Ellis 5 : 4, napji -lat . 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 75 

and Blau regard them as ghosts/' but without warrant, as the Rabbinic, 
Syriac and Mandaic use of the word shows. They are the Trvei/ia-a mvr/pd , or 
aiea^apra of the New Testament, the equivalent of the Babylonian utukki 
limuuti. This development of mi we may trace in the Old Testament 
where "a spirit of evil," "the evil spirit," appears as an agent of Jahwe ; 
like the Satan such potencies easily passed into malicious demons. 

The Maszikm which are prominent in Jewish lore, where they are 
the general category for all demons," appear but seldom. 

These devils, demons and evil spirits in their juxtaposition recall the 
several species so frequently enumerated in Babylonian demonology; e. g. 
as listed more than once in the Maife/M-series, the utukku, sedu, rdbisu, 
ekimmii, labartn, labasu, abhazii, followed by the liliths." But beyond the 
registration of several categories there is no equivalence in name (with one 
exception), in definite character." A certain amount of distinction can be 
drawn in the Babylonian field, but in our texts no differentiation exists. 
Indeed the three species are rather tokens of the several sources of our 
particular magic, the Hebrew (nil), Babylonian (It?*), Persian (NVl). 
The only reference to the "seven spirits" of Babylonian magic is in con- 
nection with the Nn?33D (see below). 

But it is the Liliths which enjoy the greatest individual vogue in our 
demonology. Many of the charms culminate in that objective ; the other 
evil spirits are most often merely generical, anonymous, to whom the 
general compliment of a spell must be paid, but the Liliths are definite 
terrors, whose malice is specific and whose traits and names are fully 
known. 

*' 0pp. cit.. p. 482, p. 14. The view that demons were ghosts of the dead indeed 
existed; see Justin Martyr, ApoL, i, c. 18 and for later Judaism, Eisenmenger, ii, 427. 
They may have been specialized as the spirits of demoniac possession and moral 
temptation (see Blau). For the relation of 1'"^"^ and nveiftaTa , see Baudissin in 
Hauck's RE', vi, 12 f. 

" So Weber, Blau. 

" Tallquist, Die ass. Beschworungsserie Maqlu, 1894, no. i, 1. 136, v. 1. 77, N. B. 
just seven species. 

" For the distinctions between the Babylonian spirits, see Jastrow, op. cit., i, 278; 
Thompson, Devils, i, xxiv, Semitic Magic, i, Fossey, op. cit., c. 2. 



76 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

The genus appears in the Babylonian incantations, as masculine and 
feminine, lilu and lilit, along with an ardat lili." The two former words 
survived in Jewish demonology and both occur abundantly in our bowls, 
though the Lilin are only pendants to the Liliths. The origin of the word, 
whether Semitic from yb = "nightmare, nighthag," etc. with Schrader, 
Halevy, et al., or from the Sumerian lil, "storm," with Sayce," Zimmern," 
R. C. Thompson," lies beyond my present scope. Probably as others have 
suggested, the resemblance of Sumerian lil to T? , "night," may have had its 
part in shaping the phantom of Lilith and her troop among Semitic-speaking 
peoples ; but I would suggest that the prime connection is not etymological 
but semantic: lil = wind = nn = spirit;" Lilis and Liliths are specialized 
forms of fmi.'" 

In the Babylonian the Lilith (ardat lili) is the ghostly paramour of 
men, and her realm is the sexual sphere ; hence women in their periods 
and at childbirth, maidens, children, are the special objects of her malice." 
Hence in the bowl inscriptions, made out for the protection of homes and 
the peace of family life, most often in the name of the women concerned, 
it is an amulet against these noxious spirits that is particularly desired. 
We may say that the Lilis and Liliths are the demons of the family life. 

Texts Nos. I, 6, 8, g, ii, 17, may be referred to especially for the 
Liliths. They haunt the house, i : 6, lurk in the arches and thresholds, 6 : 4, 
one dwells in the house concerned, 11:5. So in the Talmud they dwell in 
the beams and crevices, the cesspools, etc.," even as in Greek magic demons 

" Ace. to Zimmern, KAT', 459 = paramour of lilu. Better Thompson. (.Devils, 
etc., i, p. xxxvii, Semitic Magic, 65), who regards the ardat lili as the more 
specialized (e. g. marriageable) hlith, hence the original of the Jewish Lilith. 

■" Hibbert Lectures, 145. 

" KAT', 460, n. 7. 

" Semitic Magic, 66: if Semitic, from root iiS"?, "be abundant, lascivious." 

" Cf. nn in Job 4: 15; the wind-draught easily passes into a ghost. 

•" The single appearance of Lilith in the Old Testament, Is. 34: 14, represents a 
more primitive stage of the fable than the Babylonian Liliths. She is just one of 
the spirits haunting waste ruins. 

" See Thompson, I. c. et seq., who discusses the demonology of marriages with 
Jinns, etc. 

" Jewish Encyc, iv, 516b.— In 29: 6 f. (cf. 1. 9) occurs STtrai KnB»3 «n''7'S, "the 
evil and the decent lilith"; this recalls the good demons of Jewish lore, J'aits Vt^V, 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 77 

are given the like habitat." In No. i they are described as generating off- 
spring with human folks, appearing as phantom men and women to women 
and men by night. Hence the interesting phenomenon of the magic get, di- 
vorce-writ, by which the sorcerer, like a Jewish rabbi, separates these obscene 
beings from their prey." Especially do they vent their rage on little 
children as the detested offspring of human wedlock; they plague them, 
throttle and devour them, suck their blood (e. g. ii : 8, i8: 6, 36: 9, Lidz. 
5). The name for one of these demons, in No. 36, is "Murderess daughter 
of Murderess," and "strangler." In the Jewish demonology the Liliths have 
the like fiendish character; Bcmidbar Rabba 16 affirms that they kill chil- 
dren." In No. II the Lilith is associated with the personifications of 
barrenness and abortion. The figure on No. 8 gives the picture of a typical 
obscene Lilith ; she is depicted with loose tresses, one of the characteristics 
of the species, cf. 8: 3; cf. Nidda 24b, Erub. loob. The later Lilith thus 
partakes of the nature of the elder lilit and of the Labartu, the enemy of 
children." 

The Liliths are intimately known, their own and their parents', even 
the granddam's names are given, e. g. Nos. 8, 11. At the beginning of 
Wohlstein's text 2416 (= Stiibe) a whole brood of demons is named." 
Especially in the case of this species most exact descriptions are given of 
their foul ways and apparitions," for the Liliths were the most developed 
products of the morbid imagination — of the barren or neurotic woman, 



Eisenmenger, ii, 431 f., and the good and bad sedu of the Babylonian — also so the 
utukku, Fossey, op. cit., 449. 

" Wessely, xlii, 66, 1. 19: they are bidden "not to hide in this earth nor under 
the bed or gate or beams or vessels or holes." 

" See to 8: 7. The separation had to be legally effected, for the Lilith had her 
nuptial rights or powers. Cf. the tales of the female Jinns in Arabic folklore. 

" Cited by Weber, ofi. cit., 255. So also in the Testament of Solomon, ed. 
Conybeare, JQR, xi, 16. But not in the Talmud, according to Griinbaum, Zeits. f. 
Keilschr.-Forsch., ii, 226. 

" See Myhrman, ZA, xvi, 147 ff. 

" See Wohlstein's note; the mother's name 'D'», "little mother," throws light 
on a passage in Pesah. 112a. In general these names are epithetical; cf. the demon 
Ahriman bar Lilit, B. Bath. 73a. 

" See above. 



78 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYU)NIAN SECTION. 

the mother in the time of maternity, of the sleepless child." Somewhat of 
the elder and biblical notion of the Lilith as denizen of the desert appears 
in the expressions Kiai NDJa, n"i3T tt'^'^, 17: 3, 27: 7.'" 

A further development of the Lilith is her assimilation with the witch ; 
the descriptions of the species in the Mandaic bowls recall the uncanny 
scenes of the witches' nights which are the theme of still existent folklore. 
The Lilith is the Baskania, (i. e. witchery) of the Greek charms." The 
epithets "cursing," and "undoing," e. g. 34: 13, belong to this phase of the 
Lilith-idea. 

Very interesting is the similarity of the Semitic Lilith, and in course 
of time her assimilation to the psychological horrors which haunted men 
elsewhere, especially to the identical forms in the Graeco-Roman denion- 
ology. I refer to the Lamia," the Empusa," the Gello," the Marmolyke 
and Gorgons, and the incubi and siiccubae." In connection with the text 
No. 42 which presents the legend of the Lilith-witch, I take occasion to 
present the parallel forms of this conception as found in the western 
world. This developed myth is a later accretion to the ancient inchoate 
ideas of these monsters. 



" For the psychological basis and subjective fact of these apparitions, see 
Roscher, "Ephialtes" c. i, in Abhandlimgen of the Saxon Academy of Sciences, vol. 
XX (1900). 

* Cf. ekimmu harbi, Maklu-strits iv, 1. 22 (Tallquist, p. 66), and the exorcism, 
"evil spirit to thy desert," Thompson, Devils, i, 152, ii, 26; cf. i, 167, 191 ff. The 
banning of the demons into the desert and mountains (cf. Mf. 12: 43) is frequent in 
the magical papyri, e. g. in an amulet published by Reitzenstein, Poimandres, 294: 
Iva airiMare h ayptoic optatv koI cKdae (pvyaSev&f/acTe . Cf. Wohlstein 2422 (1. 28), 
"go and fall on the mountains and heights and the unclean beasts." As Wohlstein 
notes, the latter clause is a most interesting commentary on the anecdote of the 
Gadarene devils which asked the liberty to enter the swine. Mi. 8: 28, etc. 

" See at length under No. 42. 

°" Daremberg and Saglio, Dictionnaire, s. v. 

" Pauly-Wissowa, RE, s. v. 

°* For Gello as a lilith-name and as probably equal to Ass. gallu, see notes to 
No. 42. 

" For the iiicubi see Roscher, Ephialtes, 60. The special demon which is the 
subject of this classic treatise corresponds to the male Lili of our texts, but his 
vogue is far more extended. He is in form goat, satyr, faun, etc., a rural as well as 
a domestic terror. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 79 

A long list of species of demons still remains to be considered, most 
of which are not much more than names. One of the most frequent and 
evidently most dreaded is the class of the I'bnD or Nn^Dnc. Once they 
are spoken of as the "seven 'O of night and day," i6 : 7, recalling the Seven 
Spirits of Babylonian mythology." Stiibe (p. 59) suggests derivation from 
P33, "bind," and Myhrmann (p. 350) compares Assyrian kabalu used in 
incantations. I venture to suggest metaplasis with the Syriac lab, "hold, 
seize," i. e. "take demoniac possession of," so that we may compare this 
species with the Babylonian ahazzu." Cf. Ka-a?.a/ifidvetv ^ Mk. 9: 18, and the 
terms naTex^iitvoi and Karoxot. indicative of supernatural possession." 

There are the evil angels,™ who are called J'trnp ^ sacri, in 4 : i ; the 
"angels of wrath and the angels of the house of assembly."" We read 
of the NOK^D "txi , 37 : 8, rites in which angels were bound to hellish 
operations. The word is used of pagan deities in 36: 5 (cf. 19: 13), even 
as hyytloi appears in the papyri." The angel of death who shudders at 
the Great Name appears in 3 : 6, Schwab F. 

"The Satan" appears and also "the Satans," as in Enoch (40: 7) and 
Rabbinic" and Arabic lore. There is no amplification of the doctrine of 

" Cf. Thompson, Semitic Magic, 47. 

" Ibid., p. 43, etc. 

" See Tambornino, De antiquo daemonismo, 56. 

" Cf. Mt. 25: 41, Rev. 12: 7, "the devi! and his angels," and the absoUite use of 
the word in this sense in I Cor. 11: 10, with reference to the myth in Gen. 6. Blau 
notes, without citation, an evil spirit iSnpn nil, p. 10, n. 2. For evil angels, see Volz, 
JUdische Bschatologie, § 23. 

" Wohlstein 2422. The editor makes no comment on this or the parallel phrase 
in 1. 7: nnvis ri'an no'K. ncn evidently equals ^ivhn (see below, note 112). The 
"house of assembly" recalls the ancient Semitic idea of the "lyio "in, Is. 14: 13, the 
assembly of the gods on the Semitic Olympus, — Walhalla having become a conventicle 
of demons! (Demons are located in the north by Jewish legend, Pirke R. Eliezer, 
iii, and other reff., in Eisenmenger, op. cit., ii, 438.) Or '3 'a = amaywyti, cKKXriala, 
may refer to the conventicle of a magical cult (cf. "the synagogue of Satan," Rev. 
2:9). But the phrase is probably to be interpreted from a passage in a "Christian" 
amulet published by Reitzenstein, op. cit., 295, top : dpKil^u v/ia^ ra haxdaca i^r/Kovra 
TTvedftara r^f €KK?.^ffia^ rov Trovypov. 

" E. g. Dieterich,^ fcraxoj, 192, 1. 10; so also in the LXX, e. g. Ps. 96: 7, and an 
inscription cited by Cumont Oriental Religions, n. 38, p. 266: diis angelis. 

" Deharim R., c. 11: "Sammael the head of all the Satans," quoted by Weber, 
Jiid. TheoL, 253. 



80 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

the individual Satan. Once with the Satans (35: 4) are associated the 
Jio-tiiD and xbiasn, the former a class of seducing spirits (metaplasm of 
V SCD ?)," the latter the almost unique Semitic transliteration of iiafioloi. 
In 2 : 3 are mentioned the 'aan^'yai '3D, the Fiends and Foes. 

The PP'T" appear in association with the I'P'tB. The Rabbinic and 
Syriac Np'T is a meteor, blast of wind, etc. ; in the Mandaic it has the more 
general sense of a plague." The Mandaic has inherited an old Babylonian 
idea of the cakiku, "blast," as a demon, and then death-demon." The 
Satyrs, D''"i''j?B> , appear once, 5 : 4, a reminiscence, as the form shows, of 
the Old Testament." The \'-\\nti' of Schwab G are black devils; cf. the 
title of Satan o/ic^-of, in Epistle of Barnabas, 4: 9. 

In Hyvernat's text occurs the phrase mobn tiTi, which Griinbaum 
most plausibly translates "the Jinn of Solomon."" The word would then 
be one of a few terms in our texts which suggest Arabic connections (see 
KD'J^t;', \''P^<y. below). But the reserve is to be made that, as Noldeke 
maintained, the root is common-Semitic, and the spread of the word may 
well have antedated the Muslim Conquest. We may compare the god 
Gennaios cited by Cumont in Pauly-Wissowa, vii. 1174. The in:: of 37 : 6 
is to be explained from the Mandaic KlJU (Syriac ^^^13 Arabic jund), 
"troop" ; devils molest their victims in bands, cf. the name "Legion" 
assumed by the demoniac in the Gospel, and the "tribes" (snaiic) of 
demons in 38: 6; also cf. 13: i. 

" Cf. I Tim. 4. I, "seducing spirits and doctrines of devils." 
" So probably read forTpJ? in Hyvernat, 1. 4; in 19: 13, 'pi'T. 
" Norberg, Lexidion, 55. 

" Muss-Arnolt, Diet., ad voc, cf. the sunu sikiku, "roaming windblast," Thomp- 
son, Devils, ii, 4, 1. 27. For the simile of demons to storms, see ibid., i, 89, and 
compare the etymology of lilith (see above). For the word see 12: 8. 

" But the idea of the hairy goatlike demon which obsesses its victim with 
mischievous or obscene purpose is universal. Cf. the Arabic ifrit, asabb, with the 
same root-meaning; Wellhausen, Reste des arabischen Heidentums, 135; Baudissin, 
Studien, i, 136. The same phenomenon is abundantly vouched for in the Greek 
demonology ; see Roscher, Ephialtes, 29 f., for the goatlike form of the Ephialtes, 
and p. 62 for its epithet pilosus; and compare Pan and the Fauns. See Roscher, note 
28sb, for similar representations in the superstition of India. In 5 ; 4 the satyrs are 
represented as haunting a particular stretch of road. 

" Probably to be read in 37 : 10. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 81 

In 15: 6 and Myhrman 1. 2 are found the piiT. The second n 
is sure in my text; Jastrow's and Levy's lexicons give the word as a 
variant to Kin\ "ostrich." but doubtless the former is the correct spelling;" 
the root is onomatopoetic (cf. bb\ and English "howl" and "roar"), con- 
noting a howling creature and was applied to the ostrich — so the Tosefta 
(see Jastrow) ; but in the Targums it generally translates the Hebrew D"V, 
D'Jn, the uncanny creatures typical of desolation. In the Syriac, NniT 
is jackal, translating D'Jn. But the Rabbinic references indicate that it 
was rather a fabulous than a zoological species, akin to the liliths, satyrs 
and vampires that haunt ruins, and this connotation appears in the Syro- 
hexaplar to /j. 34: 17. translating ri'^'b by NIIT , while Symmachus gives 
>a/iia ." This equation gives the key to our present word. The Babylonians 
represented their demons in uncouth shapes of birds and animals.*" 

Besides the use of certain generic terms, such as SOE'V, "oppressors," 
there remain several rare or obscure species: the '3137, also UXob, probably 
metaplastic for battala, "undoer" ; the XJKD^i (alongside NJNtDD) No. 20, 
probably from root Or? "curse."" or a form of the Targumic X3^t3, "shade- 
demon." The ptSSE' in Hyvernat. 1. 3, for which Grunbaum (p. 221) cites 
the Arabic sifilt, species daemonis, is probably to be read pt33B', "plagues" 
(see p. 80). For the 'D'J, possibly "familiar spirits," see to 6: 2. 

There are also names of individual demons. Some can be identified : 
the Kn'BOn, corresponding to the Arabic ghiil (see to 8: 2) ; in a depo- 
tentized deity.'' Some are recognizable epithets : Siax 3 : 2, syano 37 : 10, 
'TIC Schw. F. Others defy etymology: nipmpntJ'K Pogn. B, npDT 34: 10 
(q. V. for a possible interpretation). ^r\Ti 3 : 2, n'vion Schw. G.Long lists of 
such obscure names are found in Schwab F and G ; these are probably on a 



" According to Jastrow, Lagarde's editions of the Targums have everywhere this 
form ; \'h\h^ appears as a variant in one place. 

" See Field's Hexapla. N. B. the interpretations of the uncanny creatures in 
this passage as demons by both the Greek and the Targum. 

"" This word is to be distinguished from I'll, an eye-disease (see below) ; 
because of the uncertainty of the spelling of the two words the 'I'll at end of 
Schw. G may be the one or the other word. 

" Cf. the Syriac SJIKB'. 

" Sttibe, 1. 4. See Pognon, Inscriptions simitiques, 82; Clay, Anmrru, 162. 



82 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

par with the mystical names of the angels (see § 13)." Finally we may 
note the blanket- formulas for demons who are named and who are not 
named, and which have their parallel in the Babylonian," and in the Greek 
magic." 

There are comparatively few certain references to ghosts; the P'^^"'. 
etc., as spirits of the dead, may include them." One case in point is found 
in No. 39: "charmed the With that appears to her .... [in some shape] ; 
charmed the Hlith that appears to her in .... [the shape of ?] Tata her 
niece; charmed all the defiling ghosts, NnsiOT, that have entered, which 
appear to her in dreams of nights and visions of day." Here a definite 
ghostly apparition is really a diabolic delusion. Also Nos. 20, 25 contain 
general charms against ghosts. One technical term for ghost possibly ap- 
pears, Kn^JpC (see to 8: 2). The last of Wohlstein's series, 2422, appears 
to be directed against ghosts and is an interesting example of necromantic 
spell. Familiar names are given to the spirits and they are cajoled to do no 
harm. Also in Wohlstein, no. 2422 appears the iri'D ni s<")3'p nu nn. 
There is constant reference to dreams (KO^J'n) and apparitions ( xnim, 
Krtn)," which are the milieu of demoniac and ghostly apparitions, cf. 7: 
13; hence ''tP^iV 'n , "disturbing dreams," in which phrase the noun is 
practically personified — a category of evil spirits. We have such a com- 
bination as: S''Jirni Knsien S'lKin (Pognon A), in which nn are impure 
conceptions of the night (cf. D^n in Syriac) ; the second word, which 
Pognon does not explain, is doubtless the Talmudic ^11t^', "leaper," exactly 
the Ephialtes of the Greeks, a kind of incubus." This distinction of the 
dream from ghost or demon represents a later psychology. Charms against 
dreams are frequent in the Greek papyri; thus against bveipov^ ^piKTovc,^ 

" This giving of unintelligible names to demons may be in imitation of Persian 
diabolology ; see Jackson in Geiger and Kuhn, Grundriss d. iranischen Philologie, 
iii, 659, listing 54 individual demon names. 

" Thompson, Devils, i, 153. 

" E. g. 6atft6vwv KOI /til ovo/ia!;6ficvov , Pradel, Griech. u. sudital. Gebete, 22, 1. 2. 

*" For a typical Babylonian incantation against ghosts, see Thompson, Devils, i, 



37- 



" For oneirolog}' in later Judaism, see Joel, Der Aberglaube, i, 103. 
" See Roscher, Ephialtes, especially p. 48 f. for the etymology. 
" Wessely, xlii, 31, top. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 83 

or a ^vXaKTi/piov GijfiaT0^v?.a^ wpo^ da'ifwvag^ Trpof ^avTafffiara, -Kph^ Tzdaav v6aov Kal 

ffdiJof ;*" another against enemies, robbers, etc. and ipA^ov^ and (pavrdafiara oveipuv." 
These dreams and the similar panic fears of day and night are also referred 
to in extenso in Gollancz's Syriac charms.. 

(2) 

Respectable or "white" magic includes not merely the laying of evil 
spirits but counter magic" against the machinations of hostile sorcerers. 
Just so the Babylonian Makln-str'its devotes itself to the rites of destroying 
the witch by means of simulacra which are consumed in the fire ; the 
Greek magic has the same defensive purpose. The Mandaic texts recall 
somewhat of the ancient dread of witches with their description of those 
uncanny and obscene persons, and, as I have noted above, the witch and 
the lilith are practically identified. 

It was most efficacious if the sorcerer were known so that he could 
be named and the "tables turned" upon him by casting upon him his malign 
arts, for no curse "returns empty." Such a case appears in Schwab G; 
all the evils that have fallen on the victim are bidden to fall on the head 
of NDK 13 N1D1K. But examination of the name reveals that it is fictitious; 
NiWK means "spellbinder" and KDN simply means "mother." The writer of 
the bowl has satisfied his client by assuming that he knows the adverse 
sorcerer's name. It is nothing else than the legal "John Doe." In like man- 
ner, in Wohlstein 2416, all evil works, etc., are commanded to return 
against their instigator. 

But inasmuch as the sorcerer's names are not generally known, the 
incantations content themselves with listing the various kinds of magical 
practices and putting them under the potent spell. The Surpu-stnts 
illustrates the prophylactic practice; for instance, its third tablet" is con- 

" lb., 42. 

" lb., 64. Dream-magic was highly developed among the Greeks; we have 
charms for sending dreams, bvetpoTro/nroi , e. g. Dieterich, op. cit., 191, 1. 15. Magic 
is required as an antidote. Hence dreams are listed with other maleficent agencies, 
e. g. : TTvevfiara x^^iivm, a/iapriai, dvetpoi, bpnoi, fJaoKavta; Wessely, xxxvi, 8l, 1. 8l. 

" Probably technically expressed by 1'^3'p. 

" Zimmern, Beitrage, 13. 



84 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYU)NIAN SECTION. 

cerned with breaking every possible kind of ban (matnit) that may have 
befallen a person. Hence a recurring phrase in the praxis of the fifth 
tablet: "may the curse, the ban, the pain, the misery, the sickness, the 
grief, the sin, the misdeed, the impiety, the transgression, the sickness, 
which is in my body, be peeled off like this onion." We mark here the 
union of curses, etc. with evils of the flesh, just as they occur in our bowls. 
Accordingly we find exorcism effected with this prudent intention 
against papo, etc. ;"" rcnn (+ i'E"3)," "black arts," perhaps generally 
with the sense of poisoning, = ipapfiaKOTroiiaf- xnno, "sorceries," 39: 4;°* 
ND'lp, "invocations." (the singular ri'^ip in 16: 10), the iTriK/f/nFic or icpol 
Uym of maleficent magic," also termed the 'pT xbpna. There are the 
various terms or kinds of curses, the mamit of the Babylonian, the op'"" 
of the Greek magic ; the Nnt21^, especially in Pognon's Mandaic bowls, 
where the authors of these bans are specified, e. g. no. 15: father, mother, 
prostitute, foetus, laborer, master who has defrauded him. brothers ; also 
the frequent nT'J, maleficent "vows" and the XO'in, which is the Syriac 
Christian equivalent of avh^tfia, perhaps also Ti^K (Wohlstein, 2426: 5)." 
This listing of the bans and their originators has its abundant parallel in 
the Babylonian magic; e. g. the third tablet of the .$i<r/)«-series, already 
cited, in which all possible kinds and origins of curse are listed in 165 
lines: of father, mother, grandfather, grandmother, brother, sister, etc., 
posterity, infant." The unborn child, naturally regarded as homeless and 
miserable, hence a malignant wraith, is classed in the Babylonian magic 

°" For this and following technical names for sorcery, see § 11, beginning. 

** Cf. the Latin equivalents, nefaria sacra, maleficia. artes nefandae, malae artes; 
see Abt, Die Apologie des Apuleius, 30. 

" So in the Syriac, also in 7 : 13. But ^apiiuKov survived in a good sense in 
literature with magical tinge, e. g. in no. 30 of Bishop Serapion's prayers, "Thy name 
be a (p. for health and soundness." For an extensive discussion of the word, see 
Abt, Apuleius, 112. It is formally impossible to distinguish between the words 
"sorcerers" and "sorceries," except in the Mandaic. Cf. the use of the adjective 
KrtJiw, 3g: 6. 

" For these words see the convenient summary in T. W. Davies, Magic, Divin- 
ation and Denionology among the Hebrews and their Neighbors, 44 ff. 

" See above, § 11. Pognon was the first correctly to interpret this term, B, p. 19. 

" In 2 : 6 we find KfiOinN, xriDtS", Kni'tJ, used of the "white magician's" own work. 

" A similar list in Ellis 3 = Schwab B. In the later magic these classes are 
listed in exorcism of the evil eye. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 85 

as in the Mandaic citation with the causes of ban, and so too the hierodule 
or prostitute."" The difference between the Babylonian mamit and these 
Nntsib is that the former has rather the sense of taboo, the latter of a 
malicious curse effected under foul auspices."" 

Then there are the "names," e. g. i6: 8. snnDit?, of hostile invocations,'" 
and the ^^''12, "words," curse formulas, including the informal imprecation. 
Compare "the evil word" of the witch in Babylonian magic,"" and the 
current Babylonian phrase, "the evil mouth, the evil tongue, the evil lip."'"* 
The Talmud has the principle, "None open his mouth to Satan.""" By a 
natural passage of thought the tongue and the mouth come in for exorcism, 

e. g. : "Bound and held be the mouth, and bound the tongue, of curses 

Bound be the tongue in its mouth, held be its lips, shaken .... the teeth 
and stopped the ears of curses and invocations.""" The binding of the 
tongue is a frequent element in the Greek magic ; some thirty of the KardSeafioi 
in "VViinsch's Appendix of defixiones to the Corpus Inscript. Attic, are for 
binding this "unruly member.""" 

Further objects of exorcism are the Ml, "mysteries," the sacramental 
rites of maleficent cults; the NmODN (Stiibe, 1. 2) and nos (Wohlstein, 
2426: 5), enchantments effected by priests (pon)."" A unique word in 
its use in the bowls is snobtTK, found coupled with the above terms. Halevy 
and Wohlstein"" compared form IV of the Arabic verb and rendered it as 
a delivery to evil. But it is to be compared with the Targumic IDPt^N, used 

*" Jastrow, op. cit., i, 367, 373. 

"" So the Greek Karaieafioc , and the Jewish collection of charms in Thompson, 
"Folk Lore of Mossoul," PSBA, xxviii-ix. 

"° Cf. the names of Hecate in the Greek Karadea/iot, e. g. Wiinsch, Antike 
Fluchiafeln, no. i. 

"" See Jastrow, op. cit., i, 285. 

"* Fossey, op. cit., 50, with citations. 

"* Berak. 19a, 60a, Ketub. 8b; see Joel, Der Aberglauhe, i, 70 (but rationalizing), 
and Blau, op. cit., 6i,^with Talmudic instances. 

'"• L-dz., 4. 

'^ Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East, 307. An amulet of later age 
(Reitzenstein, Poimandres, 295) analyzes the evil tongue into the lie, accusation, 
magic, sycophancy. 

'"' So rightly Stiibe; the heathen priest was, and at last appeared exclusively 
to be, a magician. On the second of Wiinsch's Fluchtafeln is the design of an altar. 

*" Comptes rendus, IV, v, 292; ZA, viii, 336. 



86 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

in Targ. Jer. to Lev. 8: 28, etc., in sense of dedication, = nun. Its counter- 
part is found in the Mandaic system, where the N'^ND^tr are the rf^.e^i,"" 
and it is the exact equivalent of the Greek rt^fr//, the (magic) rites."' Also 
the usual terms, the "'"1D''N,"' the "h^p, "countercharms," the "'lU'p, etc., all 
are listed for exorcism. 

More obscure are the NmnD (Ellis 3: 10) = "hidden arts" — with 
which may be possibly compared the Kmitf of Schwab R, and Wohlstein, 
2426: 6."' Also the snBip''B' (once KnsipntJ'K ) have aroused question. 
Schwab proposed fipt^, "envisager," of the evil eye; Stube, Wohlstein, 
Lidzbarski, connect with the root "to knock", (cf. flpC used of a Lilith, 
11: 6)."' This meaning is corroborated by the amulet of Lidzbarski's just 
cited, where it is parallel to X3"in and X'"ip(l. 11 ff +), wasting and mishap. 
But from its peculiar intensive form I think the word must have some con- 
nection with magic arts ; cf. the modern spiritualistic knockings and 
rappings. 

Probably the exorcism in the fragment published by Schwab, PSBA, 
xii, 299, from sin and guilt (KHNtin, KO'trx), immediately after "arts" and 

"" Brandt, Mand. Rel, 120, 170; Mand. Schr., 8, n. 5, 36, n. i; Noldeke, Mand. 
Gram., p. xxviii. 

'" Dieterich, Abraxas, 136. Stiibe (p. 37) first offered the explanation given 
above. Pognon discusses an obscure phrase in his bowls tliKnaScMi '"is'nc (B, p. 49), 
translating "and their adherents." Lidzbarski treating the same phrase (Bph. i, 94) 
rightly takes exception to such a form and translates, "I deliver them," which is 
unsatisfactory. Probably our noun is to be understood here, reading the nominal 
suffix 11 — for the verbal jw — . Our word may be a translation of the Greek ts^^tt); 
but n. b. Robertson Smith's note on the mystery idea involved in aslama (he might 
have added the Hebrew B'oSe'), Rel. Sem., 80. 

'" Noldeke, Z. f. Keils.-forsch., ii, 299, animadverting upon Hyvernat holds that 
KID'K, translated "prince, angel," always means "charm." Now the parallelism in 
Wohlstein 2422 between «nB»33 M'an nD'K, 1. 7, and '3 '3T '3«Sd, 1. 15 (see above, 
n. 70), appears to approve Hyvernat, while in the Talmud '(* = "genius, angel" 
(e. g. >3lTon '«, angel of nourishment). But Noldeke's etymology is doubtless right; 
a genius to be invoked was himself called an incantamentum. A proof of this is 
found in the Mandaic amulet published by Lidzbarski in the •Plorilegium dedicated 
to de Vogije, p. 349, in 1. 29 f. (not understood by the editor — cf. 1. 210), where Hibel 
Ziwa is the Ktacm »iq;i, "the True Charm"; 'i = «1B'P = «"iD'K. Cf. the Mandaic 
genius "Great Mystery." 

"' Wohlstein : "bose Schickungen" ; or it may be related to Assyrian satdru, 
sadaru, "write," of a written charm. 

"' So in a Babylonian text, of demons : "The man they strike, the women they 
hit," Fossey, op. cit., 282. 



J. A. MONTGOMBRY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 87 

"vows," with which compare the tJ^a Dyt5'K in his text M i8, is exercised 
against practices which magically placed "sin" on the shoulders of some 
innocent person. Compare the symbol in Zecharia's vision of the removal 
of wickedness and its curse to the land of Shinar {Zech. 5). But there 
is doubtless a reminiscence here of the old Babylonian forms in which a 
sense of personal guilt appears in the incantations ; so frequently in tablets 
5 and 6 of the ^wr/iM-series, e. g. 5, 1. yy fT., where the summary is made of 
"the curse, the ban, the pain, the misery, the sickness, the ailment, the sin 
{ami), the misdeed (serti), the offence (hablati), the transgression 
(hititi)." The above would be the only case then of a sense of sin in 
our texts, but from the point of view that the sin has been inspired by a 
demoniac force. Heitmiiller pertinently remarks:"" "Die Siinde ist ein Art 
Besessenheit." And so sins are listed in the Greek objects of exorcism, e. g. 

nvel'/iara ;|;i9(5)'ia, a/iapriat, oveipoi, bpnoi, (iacKaviai."^ 

The malice (s'nro = unsJD) of Lidz. 4 is the enmity which magic 
could conjure up against an enemy, a dreaded means of revenge, and very 
frequent in ancient magic. Compare the Jewish charms from Mossoul 
having this specific object,"' and for the Greek world the Cypriote leaden 
tablets published by Miss L. MacDonald,"' in which the gods are constantly 
invoked to suppress the wrath and anger and power and might of the 
adversary."* A tablet to provoke such malice against an enemy is no. 2 
in Wunsch's small collection."" The B"3 ^'n or rB"3 Vn (30: 4) is a 
summing up or personification of all this kind of evil potency. 

Particularly dreaded were the material means of sorcery, amulets, etc., 
which themselves came to be personified into evil spirits. The most 
frequent of these objects of exorcism are the nDin (sing. Nmoin),™ small 
stones, beads, etc., carried singly, or on strings and necklaces, primarily 
used as amulets, but coming to possess at least in the Mandaic superstition 

"• Op. cit., 307. 

"' Wessely, xxxvi, 81, 1. 1443 ff. (the Paris Papyrus). 

"' Thompson, PSBA, xxviii, 106, 108, etc. 

"* lb., xiii, 160. 

"* Cf. the charm in Wessely, xlii, 60 f. 

"• See the editor's comment, p. 8. 

*" For their character as spirits, see Noldeke, Mand. Gram., 76. 



88 UNIVBRSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

a baneful influence."' We might think of the manipulation of, for instance, 
an opal to bring another ill-luck ; but probably the objects are more obscene, 
joints of dead men's bones, etc. Their standing epithet is "impious," — 
an^iT't 'n , and we read of their "tongue," e. g. 2 : 7.'"" The NDpJj; , "neck- 
lace charms" are exorcised in like manner,"* also the pa't? (15 : 6, q. v.) ;"' 
NS^3 , "pebble," Ellis 3: 11, would belong to the same class, but it is prob- 
ably to be read XDiD. 

The magic bowls themselves are among the evil influences (7: 13, 
perhaps Ellis /. c), and so the magic knots, 'icp , 7: 13, and np'v (?) 
34: 10. There is one reference to the magic circle of the doctors of sorcery, 
X'JKm nstn,"" and to the use of wax, NTp, both in 39: 7 (q. v.). The 
'i"iD of 7: II (q. V.) and the ''bi'M of Pognon B, no. 27, may be explained 
like "iNtn = circles. The 'S'T of 7: 13 (q. v.), entered between the "arts" 
and "bowl," may be the hairs of the victim as used in magic. 



'" The museums of antiquities possess many such necklace charms, which are 
often composed of stones of the shape of a drop or an eye — prophylactic against 
the evil eye? See for example, the illustrations to the art. "Amuletum" in Daremberg 
and Saglio, Dictionnaire des antiquites grec. et rom; Elworthy, The Evil Bye, fig. 
21. For the use of stones in Babylonian magic, see the 3d tablet of the Labartu- 
series and Myhrman's note thereon, ZA, xvi, 151 ; cf. Jastrow, op. cit., i, 338, and 
Thompson, Semitic Magic, p. Ixiii. In Syriac «imn is also used of the joints of the 
vertebra = the sa/'pti of the ass as prescribed in the Lahartu texts. With this cf. 
the prescription of parvuni asini freni anuluin in digito portandiim, Cyranides ii, 15. 
6, ed. Mely and Ruelle, Les lapidaires grecs, Paris, 1898, quoted by Tambornino, De 
ant. daemonismo, 83. The mystical properties of stones in Egyptian lore is well 
known, and they were associated with the metals and planets ; see Berthelot, Les 
origines d'alchimie, Paris, 1885, 47, 218 flf., etc. For the use of stones and bones as 
prophylactics against the evil eye, see Seligmann, Der base Blick, ii, 24, 141 fT. For 
Hellenistic references and bibliography, see Abt, Apuleius, 115. Buxtorf and Levy, in 
their dictionaries, j. v., and Griinbaum, ZDMG, xxxi, 263, understand these charms as 
pearls or corals. 

'" Cf. the Af'iJof fidyv!i( vveuv: see Abt, op. cit., 115, 121, and n. b. the baitulia 
described as '/.(■Soi Ififvxoi by Philo of Byblos, Eusebius, Praep. evang., i, 6. 
"' Once, as though misunderstood, masculinized. 'pJN, 12. 9; also wnpJK. 

™ For these articles see Krauss, Talmudische Archdologie, i, 203 ff. ; Blau, op. 
cit., 91. 

"" For the Babylonian ideas of the virtue of the circle, see above, § 8. Choni, 
the famous rainmaker in the Talmud, was called ^JJ?Dn , the circle-drawer, because 
of his use of this device, Taanith 3:8; see Blau, op. cit., 33. According to Joel, op. 
cit., i, 33, Choni was an Essene, but he appears to have stood in good repute with the 
orthodox. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TUXTS. 89 

To that very malignant potency, the Evil Eye — Nature's endowment 
of sorcery — there is comparatively little reference in the bowls, although 
in the later magic of East and West it is often the chief, if not the sole 
object of exorcism.'" The longest pertinent passage in the Nippur texts 
is 30: 3 f. : "the eye of man or woman,"' the eye of contumely, the eye that 
looks right into the heart." By the word NTNDI Pognon, B, p. 41, 
thinks is meant one who casts the evil eye. Or from its idea of "beckoning" 
may it be connected with the malicious "putting forth of the finger," e. g. 
Is. 58: 9 and cf. possibly Code Hammurabi, § 123. Griinbaum is doubtless 
right in holding'" that among the Jews the evil eye was of a diliferent char- 
acter from the western Jettatura, referring rather, as also in the Old Testa- 
ment (cf. also Mt. 20: 15), to the moral powers of envy, hatred, and so 
forth; the evil eye is rationalized and moralized. Wellhausen also notes 
the connection of the evil eye and envy in early Arabian thought."" 

(3) 

We come now to those objects of exorcism which to modern science 
and "common sense" appear as natural physical or psychical maladies, but 
which ancient thought regarded as actuated by demons, even to the extent 
that the malady in question was personified as an evil spirit. It is a question 
how far we have in this phenomenon the survival of ancient animism which 
peopled the universe with spirits good and evil, and how far in the fin de 
Steele magic of these bowls we have the result of a (poetical?) personifi- 
cation of evil which comes to be taken as real by the superstitious mind. 
The ancient demonology survives but it is reinforced by the hypostatizations 
and personifications of the play and fancy of the later mind, working some- 
times in the field of a worse superstition, sometimes at the service of the 
free and philosophic imagination."' In the Old Testament the Word, the 

*" For Talmudic notions, see Blau, Zauberwesen, 152; Joel, Aberglaube, i, 74. 

"* A Palestinian amulet published by the writer in JAOS, 1911, 281: "from the 

eye of his father, mother, women, men, virgins ailment and shame and spirit 

and demons." 

" ZDMG, xxxi, 260 f. 

"° Reste arab. Held., I43- 

'" Cf. the issue of the Platonic Ideas into the Gnostic Aeons. 



90 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

Spirit of Yahwe, even his Sword (Am. g: 4, cf. Gen. 3: 24), are person- 
ified; the evil spirit of Yahwe (i Ki. 22) becomes in the end an evil spirit 
antagonistic to its origin; the sevenfold gift of the Spirit in Is. 11, 2, 
Greek text, issues in the Seven Spirits about the throne of God, Rev. i : 4. 
And so the Chariot and the Wheels and the Beasts that accompany God's 
theophany came under the same treatment of mystical personification.'" It 
is a similar phenomenon that we find in the Testament of Solomon ; the 
seven demons brought to book by Solomon give their names as "Deception,^ 
Strife, Battle," etc. or the thirty-six elements (aroixeia') are hypostatized 
into moral essences;'" and in the same manner the Church personified the 
Seven Deadly Sins, which the Protestant Spenser dramatized in his perfect 
poetry. For various psychological reasons there was an increasing multi- 
plication of the evils against which exorcism might be practiced ; not only 
specific demons, like Tiu the Babylonian fiend of headache, but diseases 
under other names, and social evils such as enemies, loss of property, shame, 
might be exorcised. Probably the more intelligent man regarded this as a 
rational substitution for the elder demonology, while to the superstitious it 
merely meant more demons. At all events in the later magic we find more 
of the hypostatization of natural ills — how seriously it is to be taken is not 
always certain, and their commonplace names are simply given, whereas 
the old Babylonian magic would name the demoniac germ of the malady. 
Hence in our lists of exorcised ills we have in addition to the actual devils, 
already catalogued, series of evils which are somewhat on the borderland of 
diabolology. The old exorcisms still are effective but the old demonology 
is not ample enough; a man wants to exorcise headache, while he may be 
skeptical as to the existence of Tiu. Probably too as the exorcist ("medicine 
man") was also the physician, and medicine was born out of magic rites, 
we may observe in the naming of the actual maladies an intrusion of the 
rational spirit.'" 

"" So the "thrones, dominions, principalities, powers," of Paul (Col. i: 16); 
not only Gnosticism worked out this line of thought but also the Church took this 
heavenly hierarchy seriously. 

'" JQR, ix, 24, 34. So in Hermas, the vices of the tongue are called Aat/idvia 
{KaraTuiXia, etc.) Mand., ii, 2 : 3 ; cf. v, 2 : 7; xii, 2: 2. 

'" Ahhazu becomes the name of a certain fever (a "yellow" fever), Kiichler, 
Beitr. z. Kenntniss d. ass.-bab. Medesin, 61. N. B. the assignment of the several 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 91 

In the Babylonian we find cases in the magical texts of the summariz- 
ing of specific maladies along with the demons. A long and interesting 
example is presented by Jastrow.'" The series is introduced by a list of 
physical ills — contortions, broken limbs, affection of liver, heart, gall- 
bladder, etc. Then follow the evil eye, curses, calumny, etc., and then 
certain named demons; the text is an interesting predecessor of our inscrip- 
tions except that it places the maladies first. Is this the consequence of a 
rationalistic tendency? In the texts published by Kiichler we find semi- 
magical prescriptions for diseases alone. 

The New Testament gives a first-hand insight into the popular demon- 
ology of a representative portion of the oriental world at the beginning of 
our era. We find there devils of dumbness and deafness and blindness 
(Mt. 12: 22,Mk- 9- 17, etc.); one woman had "a spirit of infirmity," 
■Trvev/ia aa^eveiac , Lu. 13: II ; Simon's mother-in-law was seized with a great 
fever and Jesus rebuked the fever, ineriftvaev^'^ tq nvperv ^'^ even as in another 
case he rebuked the wind. And Jesus gave his disciples power "over un- 
clean spirits to cast them out and heal every disease and every malady," 
Mt. 10." 

In the Egyptian magic there is the like identification of diseases with 
demons,"* and the Greek magical papyri are full of it. Cf. the title of a 

charm given by Wessely, <j>v\aiiT>]ptov aufiarcKJiMa^ npog Sai/iovag, ■jrpbg (pavraafiaTa, 

TTjodf iraaav vdaov Kal iraiJof,'" So in the samples of Syriac charms published 
by Gollancz"' we have the same summarization of "all manners of diseases" 
along with the demons, e. g. p. 79: Exorcised, etc. be "all demons, devils, 
phantoms, every practice, all temptations, unclean spirits, cruel dreams, dark 

demons, asakku, namtaru, etc., to the different parts of the body, head, throat, etc.; 
Myhrman ZA, xvi, 146. 

■" Rel. Bab. u. Ass., i, 367 ff. As Jastrow says, we gain here "a further insight 
into the connection between the medical caUing and that of the exorcist." Other 
examples, Thompson. Devils, i, 17, I4S. ^tc. 

"" = Hebrew lyi. 

"' An angel ayyeJ.of, of fever, et al., appears in Byzantine charms; see Reitzen- 
stein, Poimandres, 19. It is the Rabbinic hiD'k, discussed above, n. 112. 

"* See at length Conybeare, JQR, viii, 583. etc. 

'" Cases cited by Budge, Egyptian Magic, 206 ff. 

*" xlii, 39, 1- 589. 

"' Actes du iiieme Congres des Orientalistes, Section 4, 77. 



k 



92 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYEONIAN SECTION. 

apparitions; fear"' and trembling, terror and surprise, dread, anxiety, 
excessive weeping; fever-panic, tertian fever, all kinds of fever, febrile 
ills, inflammations, etc. ; when a child troubles its mother with pains of 
travail;"" tumors, pestilences, .... all pains and all sicknesses, all. wounds 
and all oppositions, surprises, revenges .... the nine sicknesses," etc. And 
Vassiliev has published a number of Byzantine charms directed especially 
against specific diseases,'" the first of which is a general panacea : opm'fw t/^uf 

ndvTa TO aKap\fara TTvei'/iara, f/ [JaaKavin, i/ (pap/iaKeia, // (jiofiefiia/iuc, >/ ipp'K'/, >/ irvpe-iic, 
f) e7rij}ov?MV, f/ awdvrr/fia^*^ vovTipbv, f) voaepov, i) Kufov, }/ tu^^oi', f/ a?M.?.oi\ ij aeAT/viaKiiv, 
^ fiT^^etc (sic^ i^avarov, r^ a?L^toi'fisvov^ ^ fiop^hfitvnv^ r/ dpaev, ;; '&r//.v, 7/ voffr/fidrtjv 

(sic):- 

The most common of the demoniac categories bearing upon physical 
maladies are those with the general significance of "stroke, plague" : N3J33 
especially epidemic disease, Kt23lK'; 'JJ3B, and n. b. ri'v^s i6: lo; Nnino, 
Mand. sn'no; t2''e' (taitr?) 34: 10, 39: 4;"' also the XDOn, "sufferings.""' 
Cf. Ps. 91 : 5, a psalm and a verse which the Jews regarded as a valuable 
phylactery, and Ps. 89: 33. The Nnaip''K' treated above may be included 

here, =: pd-iafia. 

It is a minority of the bowl inscriptions which refer to special diseases. 
Of our texts Nos. 11, 16, 24, 29, 34, are of this character; so also a clause 
in Lidzbarski 5 ; lists of diseases appear in Wohlstein 2422, apparently 
mostly cutaneous affections,"' and at the end of Schwab G. 

"' Fears are a frequent object of exorcism in the Greek magic, e. g. Wessely, xlii, 
64, 1. 25, and collation of the subject by Tambornino, De ant. daemonismo, 58, 65 f. ; 
see also Dieterich, Abraxas, 86 f. 

'" This in earlier magic would have been ascribed to the jealous L,ilith. 

"* Anecdota graeco-byzaniina, i, 332. 

'" Cf. Dieterich, Abraxas, 196, 1. 21, etc.: explained by Pradel as of a demon's 
occurrence, Siid-ital. Gebete, 96. So in Schwab G, wnnp, and cf. use of verb =^ »ip. 

'** For a survey of the Hellenistic personifications of disease, see Tambornino, 
op. cit., 62 ff. ; e. g. insanity = Mania; febris, etc.; also see Reitzenstein, Poimandres, 
19, Wendland, Die hellenistisch-romische Kultur, 125. 

*" Cf. the prayer of the B;shop Serapion directed against ndaa nXnyfi, ndaa fidart^, 
.... pd-mafia , in Wobbermin, Altchristliche liturg. Stucke, in Texte u. Untersuchungen, 
N. F., xvii, 2, p. 13. 

'" The »n«Dn, Schw. M: 17, right after "arts" and before B"2 nycN may refer to 
tortures inflicted by magical operations. 

"* See Frankel's criticism of readings, ZA, ix, 308. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 93 

We find listed general names of diseases, e. g. "C'p 'Jmn, '3'3, pvis<0; 
a large number of cutaneous diseases: NsnJ, riTtn, naian, N'niBsn, KDin, 
DiDTn;'" a series in 24: 2: sn'TN, SJIS, sriTN, probably fevers. In Schwab 
G we read of "np'N f= Wohlstein, np', "fevers"), sbnn, nd^j?, nock and 
NnC'K (neo-Syriac, malarial fever),'" KDnj? ("swelling"?), snainB- ("con- 
sumption," Rabb. nsnc;*) ■'t"2 •'» (?)."' smvB', 11: 2, is possibly "fever." 
The demons referred to in 34: 10 {q. v.) may be the spirits of cancer, 
tumor of the eye, dysentery, and in 1. 13 palsy of hand and foot."" A long 
list of fevers is presented in the first of Gollancz's Syriac charms. 

In the Berlin bowl 2416 Wohlstein reads a certain affection as Til 
NHfa, translating it "boser Fluss" ; Stiibe reads it '2 Tl), interpreting 
it, by a desperate solution, as the sacrificial jugular vein which he supposes 
was used as a maleficent charm. Jastrow in his Lexicon gives both T""!! 
and nn\ = leucoma of the eye (again the same confusion of 1 and T 
as in the word Kill" discussed above),"* The correct spelling is I'll 
and it is closely related to DniOD . "blindness," Gen. 19: 11, 2 Ki, 6: 18. 
The root is parallel to Ti3 "be clear, bright" (cf. the Assyrian) ;'" the 
sense of blindness in connection with this root arose from the fact that 
the sun produces blindness (eye-diseases are most common in the Orient), 
or from the dazzling sensation suflfered by those aflFected with certain 
optical diseases. 

No. 29: 7 we have a characteristic magical prescription for a woman 
who is exorcised from the various categories of devils and charms (xnpjy) 

"" For these and the following terms, see Glossary C. 

'" A disease asu in Assyrian, Kiichler, op. cit., 131, 197. 

'" Wohlstein, 2422: 20, dropsy or urinary affection? Frankel (i&., 309) eft. 
Hull. 105b, and explains as "water from which a demon has drunk." It may be the 
eye-disease known to the Jews as "water," see Preuss (cited in next note), p. 305. 

'" For the diseases in the Bible and Talmud see Jewish Encyc. art. "Medicine," 
and iv, 517 f. for demons of diseases, with bibliography, viii, 413 f ■ ; noteworthy 
treatments that have since appeared are Krauss, Talmudisclie Archdologie, i, § 104, 
J. Preuss, Biblisch-talmudtsche Medezin, IQII (with extensive bibliography), while 
Fishberg, The Jezvs, 1911, cc. 13-1.S, may be consulted with profit. Many of the medical 
terms in the bowls are not to be found in the Jewish literature. 

"" For this "Yarod" disease, see Preuss, op. cit., 308. He notices also the eye- 
disease Tl, a form of our word, p. 310. 

'" The Talmudic formula against blindness, Shabriri, briri, riri, ri, Ab. Z. 12b, 
etc., is formed from this root. 



94 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

and then from KDD'a , a menstruation malady ( ?) ; then are mentioned 
NiaT s<nJ2l Kn'paao which are evidently the causes of feminine irregu- 
larities, followed by "'DitD, "pollutions" (fluxes?), and the si^S'J na, probably 
epilepsy. In a badly arranged series in No. i6 we find (1. 9) the 'T3 r»"i 
•'i'SJi . literally "the spirit (= breath?) of stench and asthma," i. e. of the 
foul or labored breath symptomatic of diseases (see ad loc). In 11: 3 f., 
again a charm for a woman, after the list of demons appear xmpj? and Kn!53n 
which we should translate "barrenness" and "bereavement," understanding 
them as personified."* But in the parallel Mandaic text of Lidzbarski's 
(see to No. 11) bereavement has become a Lilith (KJT'^'S Nnbasn, 'Ti = 
takkdlta). Which is the original of these forms? In 34: 10 xnopi jnyaN 
might be rendered, "ugliness and distortion," with which compare the 
charms of the Greek youths in the papyri for health, good looks, etc."' 

Another class of evils are those of a social nature. So poverty KniraD'O, 
figures in 34: 12, but from two other passages we see that it is the hostile 
witchcraft that would effect poverty in the victim's life which is exorcised: 
'DT mos, "the genius of poverty," 16: 10, and Lidz., 4: snps xnnpK piB'n 
'01, where "distress" and "sickness" are epexegetical to "invocations." 
Again in 34: 12 is found an exorcism against, all kinds of losses: KJ't 
N3ini SJDnin .nyx' in 7: 11 are troubles involving shame.'" 

We mark that the rationalization of maladies had not gone very far; 
the decadent Babylonians were satisfied with the exorcism of devils and 
witchcraft and avoided the diagnosis of diseases. For modern magical 
practice in this field see the collection of Jewish charms pubhshed by R. 
C. Thompson, "Folklore of Mossoul," PSBA, igo6-y. In these the spirits 
have fled, but the ancient magical practices remain effective. 

"* Cf. the constant personification in Greek magic of (iaoKavla. 

"" E. g. Dieterich, Abraxas, 197, I. 3. 

"• Cf. the ij?si ifi.nB of my amulet published in JAOS, 191 1. 281. 



§ 13- Propitious Angsls, Deitiss, Etc. 

In the Babylonian exorcistic system the beneficent gods and spirits 
were arrayed and invoked against the demons and ills that affected human 
kind. Jastrow gives a specimen of such an invocation of some twenty 
deities' and discusses at length these various lists and their orders.' In 
another example, given by Reisner,' fifty great gods, seven gods of destiny, 
300 Annunaki of heaven and 600 of earth, are invoked. It is not inevitable 
then that we must go to Persian dualism to discover the origin of the 
Jewish angelology. Absolute monotheism with its desire that the one God 
be exalted alone broke down before the specious and alluring argument that 
there must be more who are with us than those who are against us (2 Ki. 
6: 16). 

It is to be premised that in many of our texts the religious element is 
very deficient; reliance is placed upon bans and formulas with often no 
reference to Deity or other personal agencies of friendly character. Those 
inscriptions in which such supernatural agencies apart from God are 
invoked may be divided into three classes, representing so many distinct 
origins. There are those in which the well known names and name- 
formations of the Jewish angelology appear; although, as remarked above, 
§ 12, the word "angel" is not used in all cases in the usual Jewish sense 
(often = deity). Then there are the genii of the Mandaic religion, 
mostly with names of outlandish formation. And finally there are the 
invocations of evidently pagan origin in which deities are named, although 
unfortunately most of their names are obscure or perverted by the text 
tradition. Further these different elements are confused and what appears 
like a good Jewish text at times admits a pagan deity into its celestial 

* From the ^wr/iM-series, iv, I. 68 ff. 
" Rel. Bab. u. Ass., i, 289. 

* Sum.-bab. Hymnen, iv, 1. 152 ff. 

(95) 



96 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

hierarchy — somewhat as the mediaeval Church came to canonize the 
Buddha. 

( 1 ) \\'e need not dwell long upon the Mandaic genii. Pognon has 
given a survey of those occurring in his bowls,' to which may be added a 
few more from Lidzbarski's and my texts. Some of the names are pat- 
terned after the Jewish angelic nomenclature, e. g. b'ysnij; (= bsBIl), or 
have forms in -ai, e. g. 'SJnJJ, 'sniya, called "angels" (No. 38), or we 
find a name O'lNnCKp patterned after the obscure Mandaic principles 
Piriawis and Sindiriawis. A number of the names are not found in the 
known Mandaic literature.' 

(2) The angelology of the apparently Jewish texts and the angelic 
nomenclature are not as elaborate as we find in later Jewish literature, e. g. 
the Szi'ord of Moses' or the Sefcr Rasiel^ the bulk of which consists of 
lists of angelic names.' The majority of our texts have no such names. 
The most common angels are Michael. Gabriel, Raphael. As a rule the 
names are formed in -cl, although other formations appear and quite un- 
Jewish potencies are brought in as angels. Our texts stand on the border- 
land of Jewish angelology and not within its orthodox development. 

Taking up first the known angels, we find that Michael does not have 
necessary precedence.* He sometimes appears in the first place followed 
by Gabriel, Raphael, Nuriel, ct al. (e. g. Nos. 14, 34, Hyv.l, but as often 
the order has Gabriel first, — Gabriel, Michael, Raphael (Nos. 7, 20. 
Myhrman, Wohlstein 2422, 2416'), or Gabriel occurs without Michael (e. g. 

* B, p. 93. 

' In Ellis I the Mandaic genius Abatur is an evil spirit, and is classed among 
the ghostly spirits in Wohlstein, 2417: 6. N. B. the occurrence of this name as 
Abyater in an Ethiopia apocryphon, Littmann, JAOS, xxv, 28. Afriel, 16., 29, is a 
form of Raphael, corresponding to the form occurring in the bowls ; see Glossary 
A, J. V. 

' Gaster, Journ. Royal Asiatic Soc, 1896, and in separate imprint. 

' Composed by Eleazar of Worms, 13th cent. 

' See, in general, Schwab, Dictionnaire de Vangilologie, 1897 (in Memoires of 
Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-lettres, Series i, vol. 10, part 2). The Essenes 
laid great stress on the names of angels, Josephus, Bell, jud., ii, 8: 7. 

' See Lueken, Michael, 1898, especially § 4. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 97 

Nos. 10, 15)." The latter order is of course that of their appearance in 
the Jewish literature (Old Testament and Tobit). Other angels may pre- 
cede these or occur without them. Aniel appears as the fourth in a tetrad 
(Wohlstein 2416). 

The title pecuHar to Michael in Jewish lore, the Great Prince, bnjn "itrn 
(Dan. 12, Aboda Z. 42b, etc.), appears in 5 : 3, but without specific refer- 
ence, and at the end of No. 7 in the list of angels, which in 
its occurrence at the beginning of the text names Gabriel first, Armasa is 
"the great lord" ; so the application of the epithet is uncertain. In Hyver- 
nat's text, which appears to be comparatively late, we find Michael's full 
glory expressed : "the mighty, the king, genius of the law" ( S3?0 N133 
NnmsT K-iD'K). In 34: 7 he is called the "healer" ( N^D^?'), Raphael "reliev- 
er" ( K'bna), and Gabriel the "servant of the Lord." the title "healer" sug- 
gests that the frequent opening invocation, "In thy name, O Lord of 
salvation (xniDN), great Saviour (S-'DX) of love," which is not a regular 
Jewish form of address to Deity, may refer to Michael;" but the supposi- 
tion is not reinforced by the position Michael takes in these texts. In 
Wohlstein 2416 kabbalistic surnames are given to Gabriel and Michael, 
DDS^K and n'nion (so W. would read), the latter, "likeness of Yah," 
corresponding to the later Jewish notions concerning Michael as almost 
*t6f iTtpo(_ Cf. the kabbalistic forms in 24: 4 (of angels?) and the group 
of seven barbarous names in Schwab M, Dalai, Salal, Malal, etc., presum- 
ably standing for the seven archangels." Reference to the latter is made 
once, in the introduction to Stube's text (= Wohlstein 2416) where exor- 

" See for early precedence ihid., p. 36 f . ; e. g. in Enoch 20: Uriel, Rafael, 
Raguel, Michael, Sarakael, Gabriel. For Gabriel we may note that the Mandaeans 
gave him high honor, identifying him with Hibel— Ziwa (Norberg, Onom., 33; 
Brandt, Mand. Schr., 21), while they appear to have ignored Michael. 

" Lueken, Michael, 11, 87: M. is price of love. For the epithet referred to, see 
notes to No. 3. 

" Cf. the dictum of Sefer Raziel (quoted by Schwab, Dictionnaire, 7) that in 
divination it is necessary to pronounce the mystic names of the planets. Cf. a form 
of charm in Wessely, xlii, 65, where the seven angels are named in one column, and 
parallel to them two rows of barbarous mystical names, the first column containing 
varying permutations of the seven vowels; e. g. aer/wvu x^X f^'X'^1^ vvaev, 
N. B. the many mystical or magical names of the deities or "angels" in the 
Harranian philosophy; Dozy and de Goeje, Acfes of 6th Congress of Orientalists, 
11, i, 297. 



98 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

cism is made in the name of Metatron, Hadriel, Nuriel, Uriel, Sasgabiel 
Hafkiel, Mehafkiel/" "who are the seven angels that go and turn around 
heaven and earth and stars and zodiac and moon and sea."" 

In this last series Metatron takes the place that should be given to 
Michael. Metatron" appears earlier as one of the (six) archangels, in 
Targum Jer. to Dt. 34: 6: Michael, Gabriel, Metratron, Jophiel, Uriel, 
Yephephia. He is really a rival figure to Michael, springing from a dif- 
ferent religious concept; Michael is an angel, the patron of Israel, hence 
the Angel, par excellence, the representative of deity." Metatron is in origin 
an idea, Platonic, Philonic, however we may call it, produced by the neces- 
sity of a Demiurge, a "second god" between Deity and man." It is interesting 
to watch the somewhat unlike histories of the rival ideas. Michael remains 
an angel, but Metatron becomes more and more a mystic being; he is as- 
sociated with the Enoch and Elija legends, and his identity with these human 
beings may be described as an assimilation of them to Metatron or as his 
incarnation in them ; he is both divine and human." To the mystic, the 
kabbalist, such a figure is more sympathetic than the archangel (cf. the 
argument of the Epistle to the Hebrews!), and so he replaces or absorbs 
Michael. Hence he is described in terms like those given to Michael. 
Eisenmenger quotes (p. 396) a long list of appellatives : he is Prince of 
the Presence, Prince of the Law, Prince of wisdom. Prince of kings, etc. 
(cf. the titles applied to Michael in Hyvernat's bowl), while elsewhere 
(Eisenmenger, ibid.) he is called the Prince of the world, cf. the title 
"the great prince" discussed above in connection with Michael." We may 

"' Most of these names are plays on evident roots. 

" For references and literature on the planetary angels see Lueken, op. cit.. 56; 
add Eisenmenger, Entdecktes Judentum, ii, 383 ff. ; Bousset, Religion des Judenttims, 
315 ff. 

" See Weber, JUdische Theologie, § 37, and for origins of the idea cf. Bousset, 
op. cit., 348. 

" For the extremes to which this notion went, see Lueken, op. cit., 36 ff. 

" Both ideas are associated in Philo's mind; see Lueken, § 7, on the 7.6yoi 
apx^yysTu)^ of Philo. 

" For later legends see Eisenmenger, ii, 394 B 'nd the interesting critical dis- 
cussion of this later (Gaonic) development of Judaism by Joel, Der Aberglaube, ii, 

IS ff. 

" Cf. K13 »a>bv who jtands before "the true God" in the pagan text of No. 19. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 99 

suppose that on the periphery of Judaism as well as in its esoteric circles 
the idea of Metatron would be especially acceptable to those who were not 
weaned from polytheism. 

Comparing Nos. 3, 19, 25, we come upon an interesting identification. 
KDDIK, which appears in No. 3, is the Greek Hermes, more especially the 
Hermes of the mystic Egypto-Grecian theosophy (see to No. 3). He is 
the Word, etc. (No. 19) and in 25 : 4 f., is identified with Metatron." Thus 
we have here a welding together of the esoteric Jewish Metatron and the 
equally mystical Hermes of Hellenism. Whether our magicians were 
aware what NDOnN meant, I know not and I doubt it. It gave them one 
more mystical name and combination. 

Just as Hermes was dragged in, so other names or words were put 
in the category of angels or intermediate beings. So in 7: 8 the invocation 
is in the name of Gabriel, Michael, Rafael, Asiel, Hermes, Abbahu, 
Abraxas,"' And so with many terms in these invocations it is impossible 
to decide what we are dealing with (e. g. Agrabis, 17: 4), whether a surro- 
gate for a divine name, an intermediate being, a pagan deity, or perhaps 
a sorcerer's name. The expression "in the name of" was taken seriously 
only so far as the name was concerned ; the name, the word, was the essen- 
tial thing, not the prosaic object it stood for. The same phenomenon 
appears in the magical papyri. There we find now an exorcism in the 
name of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Jesus Christ (xw™f ) and Holy Spirit (a;«)f 
TTvevfia, sic)" — wherein the exorcist shows bad orthodoxy, whether as Jew 
or Christian; or again an incantation in the name of 'ou Seov aa^aa^ ■&eov 

aSuvac ■9eov /itx<"!^ &eov aovptr/?^ 'Scov yajipitj'k ^eov pa<^ati'>. Seov ajipaaa^, k. t. ?..," 

where gods, angels and formulas are mixed up just as unintelligently as 
in the incantations from Nippur. 

As for the minor angels most of them can be found in other Jewish 
literature, and reference for them may be made to Schwab's dictionary 
of angelology. Glossary A lists the angelic names in the bowls. In their 

" So Michael was identified with Hermes, Lueken, op. cit., 28, 78 (with refer- 
ence to Hermes-figures bearing Michael's name). 

" For some of the angel names in the papyri, see Liteken, op. cit., 71. 
" Wessely, Vienna Denkschriften, xxxvi, 2, 75, 1. 1227. 
° Ibid., 144, 1. 144. See above § 11. 



100 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

formation they follow the general rule of making the first (verbal) element 
express the object desired in the incantation. Thus in the love-charms 
Nos. 13 and 28, the angels invoked are Rahmiel, Habbiel and Hanniniel. 

(3) It is difficult to say how many of the bowls are Jewish; the pres- 
ence of Jewish catchwords is not a sufficient criterion. I would call atten- 
tion to a few of the Nippur bowls which are definitely pagan. Of such 
nature is the last one cited, No. 28, where along with the angel Rahmiel 
appear the mighty (passionate?) Dlibat (a Semitic Venus) and [blank] 
gods. No. 19 has the longest list of invocations of apparently heathen 
deities. Only a few of them can be certainly identified. Hermes appears 
there, probably two words (masc. and fern.) representing the Gnostic Aeons 
(n'blTX, h)Ti<) ; Bagdana, "with 70 exalted priests," who appears as a 
demon (Abugdana) in the Mandaic bowls." Other names have a very 
non-Semitic sound, and we can identify some Greek divinities : Zeus, 
Okeanos, Protogenos (see the commentary). Also we find angelic names, 
Akzariel, etc., and again Abraxas, and reference to the 60 gods and 80 
goddesses. Yet the opening invocation is "in thy name Lord of Salvation," 
etc., who is also the "true God," 1. 17. 

Of peculiar interest is No. 36, in which the exorcist declares he has 
been empowered by certain deities: "The lord Sames (sun) has charged 
me, Sina (moon) has sent me, Bel has commanded me, Nannai has said to 
me [blank], and Nirig (Nergal) has given me power." In quite antique 
wise the sorcerer (perhaps a priest, N"I013) professes to have received 
oracles. Apart from the striking parallels of the prophetic commissions 
in the Old Testament, we find the expression of like assumption by the 
exorcists in the Babylonian magic. Thus from the C/f/t^^M-series : "The 
sorcerer-priest that makes clear the ordinances of Eridu am I ; of Marduk 
sage magician, eldest son of Ea, herald am I, the exorciser of Eridu, most 
cunning in magic am I" ;" again : "The man of Ea am I, the messenger 
of Marduk am I, my spell is the spell of Ea, my incantation the incantation 

" Pognon B, p. 93, Lidz., 4: 2 (p. 103, n. 7) ; cf. the change of the beneficent 
Mandaic genius Abatur into an evil spirit in Ellis i. 

"* Thompson, Devils, i, 133. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 101 

of Marduk."* Cf. also the Maklu-series : "The god and goddess have 
commissioned me, whom shall I send?," and, "I go on Marduk's com- 
mand."" In our text we have doubtless one of the latest survivals of 
priestly exorcism in the old forms coming down from the asipu priests of 
Babylonia; these forms doubtless were cherished long in the Harranian 
religion. 

=' Ibid., 23. 

" Tablet ii, 11. 52, 158. Cf. also § g, en4 



IV. HISTORICAL CONCLUSIONS 
§ 14. Age of the Bowts 

Very diverse views as to the antiquity of the bowls have been offered 
by students. It is unnecessary to consider the hypothesis of their pre- 
Christian origin." Chwolson as an epigraphical expert submitted the texts 
he was acquainted with to a careful examination and believed he could 
assign them, by comparison of the scripts, to different centuries early in 
this era, from the second to the fourth or fifth. But epigraphical evidence 
in the case of a formed script like that of the square character is fallacious. 
Especially in the case of rude popular texts, in which antique forms of 
writing have survived, no certainty from epigraphy can be obtained. And 
in general a chronology obtained from epigraphy is most dubious ; I may 
refer to the current opposing arguments over the Siloam inscription and 
the Gezer calendar tablet, or note the remarkably fluent, almost cursive 
script of the potsherds from Samaria, which only their certain provenance 
compels us to ascribe to the Omride age. 

But most of the students would be inclined to place the bowls con- 
siderably later, between the fifth and ninth centuries, although rather by 
conjecture, from the impression made by the contents, than through pos- 
itive proofs. Levy and Halevy thought, but fallaciously, that they could 
detect Arabisms, and were inclined to date the texts after the Arabic con- 
quest.' Noldeke would place Hyvernat's bowl not earlier than the eighth 
century, basing his opinion on the forms of the Persian names.' Schwab 
assigned his Louvre bowls to the fourth or fifth century.* 

* See above, § 5. 

' Levy, ZDMG, ix, 474; Halevy, Comptes rendus, 1877, 292, specifying more 
exactly, "vers le pieme siecle." 

' Zeits. f. Keilschriftforsch., ii, 293. 

* Rev. d'ass. et d'arch., ii, 136. 

(102) 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 103 

It is evident that, in the case of a large number of texts coming from 
different locaHties and in most cases not observed in situ, it is impossible to 
take a datum from any one and so fix the chronology of the whole species. 
Magical literary forms are peculiarly persistent; we may think of the 
uncertainty as to the age of the Greek magical texts, in which, for instance, 
a Christian theological phrase may not define the age of the magical formula, 
can only give a clue to that of the particular document. And so our texts, 
copied and recopied as precious magical prescriptions, repeated possibly 
by laymen long after the special school of sorcery had ceased to exist, may 
have extended over a series of centuries. Some bowls may be considerably 
later than others, e. g. Hyvernat's with its reference to "Ispandas-Dewa the 
Jinn of Solomon," and Schwab's H and O composed of biblical verses. 

Fortunately more certainty as to a unity of time can be had for the 
texts from Nippur. These were found by expert scholars in situ at certain 
noted levels of the ruins. While written in three different dialects and as 
many scripts, nevertheless the appearance of the same persons and families 
in the three classes tends to show that they all belonged to about the same 
age. We are not therefore to suppose a stratification of Judaic, Syriac, 
Mandaic layers, representing so many different ages or even distinct racial 
elements. Nor do the variants within the texts of the square script compel 
us to assign them to different ages ; these are but calligraphic variations. 
There is every reason to place the Nippur bowls within rather a brief period, 
and if one or a few texts threw any light upon the chronology, we could 
place the age of the whole collection. 

The provenance of the bowls from Nippur was described in § i ; 
they lay above the stratum of the Parthian temple. This building had 
been destroyed, was covered with sand, and upon the Tell settled small 
Semitic communities, Jews and Mandaeans, drawn to the deserted place 
probably by motives of religious community life. Indeed we may suppose 
that these bodies, separated from the main currents of their larger societies, 
made a practical use and profit out of their religious prestige in the pre- 
paration of magical texts. To speak more exactly of the archaeological 
conditions, in the "Jewish" houses discovered by Peters an upper stratum 
contained Cufic coins of the seventh century, a lower stratum only 
Parthian coins, Jewish bowls being found also in the latter. The lowest 



104 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

dating then is the seventh century, on the basis of the Cufic coins, and this 
dating is to be pushed back, if it be modified at all, because of the ease 
with which small coins slip down through the soil. The archaeological 
evidence then for the terminus ad quern of our texts is the seventh century 
(probably its beginning), with a fair leeway back into the preceding century. 

As I have said, the epigraphical evidence is a weak reed to lean on 
for chronology.' The only new fact I can bring to bear on this feature of 
the discussion is the novel Syriac script exhibited in seven of our bowls. 
I have discussed this script in § 6 and there came to the conclusion that 
it is an early type of the Edessene style of alphabet, a result corroborated 
by its identity with the Manichaean alphabet. But again this may be a 
case of survival; certain evidence from epigraphy is nil. 

There remains the philological testimony. The "Jewish" Aramaic of 
the texts is just such as we find in the Talmud, and with evidently like 
dialectical variations; a few forms appear representing the "Palestinian" 
dialect, remains of which occur in the Babylonian literature. The Mandaic 
dialect is fully formed, and has exercised its influence, at least in spelling, 
upon the other two, the Rabbinic and Syriac. There are many words which 
can be illustrated only from the neo-Syriac dialects, or from the compilations 
of the Syriac lexicographers. But these words may be old and only by 
chance have failed to make their appearance in literature. Thus the late 
Syriac form Nt3V "goat," is now found in the Elephantine papyri. The 
fact that a Persian word, e. g. dastabira, does not appear till later or is a 
hapax legomenon, is not proof of late age unless it can be shown to be of 
late Persian formation. Nor do I find that any of the proper names compel 
us to assume a late date. The majority of them are Persian, and do not, 
to one who is a layman in this branch of science and who must rely mostly 
upon the authority of Justi's Namenbuch, appear to be necessarily late, say 
toward the end of the first millennium.' 



' It is impossible to make an epigraphical examination of all the bowls published, 
for in the majority of cases facsimiles are not given, or they are poorly made. 

* Noldeke's argument that the element -duch for -ducht speaks for a late age 
is not at all stringent for a Semitic dialect which would naturally abhor a termination 
in a double consonant; the Syriac texts have -ducht. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 105 

There is one line of negative evidence which is the only clue to a 
terminus ad quern which I can discover on this basis. Despite the variety 
of names, the list of which includes two Syriac Christian names ( Nnayo 
)t:^^b, NnnD na) and a Greek name ( n''KnxD''t2 ), also probable Indian 
names, there is none of Arabic origin. A pair of common nouns and the 
use of a for the conjunction in two cases do give us etymological connec- 
tions in that direction; but S in this usage is found in the Senjirli inscrip- 
tions and the Elephantine papyri and is a spelling ad aurem — it is corrected 
in one of Schwab's texts. As for the two words N3'J, Jinn, and p^C (and 
possibly sr^J^C), I cannot grant that these loans must have taken place 
after the Mohammedan conquest, when sorcery was so eager to include 
every possible name of evil spirits (n. b. the adoption of Aa/?o;io() and inas- 
much as the good Semitic word may long have been at home on the Arabian 
frontiers of Babylonia. 

My consequent conclusion is that the Nippur texts should be placed 
in a period not later than the sixth or the beginning of the seventh century, 
that is, only as a terminus ad quern, approximately 600 A. D. The abandon- 
ment of the Tell of Nippur may have been caused by the Arabic conquest, 
which, as we may assume, ultimately drove away the Jewish and Mandaean 
settlers to other abodes, the latter to their recesses in the south (they were 
not, I think, recognized as one of "the peoples of a book"), the former 
to the towns. As for those texts from other quarters that appear to be 
later, they are but the continuation, which we should expect, of the magic 
of the elder bowls, and as I have noticed in § 2, towards the end, late de- 
scendants of the species. 

If my conclusions from the data of the Nippur bowls are justified, 
they afford us one result of comparative value. While the great mass of 
magical, and more particularly Jewish magical literature, is known to us 
only in late documents, — we may but speculate as to the age of the Sword 
of Moses, the Wisdom of the Chaldaeans, the Seal of Solomon, the elements 
of Sefer Raziel — our texts are contemporary and authentic documents of 
the late pre-Islamic period in Babylonian history. 



§ 15- Origins and Relations of the Bowl Magic 

"Jewish incantation bowls" is the title that has been generally applied 
to our species of magical texts. It arose in consequence of the fact that 
the first bowls interpreted, as also the majority of those now known, are 
written in the script and dialectic forms of the speech of the Talmud, 
and withal appear preponderantly to bear the earmarks of Judaism.' The 
subsequent discovery of similar supplies of texts Mandaic in composition 
and contents, and now the presentation in this volume of a number of 
Syriac texts, enlarge our vista concerning the diffusion of this special 
form of magic among the races and faiths of Babylonia. Further, over 
against texts of whose Judaism there may be no reasonable doubt, we find 
a number which are out and out pagan, while the majority are certainly 
eclectic in their theological tastes. These observations require that we 
extend our study beyond the domain of Judaism to discover the relations 
of these bowl-texts to the general field of magic, as we know it for the 
first centuries of the Christian era, and to the earlier strains which entered 
into it. What are the historical connections of our texts, and what light 
do they cast upon the religious or spiritistic thought of cosmopolitan Baby- 
lonia in the age of the Sassanian empire?' 

In the magic-wild age at the beginning of our era, the Jewish magic 
was recognized as one of the three great schools of sorcery, along with 
the Chaldaean and the Egyptian. The Jews had inherited the rites and 
notions of primitive magic from the Arabian Hebrews and from ancient 
Canaan ; despite the severity of an ethical monotheism, which throughout 

* Hence our rude and vulgar texts are of philological importance as almost the 
only early contemporary documents of these dialects. 

' The analogies have been set forth in the preceding sections ; in the following 
paragraphs I can only speculate on the genealogical relations. Cf. Deissmann, 
Light from the Ancient Bast, 261, n. 2. 

(106) 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 107 

its growth had placed a unique ban upon the practice of sorcery, this 
feature nevertheless survived. While the Second Isaiah is deriding the 
sorceries of Babylon and exposing their helplessness (c. 47), we have 
stray glimpses of the persistence of ancient rites closely akin to magic, which 
still claimed the adherence of renegades (B:ze. 8; Is. 65, 66). In the Book 
of Tobit are given magical remedies for the expulsion of foul demons with 
the concurrence of angels; Josephus tells of his sorcerer who could pull 
the demon out of the nose of the possessed with a root indicated by 
Solomon.' The New Testament gives the first extensive and intimate 
picture of the magical conditions in Palestine ; "If I through the finger of 
God cast out devils, by whom do your sons cast them out?" — inquires 
Jesus. In Acts we read of well-established sorcerers who bewitched the 
people and even Gentiles in foreign parts, a Simon Magus and Bar-Jesus 
Elymas. But apart from the hoary forms of Mezuzoth and Tephillin and v/ 
some mortuary charms,' our first literary specimens of Jewish or Judaizing 
magic are found in the Greek papyri of the Christian age, and there how 
much is Greek and how much Jewish we know not. Here appear various 
forms and anagrams of the Ineffable Name, quotations from the Scriptures, 
historical references to Solomon and especially to Moses,' who came, as 
the great mystagogue and magician, to be identified with Hermes-Thoth, 
and was regarded as the teacher of Orpheus.' He is made the author of a 
Hermetic book, through and through Egyptian and Hellenistic, entitled the 
Eighth Book of Moses, as a continuation of the Pentateuch, which Dieterich 
has published at the end of his Abraxas. Blau and Deissmann have pub- 
lished a delicate erotic charm, composed in true Greek spirit, and yet the 
former may be right in claiming its phraseology as preponderantly Jewish.' 
In which direction was the give and take, what were the connecting links? 
Dieterich would find in the Essenes and Therapeutae the bond between 

' A.J., viii, 2, 5. For a survey of Jewish magic and a large bibliography, see 
Schurer, Gesch. d. Jiid. Volkes, § 32, vii (ed. 3, iii, 294). 

* See H. Vincent, "Amulette judeo-arameenne," Rev. bibl., 1908, 382. (with ample 
bibliography), and Montgomery, JAOS, 1911. 272. 

• See the analogies presented in § 11. 
' Dieterich, Abraxas, 70. 

' See notes to No. 28. 



108 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYU)NIAN SECTION. 

Jewish and Hellenic magic' But just wherein lay the peculiar type and 
particular contribution of Judaism to the world's magical faith, we do not 
know, for the reason that we have no early magical documents of unim- 
peachable Jewish origin. And if we possessed documents from the 
Palestinian life of the Hebrews, how far even then could we decide what 
was specifically Hebrew and not Canaanitish or borrowed from the spheres 
of culture to the east and west? What different origins are assigned by 
the commentators to the occult practices described in Eze. 8.' 

When we pass to the eastern home of the Diaspora we have that 
marvellous encyclopaedia, the Talmud, with its glimpses into the common 
life of the people as well as into the discussions of the schools ; magic holds 
its sway more or less over all, and its existence, if not its legality, is con- 
fessed by the spiritual masters, who, if we may contrast successively Mishna, 
Gemara, the Gaonic period, with one another, came more and more to 
recognize and legitimatize the practice of magic.'" We catch in the Talmud 
and the subsequent authoritative literature some of the magical phrases, 
learn something of the practices and beliefs in demons, mark the super- 
stitious fears of the people of Babylonia, of the Jews as well as of their 
neighbors." Our bowls and their inscriptions are rude and unlovely, with 
none of the sombre dignity of the Babylonian incantations, or of the often 
lyric beauty of the Greek magical literature ;" but these bowls are of prime 
interest as giving us for the first time extensive texts of the eclectic Baby- 
lonian magic of the first Christian millennium. They are degenerate suc- 
cessors of the elder incantations of the land, yet they are autograph 
evidence of the superstitions which Talmud, with caution, and Eisenmenger's 
Bntdecktes Judenthum, with malice, reveal, and are precursors of that sea 
of magical literature which has come down to us under Jewish auspices. 

• Ih., 137 ff- 

* See Kraetzschmar, ad loc. 

" See Joel, Der Aherglauhe. the sections C, D, E (pt. I, pp. 55, 64; pt. 2, p. 2) 
for this comparison. For the Talmudic teachers who allowed and practised magic, 
see Blau, Das altjUd. Zauberwesen, 26, 54. 

" According to Blau, pp. 23, 84, the Babylonian Jews were far more addicted 
to magic than the Palestinians. 

" Cf. the noble Hermetic hymn of creation, the "holy word" in the Eighth Book 
of Moses, in which "God smiled seven times," and each smile was an act of creation ; 
Dieterich, p. 182. 



J. A. MONTGOMBRY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 109 

And withal they give a sample of the medley and fusion of peoples and 
religions in the land which the Jews had long since called Confusion. 

The order of the day is to Babylonize, and our evident line of primary 
investigation is to discover the relationships of the bowls with the ancient 
Babylonian magic, the literature of which in the last decades has been 
published in large quantities by the most distinguished Assyriologists." 
My notes to the texts and the Introduction show how apparently numerous 
are the connections between the object of our study and the magic of 
Babylonia. While there is only one instance of the specific bowl praxis in 
that earlier literature," still its method of defixion is quite congruous with 
the ancient magical operations. As of yore, the sorcerer appears as the 
commissioner of Deity or of the gods (§ 9) ; he follows definite and repeti- 
tious formulas, similar to the Babylonian siptu (§ 11). He invokes most 
frequently, or at least primarily, one chief god, "the Lord of love and 
healing," just as the Babylonian called on Ea or Marduk, but, as in the 
elder incantations, other gods or their angelic equivalents are invoked in 
large accumulation (§ 13). Most striking in the correspondences is the 
registration of the devils, black arts and maladies to be exorcised; as in 
the Babylonian, so in our magic these are specified in long detailed lists 
(§ 12). In fact our spells far outdo the Babylonian . repetition of the 
seven classes of evil spirits. In the Mandaic texts the terror of the witches 
appears, in others the evil charm is reversed upon the head of the sorcerer, 
all as in Babylonian magic. Rites and words and the instruments of magic, 
which are personified, are as much the object of detestation as in the Maklu- 
series. Diseases and all human ills are inspired by devils, indeed are devils 
and are treated as personal essences. The magician's ban, the spell of the 
mighty god, is laid upon them all, and they are forthwith assumed to be 
"bound," and "tied," as in older days when simulacra sacramentally sealed 
the operation. Even the quotation of Scriptures and references to sacred 
legend have their parallels in the Babylonian incantations, which used the 
ancient myths as potent charms (§11). It is unnecessary to proceed 
further with the summary of general correspondences, but enough has 

" See for the literature, Jastrow, Rel. Bab. u. Ass., i, ch. xvi, and his Religious 
Beliefs in Bab. and Ass., 296 ff. 

** See p. 43- 



110 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

been noticed to dispose our minds to the dictum of Zimmern:" "Diese (the 
incantation bowls) im Ausdruck oft iiberraschend an die alten babylonischen 
Beschworungen erinnernden jiidischen Beschworungstexte, bei denen unter 
den mit Namen angefiihrten bosen Damonen auch Lihth haufig erscheint. 
liefern in ihrer Weise ebenfalls den Beweis fiir nachhaltige Einstromen 
babylonischer damonologischer Vorstellungen in das Judentum."" 

Yet the implications that may be drawn from this judgment, even if 
not intended by the writer, are open to criticism. In the first place, as 
observed in the preceding sections, similar correspondences with the Greek 
magic are to be noted in almost every instance. This fact compels us to 
recognize the possibility of eclectic as well as of immediate Babylonian 
influence upon the Jewish magic. And then, secondly, marked differences 
exist between the fields, changes in the center of gravity, omissions, 
accretions. There still remains a large degree of substantial reason in the 
opinion earlier expressed by Noldeke, surveying the material from a dif- 
ferent point of view : "Die Verbindung mit altbabylonischen Aberglauben 
diirfte also ziemlich lose sein."" The study of magic is still in its begin- 
nings, and students are too prone to find a genetic relation when we have 
to bear in mind that we are dealing with parallel workings of the human 
spirit operating in a universal and amazingly uniform field, while at the 
same time, particularly for the age when Hellenistic culture was dominant, 
we must give allowance for the interfusion of factors geographically most 
distant. 

Of the old Babylonian names of demons, only two appear in our texts, 
the sedii and Lilith (with its male counterpart), but these, if originally 
Babylonian, in ancient times had pervaded the Semitic world. The utukki 
Umnuti are the xnE"3 pnn , "evil spirits," but these have their biblical pre- 
cedent." The Babylonian vocabulary has been suppressed by genuine 
Semitic words. The extensive praxis of the Babylonian has also almost 
disappeared ; the inversion of the bowl, some rudely scrawled designs, and 

" KA-r, 463. 

" The actual adoption by the Jews of Babylonian magical rites is portrayed in 
Ese. 13: 17 f. 

" Z. f. Keilschriftforsch., ii, 297. 

" The KlTiStS" may be Babylonian, see to 8: 2. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. Ill 

one or two magical prescriptions" are all that remain in our texts of the 
elder practice. The use of the bowl in a love-charm has its parallel only 
in the Hellenistic KaTa6eafio<: or defixio, likewise buried in the earth. The 
sorcerer invokes the names of ancient masters (as in the Greek magic 
again), he no longer is professionally independent like the asipu priest; even 
laymen borrow and lay the spells. The mere "word" or "name" has y 
replaced the practice; in the Babylonian magic the gods were prayed to 
for their assistance, and we often question whether we are dealing with 
magic or religion; here their or the angels' names are simply used, and 
these are sufficient to invoke their potency, without appeal to- the heart or 
mind of a living deity. The use of a word like Abraxas illustrates the 
extreme consequence; if a deity can become a name, so a word can become 
a deity — nnmen nomen! The formula "in the name of" can be used before 
letters and phrases as well as before divine names. At first sight this name- 
magic appears more spiritual ; it actually proves to be more absurdly 
mechanical, because it invokes a binding of the gods and heavenly powers 
by a cheap and easy formula without any of the "service" of the gods, with 
litany and priest, which the elder rites prescribed. 

There is thus a change in the spirit of the magic. The old Babylonian 
was religious in his incantations ; it is only in the so-called medical texts 
that we find the passage from the religious sphere to that of entirely 
mechanical operation, which may issue either in empirical science or in 
absolute magic. The sense of sin lay heavy upon the Babylonian devotee, 
he needed to dress in sackcloth and wallow in ashes, while the incantation 
required rites of purification and confession of sins in pathetic and ethical 
litanies." But any such religious element is entirely wanting in our texts, 
apart from the stereotyped introductory formula, "Lord of healing, Lord 
of love" and two obscure, probably traditional references to sin and guilt."' 
We have in a word a purely magical system, that is, one whose efficacy con- ^ 
sists in doing or rather saying certain things without a prayer or lustration 
or confession. 

" See Nos. 12, 13. 

" Cf. the "confessional" in the second tablet of the Surpu-&tr\ts. 

*•■ See p. 86. 



112 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

It may be further noticed that in the use of the Jewish Scriptures, 
which is very scanty, the passages of real religious import are not employed 
(§ ii). This is especially true of the Nippur texts, and often all that we 
have reminiscent of the Bible or of religion are the stereotyped Amens and 
Halleluias, common property of the magic of the age. Along with this 
unreligiousness of the magic goes a certain impression of impersonality 
throughout ; there is a general lack of reference even to personal sorcerers ; 
attention is paid to the operation of witchcraft, regarded itself as a poten- 
tiality, and the mechanical danger is met by mechanical means. 

In these differentia from the old Babylonian magic we find much that 
is apparently or evidently Jewish, and again some factors that are not so 
categorically explained. We may think that the comparative absence of 
magic rite is due to Jewish influence, as also the large use of name-sorcery. 
The cultless condition of the Jews since A. D. 70 and the long previous 
term of six centuries in which the official cult was confined to one sanctuary, 
must have incapacitated the Jew for the rites of the magician. He dared 
not make simulacra, many practices were out of question because of their 
evidently heathen associations ("the ways of the Amorite"). But he had 
a holy book made up of sacred words, and a god unlike any of the pagans, 
who might not be seen, who once had spoken (Dt. 5), and who in lieu of 
images and many sanctuaries was revealed in his Names." And so holy 
words and names became the province of the Jewish sorcery. His religion, 
when it passed out of the naturalistic or the ethical sphere, found its outlet 
in logolog}', in Rabbinism with its logomachies, in magic and kabbalism 
with their manipulation of words and letters, Even the angels, which were 
imported as a kind of humanizing mythology into Jewish monotheism, 
came to be but plays on roots, invocations of the attributes or activities of 
deity, so that finally angel was merely synonymous with charm." 

In these particulars the Jews may have contributed to the later 
Mesopotamian magic, as well as to that of the Hellenistic world. In our 
bowls we find Jewish families as the clients, and in the Nippur collection 
there is a frequent reference to the venerable Jewish master, Joshua b. 
•Perahia, as a revealer of heaven's mysteries; but as he appears also in the 

" Kabbalism appears as early as the present text of Ex. 3, 14. 
" See § 12, n. 112. 



J. A. montgome;ry — aramaic incantation texts. 113 

Syriac bowls, which are probably of pagan origin, he may have already 
become a common traditional figure like Moses in the papyri. Nippur had 
been since the Exile a center of the Jews,^ and in Talmudic times it lay 
just east of the famous Rabbinic school at Sura, between which 
and Pumbaditha to the north of Babylon the spiritual life of Babylonian 
Judaism circulated." But Nippur does not appear to have remained a 
Jewish seat of importance. It is mentioned but once in the Talmud," and 
the settlement which the Pennsylvania expedition unearthed on the top of 
its ruins was, at least so far as the bowls testify, a mixed folk, among whom 
the identical magic flourished under Jewish, Mandaic, pagan forms. This 
interchange of magical property precludes us from specifically speaking 
of many texts as certainly Jewish, even while we recognize numerous 
Jewish elements. It is interesting to observe that the Mandaic texts are 
truer to the theology of the sect than many of the so-called Jewish bowls. 
The Jewish magic here in Nippur, as elsewhere, was eclectic. The religion 
of the Jew cannot admit that it itself is eclectic, and the self-consciousness 
of the intelligent orthodoxy in rejecting or at least minimizing magic as 
part of the Jewish system, approves itself when we study our specimens 
of magic ; their science is as much cosmopolitan as native. 

I pass now to another clue for the origins of the bowl-magic. I have 
discussed under No. 3 the frequent references to the genius Armasa, who 
is identified with Metatron and called the Word, and is none else than the 
Hermes of the Hermetic theosophy. No. 28 is a magical philtre for a 
lovesick wife, the terms of which find their closest correspondence in 
Greek charms; No. 19 names a number of deities, among whose obscure 
names we can identify Zeus and Okeanos, and perhaps the names of the 
Aeon-pair. There are other clues of connection with the Greek magic, 
discussed in the Introduction and the texts; I may refer especially to the 

" For the river Chebar hard by Nippur, the Kabar of tablets found by the 
Pennsylvania Expedition, see BE. ix, plate 84, 1. 2. For the names of the numerous 
Jewish settlers there see Clay's Murashu texts and his summary in Light on the Old 
Testament, 404, also S. Daiches, The Jews in Babylonia in the Time of Ezra and 
Nehemiah according to Babylonian Inscriptions (Publication no. 2 of the Jews' 
College, London). 

" See S. Funk, Die Juden in Babylonien, Berlin, 1902, ii, 153 (with no reference 
to Nippur). 

" Yoma lob, identified with the biblical Calneh 



114 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYEONIAN SECTION. 

identical pharaseology in the choice of a certain day out of a month and a 
year as auspicious for working the charm." Such terms as Abraxas direct 
our thought to the great western world and the imposing magical fabric 
of Hellenism." And this system directs us to Egypt. 

I have spoken of the permutations made on the Sacred Name as typi- 
cally Jewish. And yet there was another people which equally cultivated 
the mystery of ineffable names, a people older than the worshippers of 
Yahwe, the Egyptians." The Jewish development in this regard was 
hardly independent of Egypt. However this may be, we find in the Greek 
magical texts the fusion of the two theosophies, the Jewish Ineffable Name, 
with all its vowel permutations, and like sacred titles, Sebaoth, Adonai, etc., 
mixed pell-mell with those of Egyptian origin. And further the accumu- 
lation of barbarous syllables, such as appear in our texts, has no known 
tradition behind it hailing from the Jewish and Babylonian theologies; 
it must be traced back to the Egyptian magical science." This phenomenon 

" See p. 5S. 

" The recent rapid development of the study of magic and the increased appli- 
cation to the magical papyri have aroused in various quarters the question concerning 
the nature of the Jewish magic and its relations to that of the Hellenistic world. 
This investigation appears to have been first broached in a critical way by Blau 
(pp. 37 ff., 96 fF.), followed by several writers whose works have been constantly 
cited in the above pages : Dieterich, Deissmann, Conybeare (who considers the 
Testament of Solomon to be of Jewish origin), Gaster (in introduction to his Sword 
of Moses), Reitzenstein, Heitmiiller, Wendland. Our specimens of magic hail from 
the eastern confines of that world, even from beyond its political borders, and are 
speaking proofs of the eclectic and cosmopolitan character of Hellenistic magic. 

"Budge, Egyptian Magic, ch. v; Erman, Egyptian Religion (1907), 154. For 
the influence of Egypt in the Hellenistic magic, see the excursus in HeitmuUer, "Im 
Namen Jesu," 218. 

" In addition to the observations in § 11, see Budge, /. c; Wiedemann, 
Religion of the Ancient Egyptians (1897), 268, quoting Synesius's words: the 
Egyptian "mumbled a few unintelligible syllables" ; also his Magie u. Zauberei im 
alt. Agypten (1905), 32. The Greek papyri are faithful repeaters of this Egyptian 
art. — Stiibe, remarking on the kabbalistic use of letters (p. S4), thinks that here 
we have traces of the passage from the Talmud to the beginnings of the develop- 
ment of the Kabbala. But as of Egyptian origin or kinship, the use is not to be 
dated by the Kabbala. It existed on the periphery of Judaism long before it was 
taken up by the Jewish doctors. Indeed Chwolson (CIH, col. 115) denies any special 
relation of these texts to Talmudic ideas (against Lenormant, Essai, i, 212, who held 
that our magic was a product of the Babylonian academies). Wohlstein was the 
first to observe the eclectic character of our magic, ZA, viii, 316 f. In matter of fact 
hardly a trace of technical Kabbalism is to be found in them. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 115 

is continued and flourishes with abandonment in the Greek papyri, and 
there again this form of magical spell falls in with the Jewish currents. 

This Egypto-Hellenistic magic is one of the prime sources of our texts. 
and the impression made upon me in my study is that they resemble much 
more. this form of magic than that of ancient Babylonia. The beginnings 
of this invasion of western sorcery into Mesopotamia may have begun with 
Alexander's armies; there can be little doubt but that pervasive Hellenism 
soon domesticated its magic, as everything else Greek, wherever it settled. 
It doubtless was reinforced in its development on Babylonian soil by the 
Hellenistic Jewish magic that had grown into luxuriant life on the theosophic 
soil of Egypt and thence sent forth its waves of spiritual energy to all the 
homes of the dispersed race. 

It is difficult in the field of magic to decide which is cause and which 
effect, for the spirit of magic produces like fruits spontaneously everywhere. 
Our bowl sorcery is connected doubtless by many lineal bonds with 
ancient Babylonia, but it shows as unmistakable links with the Hellenistic 
magic, to which the Jews contributed, and from which they received still 
more. The problem of these texts is the same that confronts us in specula- 
tion over the Greek magical papyri. Who wrote these? Egyptian, Jew, 
Greek, Christian, Gnostic, all contributed each one his magical names, 
mysterious formulas, bits of sacred history, each outbidding the other in 
the effort to attain the same ends and arriving at an indistinguishable limbo 
of monotonous sameness. The texts were written for all who would use 
them, and those who received their magical traditions adapted them to the 
changing fancies of age and clime. 

Our texts exhibit a like eclecticism. Babylonian, Jewish, Mandaic, 
Gnostic, Hellenistic, and indirectly Egyptian, elements are there, in various 
combinations. The Jew contributed a certain quality of monotheism and 
made it palatable by his angelology; his Divine Name, his Scriptures and 
apocrypha and liturgy, were storehouses of magical lore. All this was fused 
with like elements from parallel sources, and the product was useful to any 
body of magicians, even as it was in demand on the part of every class 
of clients, pagans, Persians, Jews, Christians, every kind of sect. And 
what is true of our texts is true of all the Jewish magical literature. 



y 



116 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

The bowls then are not so much illustrative of a special Jewish magic 
as of the eclectic religious conditions of later Mesopotamia; here the 
ancient magic, divorced from its content of real religion, came to be rein- 
forced by new currents of superstition from the West. Whatever be the 
relation of magic and religion, whether they are twin sisters, or the one 
the parent of the other, or innate rivals, in our special and confined field we 
may observe the break-down of the ancient noble religions; gods have be- 
come names, rites esoteric and selfish and malignant, holy writings formulas. 
It is not Judaism we have been studying but a phase of fin de siecle super- 
stition. 

In recent years so much has been made of Persian origins for western 
religion, philosophy, and magic," that I am surprised to find hardly a trace 
even in a word" of the Zoroastrian system upon our bowl-magic. This is 
the more remarkable as it belongs to Persian soil and flourished under the 
Sassanian empire, while the dualism, demonology and magical practice of 
Persia would have been so natural a nursing mother to the superstition we 
have been studying. Had the Zoroastrian influence spent itself and, after 
it had given itself to the world, did the more virile currents of the original 
stock and of the West reassert themselves and triumph in Iran's territory? 
Or has the influence of Persia been overrated? 

As to the comparative age, in point of literary tradition, of the three 
classes, "Jewish," Syriac, Mandaic, it is impossible to decide; all follow 
common types. In the case of the Mandaic replica to No. ii, the former 
has the secondary text. The Mandaic charms are closest in spirit to the 
old Babylonian magical literature, those in the Syriac appear to be expres- 
sive of the current paganism (e. g. No. 36). 

" See Cumont, The Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism, esp. nn. 37-39, p. 
266 f. ; Bousset, Die Urspriinge der Gnosis, etc. 

" N. B. the Ispandas-dewa in Hyvernat's text, and iO'lE, possibly the Persian 
Peri. The arguments for Persian influences advanced by Levy, ZDMG, ix, 471 f., 
are now antiquated by the Babylonian literature. The fashion of interminable lists 
of demons may come from Persia. 



TEXTS, TRANSLATIONS, NOTES 

CBS = Catalogue of Babylonian Section University of Pennsylvania. 

Numerals in ( ) number the lines of the spiral inscription, starting from the 
radius where the text begins. 

Brackets, [ ], indicate suppletion of lacunae. 

Phrases in ( ) in the translation represent amplification or interpretation by the- 
translator. 

Inferior points attached to Hebrew characters indicate doubtful readings. 

Points on the line indicate missing letters or words. 

Superior points, in the Syriac texts, represent the diacritical marks of the 
original. 

No. 1 (CBS 8693) 

13 ma[K pnjni' kitidk (3) n^n 'in'm [imnJB' 12 (2) h-idnt nynp r^" 
[mB]K inni) xmoK (5) ]'\nb in^m s!3D na [injo]nn «in!'T (4) wvi iniac 
n2T Kn'!"!>T r\v<ap pnn ni'D i'[o]« I'dk «aD (6) nn injona mni'i imac 13 
ryby n^wts'K (8) kcd n3 iiuonn Kini'i nmoB' in hiek inn^ (7) ?in^n'3 
p-iD 11 pDD «niJ 'J3^ nr\•''?•''?^ (9) n^B' pi^n pan^nt [Dijtrn «n'i"!' ^ro ba 
3KDt3 i3aB'inK3 ii p^3niD '1 pmE3 n-iB (10) wi p '1 nnnm xmna ijy piasn 

p-lJCOl pDiiSI pX'K pB'JB'21 t}* pnjSOl (11) pOJSDI psI'Vl PDDT '1 PDDH 

pannni xnaifi . . 'i poa 
Exterior 

't^j nim3 naa!' kb'J''k 'J3^ ptsToi Tioir:!' ptd' piimQi p^jm pannsi (12) 
eye (14) Qioa Koa^ai nii"i'3 paat}* kb'J'n ^ja n^yi n3J niona ^^:b) (13) 
n'ocn Kj3na (15) «:mif la^^n'si awSian «ntj"a an-'b^b ■'^'bv n^ana ib'j ij-j 

nvi ni'iv i's max td' 

Translation 

This the amulet of Ephra (2) bar Saborduch, wherein shall be (3) 
salvation for this Ephra b. S. and also (4) for this Bahmanduch bath 
Sama, that there be for them (5) salvation, namely for this Ephra b. 
S. and for this Bahmandiich b. 5. (6) Amen, Amen, Selah. 

This is an amulet against the Liliths that haunt the house of 
(7) this Ephra b. S. and this Bahmanduch b. §. (8) I adjure you, all 

(117) 



118 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

Species of Liliths in respect to your posterity, which is begotten by Demons 

(9) and Liliths to the children of light who go astray: Woe, who rebel 
and transgress against the proscription of their Lord; woe, from the blast 

(10) fast-flying; woe, destroying; woe, oppressing with your foul wounds 
. . . . , who do violence and trample and scourge and mutilate (11) and 
break and confuse and hobble and dissolve (the body) like water; woe, 
.... ; and where you stand, (12) and where you stand (sic) fearful and 
affrighted are ye, bound to my ban, — who appear to mankind, to men in 
the likeness of women (13) and to women in the likeness of men, and 
with mankind they lie by night and by day. 

With the formula, TWM (14) .?'§ GS GSK, have I written against 
thee, evil Lilith, whatsoever name be thine. We (15) have written. And 
his name shall save thee, Ephra, forever and ever. 

Commentary 
A phylactery in the name of a man and wife for protection against 
the liliths and their broods which haunt the home. The same couple are 
the subjects of the charm in No. 13, in which the woman invokes the love 
of her husband and the blessing of children. For the general magical 
details I refer in this and the following texts to the Introduction. 

1. msK: in No. 13 written with both n- and i«-. The name may be 
Jewish or Persian, (i) hypocoristic from Dnax, or (2) a hypocoristic 
reduction from one of the numerous names in Fra-; see Justi, Iranisches 
Namenhuch, loi ff. ; for the prothetic vowel, cf . ibid. 6. The Persian 
name of the mother by no means determines the race of the family. 

imat;' = "Sapor's-daughter" not instanced in Justi; duch for ducht; 
see above, p. 104, n. 6. 

2. 'inn = 'n'D, 1. 4; both forms in the Rabbinic. 

3. '1 D''Vl : unless a scribal error, a unique adverbial development of 
the preposition, "and withal," := simul ac, or o/iov mi^ e. g. Dieterich, 
Abraxas, 147. 

4. inJOnn: see Justi, p. 374 f. ; also in Pognon B. 

NOD: in No. 13 also 'NDD. A frequent Jewish name; see Heilpren, 
nnnn -no {Seder ha-Doroth), ed. Maskileison, Warsaw, 1883, ii, 296 f. 
The two forms are hypocoristic; see Noldeke, art. "Names," Bnc. Bib. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TBXTS. 119 

§ 50 f., Lidzbarski, Bphemeris ii, 7 ff., 13 ff. (For the early form and 
history of these terminations, cf. the results of Ranke, Early Babylonian 
Personal Names, 7 ff.). The full name was N''OD, "blind," occurring in 
Jewish and Syriac. It occurs as a feminine name (as here) in Asseman's 
Catalogue, cited by Payne-Smith, Thesaurus syriacus, col. 2655. 

6. an^b^b : pi., also snx'b'b . The liliths are the only named objects 
of exorcism, but masc. ppls., etc. are found in 1. 10 ff., probably by 
technical phraseology. 

r\2T. V Km ; cf. Pcsah. iiib: 'nn ■'niEJ 12T: "those which haunt caper- 
berries are spirits. 

iin?n'3: the pronominal suffix expressed with the intrusion of h; 
cf. in the Assouan papyri of Sayce and Cowley, •'bsiai •'^"13 (F, 9). 

8. [mjca : if a correct restoration, the charm would obviate the 
demoniac procreation described. 

9. "Sons of light": N"il3 is primarily fire and the term would indicate 
the angels, expressive of the legend that the angels emanate like sparks 
(cf. icn 'J3 , Job 5 : 7) from the dmur, the stream of fire under God's 
throne, Hag. 14a, and other reff. in Eisenmenger, ii, 371 ff. Cf. "the hosts 
of fire in the sphere," 8: 13. In 16: 7 the demons are "sons of darkness." 
But as the reference is to demoniac unions with human flesh, the expression 
appears to be transferred to mankind. It is then parallel to "sons of light," 
a name given in the Mandaic religion to the Uthras, Brandt, Maud. Rel., 
30, and also to men predestined to life, Brandt, Mand. Schr., 13, 19. The 
redeemed come to share in the light-nature of the angels, cf. Dan. u: 3, 
Enoch 38-39, cf. the viol mjt6^ of the NT. In the myth of Adam Kadmon, 
man was originally a being of light (Bousset, Hauptprobleme d. Gnosis, 
202, etc.; for the Kabbala, Karppe, Zohar, 2,72 ff.). Hence we must sup- 
pose that K113 has been reduced from KTnu "light" (cf. the Arabic), and 
the expression is to be correspondingly rendered. The predicates follow- 
ing recall the myth of Gen. 6. 

pnnD, as in Syriac, but the ' is only the sewa; cf. 1. 11. 

10. pms ma sp't p •'i: An interesting parallel to a well-known 
Talmudic formula against witches, Pesah. iioa-b: 'a^ma ma o^mp mp 
Nmn KpniD^ Np-r sma 'a'^ii^an in^x, generally translated: "Your 
head be balder, your crumbs [with which you conjure — cf. the anecdote 



120 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

of Abaye in Hull. losb, Joel, Der Aberglaube, i, 69] be blown away, your 
spices fly oflf, the wind carry away the fresh saffron.'" I doubt if so much 
sense can be made out of the doggerel; following the Talmudic tradition 
our phrase would mean "your breadcrumbs away with the gust!" By 
itself the words could simply mean, "be blown away with a gust," with re- 
duplication of the verb. For mp in the Talmudic passage, see to 18: 9. 

The combination in the middle of the line is obscure; a verbal middle 
noun from DCn? The participles 01 pbano portray the fiendish assaults of 
the demons; the same accumulations in Lidzbarski's Mandaic bowls. Cf. 
the action of the demon of epilepsy in Mk. 9: 14 ff. 

11. For the K* see above p. 61. 

p»3 innJiyD : for the relaxing effects of disease cf. Ps. 22: 15, Eze. 
7: 17- 

painai panna, a dittograph induced by the scribe turning over the 
bowl to write on the exterior and repeating the word. The ^ in the first 
form represents the sewa. The meaning is: stay banned where you are! 

12. p'D' : metaplastic form of root nOK, found in the Targums, etc. 
(cf. Heb. 1D10). 

roTD : cf. ^trf^Ki. 8ia, Nnn''N3 JtJD iT^ 'DTK. The climax of the 
description is the worst and most obscene of the plagues ; the same phrase in 
Pogn. B, no. 27. 

13. D1D3: in Ellis i: 8 QOa appears in conjunction with the Tetra- 
grammaton. 

14. '3'^, ''^bv- the form is singular, and the phrase refers to the 
many names of a lilith (see §§ 11, 12 and No. 42). 

With- Nn^b'b it is difficult to determine whether the singular or plural 
is meant. For "lilith of whatsoever name," cf. 14: 6: demons whose names 
are mentioned and who are not mentioned. The same indefinite invocation 
in the Babylonian, e. g. Utukki-sevles (Thompson Evil Spirits of Babylonia, 
i, 153) : spirits "that have no name," presenting a blanket formula for names 
not known; cf. daiu6vwv koI /i^ 6vofttt^6/ievov ^ Pradel, Griech. u. siidital. Gebete, 
22, 1. 2. 

15. 7X, a Hebrew reminiscence; in general cf. Ps. 20: 2 f. 

' See Blau, Zauberwesen, 77. The connection of this Talmudic passage with Bze. 
13 : 17 ff. has not been observed by the commentators. 



No. 2 (CBS 2945) 

'nspnp Hbnt-i ks'XJ TiDipn 'B'sjt 'i'''n3 ^kh'-eis nn pass njx «j!'tN ain 
JD3 Kj'ijini si'S'sai Km wdoikt ^^^^b xjb"3^i [x''3n] (2) niut noip sbnaT 
Jinb moN •'•\-''\i2 '23ni"j;2i "ca ijoa (3) pna n'j;jsi ir^ts nnxi k^qb' xnan 

Knanj in njusn rrn pri'tin inonnn ovTa c«n Kj^jn tn'vi'n ksb^ki son (4) 
iTn'33 DVTD 3in ]):>'? xjD'tf-a snri' ui (5) in!' Kjn^j nhk'p u n^jnni n^nn'sai 
'Nri'iT nn k3'K3 in snnnj in njnx hjn nn^a htiu la^rN* ^-sni iTiJu^pai p^nbt 
iri'r!' {"yi kiio iisn^n !>y n:n'NT NnDinsi xmnai xnotj' in^py »:r\^m (6) 
Knanj 13 NJUN nJN Nji'tx (7) 'in casoi' i'lD'D niiov iivi dhd S'yi xrjn 
Kn^3303 iin3i 'Ttra iin3 niyasi rri'tK Nirjin ncin iti"!'i 'B''3 m bai 
pnaiD nsni p-no ni'D po'p Nn3p''j NmriDm n3n2'3 NnE"3 

Transi<ation 

Again I come, I Pabak bar Kufithai, in my own might, on my person 
polished armor of iron, my head of iron, my figure of pure fire. (2) I am 
clad with 'the garment of Armasa (Hermes), Dabya and the Word, and my 
strength is in him who created heaven and earth. I have come and I have 
smitten (3) the evil Fiends and the malignant Adversaries. I 
have said to them that if at all you sin against Abiina bar Geribta and against 
Ibba bar Zawithai, I will lay a spell upon you, the spell (4) of the Sea and 
the spell of the monster Leviathan. (I say) that if at all you sin against 
Abvina b. G., and against his wife and his sons, I will bend the bow against 
you (5) and stretch the bow-string at you. 

Again, whereinsoever you sin against the house of Pabak and against 
his property and all the people of his house, in my own right I Abiina bar 
Geribta — or against Ibba bar Zawithai — (6) will bring down upon you 
the curse and the proscription and the ban which fell upon Mount Hermon 
and upon the monster Leviathan and upon Sodom and upon Gomorrha. In 
order to subdue Devils (7) do I come, I AbCina b. G., and all evil Sacra- 

(121) 



122 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

ments and the tongue of impious Charm-spirits; I have come and smitten 
the Demons and Devils and evil Tormentors, the Gods (Idol-spirits) and 
female Goddesses — standing in serried rows and encamped in camps. 

Commentary 
A mutual charm of two sorcerers, each invoking his powers in turn in 
the other's behalf. An almost exact replica of the terms of the charm is 
found in the first part of No. 27. The two men named appear in No. 3, 
where Pabak's household is the subject of exorcism. 

1. 3in: apparently a formal term of introduction; cf. 26: 3. Tt 
generally connects the several members of an incantation series. Cf. the 
"and" introducing the mortuary charm published by me in JAOS, 191 1, 
273. It may be correlative to 3iri in 1. 5. 

P3NE5: the Persian Papak, Justi, p. 241 ; cf. Arabic Babek, Greek 7ra///3£/(Of. 
The name occurs in late Babylonian, Hilprecht and Clay, BB, ix, 68. 

'xn'Sia: Syriac KH'sn is a water-flask with a small mouth. For 
the character of the name, cf. Hebrew Pi3p3, XofcCar, L,u. 8: 39 =• NTn 
"wine-pitcher," etc. For the hypocoristic termination in 'S — , see to 1:4. 
It is parallel in meaning and form to rripapa. Neh. 11 : 17. 

KVXJ = KnvsJ, 27:3. Comparing the Rabbinic ^'3, "a shining spark," 
and "white earth, gypsum," and l-nj, "polish." I understand this word in 
the sense of "polished armor." 

Nnm n»ip = niut "nDip n^3, 27: 4; the parallel marks the gradual 
obscuration of magical formulas. Fire is the potent element against witches 
and demons, as the ancient means for destroying their arts. In Babylonia 
the fire-god Gibil was the chief god of exorcism in such magic, Tallquist, 
p. 25 f f. ; for other examples in Semitic magic, see Thompson, Semitic 
Magic in Index. Iron, like the other metals, and excelling them, is a potent 
means against devils, Blau, p. 159; Thompson, in Index; in the Testament 
of Solomon is an anecdote of a devil afraid of iron (JQR, xi, 18) ; 
Josephus' exorcist used an iron ring. For the western world, see Pauly- 
Wissowa, Real-Bncyc, i, 50. 

2 . K'an I supply from the parallel inscription. After it appear traces 
of bl, which letters are repeated to make the following word; a fault in 
the bowl required the rewriting of the characters. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 183 

XDOINT Nna!? NJB'U^: the garment of a potent being carried with it 
his powers. Compare the assertion by the magician in the charm noted 
to 1. I, in which he professes to be clad with the magical paraphernalia of 
Moses, Aaron, David, Solomon, etc., and see above, § 9. There is also 
to be recalled the magical garment of Marduk in the fourth of the Seven 
Tablets of Creation, while the magical robe which renders the wearer 
invisible is common property of folklore. 

N^^DOI N'm NDD1S. NDOTS is found in the parallel bowl No. 27 (along 
with the rest of this phrase) ; in 19: 7; in 25: 4 tl""2t2"'D ndd["in]; in ii : 7 
in the spelling D'oiS; and in 7: 8, D'DT'N = Myhrman, 1. 4, D''»-|^^. The 
forms give the clue ; D'ons is one of the Syriac spellings for the Greek 'Ep//w, 
e. g. Peshitto to Acts 14: 12; D''DTn also occurs in Syriac. KDDis is then 
the Hermes about whom gathered the extensive mystical cults and literature 
towards the beginning of the Christian era to which is given the epithet 
Hermetic. Summary reference may be made here to Reitzenstein's illum- 
inating study Poimandres (Leipzig, 1904), also to G. R. S. Mead, Thrice 
Holy Hermas, London and Benares, 1906. The Greek Hermes, the 
messenger of the gods, was identified with the Egyptian Thot, the divine 
agent of human illumination — in a word the Logos of the Egyptian religion. 
This mystical function of Hermes-Thot is evidenced, e. g., by a passage in 

Justin Martyr ; fi yeyEvyc-dai EK ■Seov /Jyofiev A6yov i^eoi), Kolvov rovro ^(TT(o vfilv Tol^ rbv 
'Ep/i^v ?.6yov Tov Tzapa ^eov ayye^.TiKov Myovaiv (^Apol. i, 22 ; Migne, Patrol, gr., vi, 

57.). 

This figure was also adopted in the syncretistic mysticism of the 
farther East, as the expressions cited from our bowls show. He is the 
word xi^^DO (= N^'^D, 19: 7),' and the Metatron, that mysterious inter- 
mediate agency between God and his creation in Jewish Gnosticism (cf. § 
13). But this Hermetic theology was not mediated to the Orient through 
Judaism, but through the Hermetic schools, which appear to have held 
out, into the twelfth century, in that obstinate center of paganism, Harran. 
Chwolson has collected the evidence for the survival in that region of the 
Greek religious philosophies,' and Reitzenstein has now trenchantly pointed 

' The 'Ep/iw '-(^X'of or Uymv: Reitzenstein, op. cit., 43; Aht, Apologie des Apuleius, 
118. 

' In his Die Ssabier und der Ssabismus, 1856. See now Dozy and de Goeje, 



124 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

out (p. i66 ff.) the essential Hermetic quality of this last remnant of the 
old pagan philosophy. The magic of the Euphrates valley has caught up 
probably from Harran the figure of Hermes and easily identified it with 
the Jewish Metratron, the biblical Enoch, etc' Hermes was the equivalent 
of the Babylonian Nebo, and a passage in the Mandaic Ginza throws light 
upon the expression, "clad with the clothing of Armasa"; in the Ginza 
we have a tradition that the angels invested Nebo with a dress of fire.' 

The N^boD of our text is then a proper epithet of ^5DD■|^!. What is meant 
by the preceding epithet X'2T ? It occurs in the parallel text, and also in 
Stiibe's text, 1. 5, thus: n'2T naN^D iniaD'D. I suggest that nun (s'an) 
means "who-is-in-Yah," an ancient mystical expression for the Logos; cf. 
the Johannine ■^pk tov &e6v, and the description of the Son as "in the 
bosom of his Father," and, "I am in the Father and the Father in me." 
Compare also 7: 8, inu in% and note. 

3. nno (cf. 4: 4), reminiscent of the biblical 'D 3t2p, for which see 
Joel, i, 100. 

N3UN: a name of two Amoras. 

NnanJ: "scabby"; cf. Gareb, 2 Sa. 23: 38, and the Palmyrene N3nj, 
de Vogiie, Syrie centrale, no. 141 ; also the Arabic Juraib, Jarba. 

tO'N: the same name in Seder ha-Doroth, ii, 45. The form is shortened 
from Abba, see Lidzbarski, Bphemeris, ii, 8. 

'xn'ir : so the probable reading of the name here and below. It is 
hypocoristic from KlTU , "corner" ; cf . the biblical name Ribka := Aram. 
Npan, "stall." Is there here a pious allusion to the daughters of Israel as 
polished corners (Wlt) of the temple, Ps. 144: 12? 

KJS'C'X: the verb is found in the Aramaic only in the Syriac, and but 
rarely, and in the bowls occurs only here. 

Nouveaux documents pour I'etude de la religion des Harraniens, in the Actes of the 
6th International Congress of Orientalists, II, i, 281. 

' Bar-Hebraeus, Chron., ed. Kirsch, p. s, where Hermes and Enoch are identified 
"by Greek books" ; also a reference in Reitzenstein, p. 172, n. 3, to a Hermetic MS. 
bearing the name of Idris = Enoch. For this Enoch-theosophy see Joel, Aherglaube, 
ii, 16, 19. 

' Ginsa, R, p. 54, ed. Petermann; see Brandt, Manddische Schriften, 89. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 125 

'J1 Non NaE;"X: the spell on the sea and Leviathan was mightiest in 
magical history, for it was the first great act of "white magic" ; cf . the. 
Marduk legend. A survival of this mystical aspect of creation appears in 
Job 38: 8-1 1, which concludes: "And He said: thus far shalt thou come 
and no farther, and here shall thy proud waves be stayed" ; cf . Jer. 5 : 22, 
Ps. 104: 6 ff., Job 38: 8 if. The subjection of the abyss is a frequent 
magical allusion in the papyri, e. g. the Great Magical Papyrus of Paris, 
1. 3062 flF. (Dieterich, Abraxas, 140; Blau, p. 113; Deissmann, Light, 258). 
The sealing of Tehom is referred to in Targ. Jon. B-v. 28: 30. 

4. intannn : the scribe began to write the perfect, passed into the 
imperfect (which we should expect here) with the second letter and re- 
turned to the perfect termination; he amended his mistake by rewriting 
the word. In general the scribes aimed at carefulness. A word so 
corrected is sometimes deleted with a line. 

rrnn'K: for the various forms, see Glossary, s. v. unnyn. 

n'J33: a Mandaic and also Targumic idiom for 'ni33, Noldeke, Mand. 
Gram., § 144. 

'Jl sncp 'a: u a form of -3 found in Targums and Talmud (also 
in the Palestinian charm cited to 1. i). The terms are reminiscent of 
Marduk's slaying of Tiamat in the Babylonian creation legend : "Marduk 
made ready bows .... The bow and the quiver he hung at his side" ; 
cf. the praise of Marduk's bow in the fifth tablet (King, Seven Tablets of 
Creation, ii, 63, 83, and fragment cited, p. 207) ; also numerous, biblical 
parallels: Hab. 3: 9, cf. v. 11 ; Ps. 7: 12-14; Dt. 32: 41 (where Gressmann, 
Isr.-jiid. Bschatologie, 78, would read nsB'S for DBCn) . As in 1. i with the 
clothing of Deity, so here with his magical arms the magician declares 
himself invested. But the phraseology may be based on magical practice, 
a symbolical shooting at simulacra, in the same way as these are burnt, 
peeled oflf, mutilated, etc. A very similar passage is to be found in one of 
the Manichaean texts discovered in Chinese Turkestan, in which the 
conjurer shoots with his bow and arrow at the demon, who falls dead; 
Sitzungsberichte of the Berlin Academy, 1908, 401. 

KJ3'J: participial form from 33J; the Peal is unique. 

5. 3in : the other part of the mutual charm now begins. The contrast 
is further expressed by nn'S , "oji my part." 



186 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

t<3''S3 IN: this name was omitted in its proper place and is now inserted. 

6. NHDinx: for tile prosthetic N see Noldelce, Mand. Gram., § 24. 

tlDT'n ^y: a reminiscence of the myth of the confederation of the 
fallen angels upon Hermon (n. b. / Din) ; see Enoch 6: 5 f. : "they named 
the mount Hermon, because they had sworn and bound themselves by 
curses upon it" ; also 14 : 7 ff . Philo of Byblus also connects the Titans with 
the Lebanons and other mountains of Syria : "These begat sons of greatest 
size and superiority, whose names were given to the mountains which they 
occupied, so that some of them are called Kassion and Libanos and Anti- 
libanos and Brathu.'" And Hilary of Poitiers adds something to our 
knowledge of the myth : "Hermon is a mountain in Phoenicia, the interpre- 
tation of whose name is anathema. Moreover it is the tradition — from 
whose book it comes I know not, — that the angels lusting after the 
daughters of men, when they descended from heaven, assembled on this 
very high mountain.'" Cf. the anointing of Nebo by the evil gods in the 
Mandaic mythology, Brandt, Mand. Rel., 126 f. 

7. pmo m-D: construct of accumulation. 

naiD nST: "camping in camps." IBi is very rare in Hebrew and 
Aramaic, but is frequent in Assyrian, where among several meanings it 
is found in this sense (cf. the biblical place-name D'TBl). isio occurs in 
a MS. cited by Rabbinowicz to Megilla lob: 'JHS hv n'Dio TVI, where 'D 
= Hebrew nrae'.' The variant in 27: 11, nano nsio, parallel to 'D 'itd, 
is probably the correct form. The allusion to the serried battalions of the 
demons is epical, perhaps of mythological origin. 

' Eusebius, Praep. Ev. i, 10: 7; text in C. Miiller, Fragm, hist, grace, iii, 566. 
' Hilary to Ps. 132 : 3, see Corpus script, eccles, latin., xxii, 689. 

' So on Jastrow's authority, Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud, etc., 1476, 
but I do not find the reference. 



No. 3 (CBS 2963) 

xnonn^ xnnB' «onm xni nid'n pin roto ^Gnm t<3i N'dx xrixiDx no •\ds>2 
SB"3 sjt3Di ssm Kin H^ra pmriM nrn mtioniri' in 'n-ix (2) inm nwai 
r]'?V2 nib'D snn^si n^nn'K ni;5'D N123 (3) i'^opn Kiaa max povav npri'DT 
'VncKi niiKno loiN 1D1S «'i'''i'm scon pn^o^K poi pnmx I'o pan pm 
n'nri'x nnx m!"Q mt^oiin in 'ms inn n' !'it3p'n n^t i^v »:v2e>a (i) 
n^i pn^jn rr iJitap^n k!"! (5) ni'va 'mx nib-'n n^ia na nns ri' ^lop^n nSt 
Koon N^i s'l^b t6 n'?^v'?^ \n kqv i^q pni) 11m p3i pn^ n^sT pn pnnn 
DVE iDn ntntnt opj ion (6) ion ion vqdvsdvs non^ ion non yrvTVtT n'oc^a 

IDC VP IDS' PD P'PD pD PD pDpD KriTP' KntJ"N pO HTIsr nsi^ inDN \^p lOH 

5"m iTTT yoB' iJi (7) n^ro ^[']m xnio ns^on sm kob' kih pnn 

[P'lIT^ ^i"""' inronin na 'ms pim n'oxnp loi moip po y^nn'oi pnr 

iw^i pmi pn!' D'KT iinn:a ^3 (8) poi pn^ja I'D 101 'inns na n^nrrs nnx I'O 
P'PD Nm'p' »r\<i'->ti po HTiEi' nsv inos pp pdpd idpd nie-a p** b'E'dib 

i"m HTi' yoB' (9) nDi noin !"m snio ik^ot sa-i sots' [sin pin] 

KOB' pnna nu «nB'n ?ik snu inm. n'onp poi 'monp po yi'ari'oi p'>'\y 

n^nrr-K nnx anp poi nn[r''OTin -a 'ms mp po] [n'r]o i^nm k3i 

nnof? mB'31 icK e'b'did pn^ pmi pn^ n^Kn paii pja mp poi (10) 'i3na na 

Na[-i KDE' Nin pnn] po j'dpd idpd sriTp^ xnB"N po n^nsi'' nsv nav 

p3 Mionp po yi>3n'oi ^■'•]V< i"m (11) n^n' yoB? nai n'J^o ^^m xnio in^dt 

nnK (12) pn nb"2 Kin, pidm pnyi S'iht wm sob- inn niB'a khb'h ik 

'iDKJB' B'B'Dia pnb pmi pn!' jtkt pa'i pja bn Dip poi 'lana na nTirrs 
nt tdn] oi'B'n'a Timan la mni "lyr toon la nin' nyr loon ^k mni ■idk''i 

[IDK lOK B'K'O i'VID niK 

Translation 

In thy name, O Lord of salvations, the great Saviour of love. 

Designated is this spell and mystery and strong seal for the sealing 
of the household of this (2) Ardoi bar Hormizduch, that from him may 
depart and remove the evil Demon and the evil Satan, who is called SP'SK, 

(127) 



128 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

the Mighty Destroyer, who kills (3) a man from the side of his wife 
and a woman from the side of her husband, and sons and daughters from 
their father and from their mother, — by day and by night onto, omo, 
walking. (4) I adjure thee that thou do not kill off this Ardoi b. H. from 
Ahath his wife, and that thou do not kill off Ahath bath Parkoi from 
Ardoi her husband, (5) and that thou do not kill off their sons and their 
daughters, whether those they have or those they shall have, from this 
day and forever, neither by night nor by day. In the name of Z'Z'Z', HSR, 
HSR, HSR, P'SP'SP', TMR, TMR, (6) TMR, NKT, ZHZHZH, 
HSR, P'S, TMR, KIC, 'STW, YWPT, YWPTYH, from the burning fire, 
SKSYN, SYN, SYN, SKYWN ; SJ^, his name KS his name. This is the 
great name before which the angel of death is afraid, (7) and when he 
hears it, frightened he flees and is swallowed up before it and (just so) 

before this Ardoi b. H. shall he fear and flee [and from] Ahath his 

wife, bath P., and from all their sons and from (8) all their daughters, 
whether those they have or those they shall have. PWTSS, Amen. In 
the name of K^, 'STW, YWPT, YWPTYH, from the burning fire, 

SKSN, SKSYN, SKYWN, [This is] the great name before which 

the angel of death is afraid and when (9) he hears it, frightened he flees 
and is swallowed up before it and before this household. Moreover now 
in this great name of which is afraid [the angel of death, etc. — he shall 
flee from Ardoi b. H.] and from Ahath his wife b. P., (10) and from sons 
and daughters, those they have and those they shall have. PWTSS, 
Amen. In the name of 'STW, YWPT, etc. [This is the great name] 
before which the angel of death is afraid, and when he hears it (11) 
frightened he flees and is swallowed up ; so moreover now on the authority 

of this great name shall fear and flee and go forth the evil Demon 

(from Ardoi, etc.). PWTSS. According as it is said: "And Yhwh 
said to Satan: Yhwh rebuke thee, Satan; Yhwh rebuke thee, who 
chooses Jerusalem. [Is not this a brand plucked from the burning? Amen. 
Amen.]" 

Commentary 

A charm for a man and his family against a murderous spirit. The 
charm consists in magical syllables constituting "this great name" and the 
formula is repeated four times; see p. 65. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 139 

I. no: construct = Syr. NIC. 'Jl NnxiDN nO: a frequent epithet in 
these bowls of the deity invoked, along with 'orrn N3"i K'DX, e. g. 7: i. 
Cf. the frequent invocation in Pognon's bowls : K'DSDT ^"D^5 nxJN, N''DK riNJX 
Nnx»'65'''3, etc. The theme riDS is equivalent to ff^C" in the New Testament 
and Latin saltis, German Heil, for which modern English offers no syno- 
nym, the good old word "health" having been specialized. The word 
implies a remedy against evil spirits and black magic. It is also used 
concretely, of the phylactery, "this 'X", Wohls. 2426: i. 

The epithets here used are interesting as being probably one of the 
few survivals in these inscriptions of the ancient Babylonian theological 
terminology; there we have, in the penitential and magical literature in- 
numerable appeals to the love and curative powers of the deities; thus 
Marduk is god of love and life,' Ea is a-si-e.' And the exact equivalent of 
K31 K'DS is found as an epithet of Gula, the consort of Ninib: asugallatu 
beltu rabitu, "Great Healer, Mighty Mistress" ; and of Bau, who became 
identified with Gula, e. g. as'itu gallatu.' Ninib was domiciled at Nippur 
and these epithets of his consort may have been particularly Nippurian, 
and so have survived in the bowls coming from that locality. I have not 
been able to discover the parallel masculine epithet for Ninib.' This 
invocation is doubtless pagan, being distinct from the numerous biblical 
epithets expressive of the love and power of God. It is never associated 
with the Jewish Divine Name. 2"t//p is a common epithet of the Greek 
gods, Zeus, Apollo, Asklepios, Hermes, and is an epithet of the Deity in 
the N. T., e. g. I Tim. 1:1. Cf. also the Phoenician NEno bj?3, CIS, i, no. 
379, and Ex. 15: 26, ixan nin' 'J«. Also n. b. the common epithets for 

' La magie ass., Fossey, 323, 365, 369; n. b. his title remenu. 
' This reference I have not been able to verify. 

• III R, 41, col. 2: 29; Delitzsch, Hwb., 197a; Schrader, KB, iv, 78. 

• R. C. Thompson, PSBA, 1908, 63. 

• Radau (BB xvii, pt. l, p. ix) endeavors to find the same title for Ninib in his 
explanation of the Aramaic rendering of nin-ib, neniw (see Clay, JAOS xxviii, 1907, 
13s, and Montgomery, ibid., xxix, 204). He interprets it as = en-usati, "lord of 
help," our very title (cf. Delitzsch, Beitr'dge s. Ass. i, 219, for equivalence of AZU 
with asu), and with the same root. The interpretation would be very agreeable to 
me in view of the above remarks, but Radau omits to explain the Aramaic rendering 
of s (or z) by V when the Aramaic has the root kdk, while Clay's explanation appears 
to me the more satisfactory. 



130 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

the love of God (V Dm) in the O. T. and Koran, also in the Palmyrene 
texts.' Pradel has collected in his Griech. u. sudital. Gebete, 42 f., a 
number of the epithets denoting the healing and merciful character of God ; 
he is there larpdc iimxuv, iXerniuv, etc. 

'Jl }DtO: a standing introductory formula in these bowls (with XD3, 
etc.). lOT, Pael, appears to be used in the sense in which the Peshitto has 
it as the rendering of the Hebrew cnpn, "sanctify," e. g. Josh. 7: 13, Jer. 
12 : 3. Of. the religious connotation of the parallel root — ni?" . 

For Knonn as a pa"al formation see Noldeke, Mand. Gram., 121. Cf. 
the Mandaic forms and formula cited by Lidzbarski, Bph. i, 96, n. i : 
KmSDXJi xntNlsn snONriKn. The "charm, mystery, seal," are identical, and 
refer to the Great Name of the incantation. For the identity of name and 
seal, see Heitmuller, "Im Natnen Jesii," 143, 150, etc. 

2. 'ITIK: hypocoristicon in -oi, abundant, with variants in -ai and i, in 
these texts (see Noldeke, Persische Studien, in Sitzungsberichte, phil.-hist. 
Class, of the Vienna Academy, 1888, p. 387.). The name is formed from 
one of the numerous Persian names in ard- or art-; it occurs in Myhrman's 
text, see his note, p. 349. 

"in;''D"iin: a frequent Persian name see Justi, p. 10. 

nt', or nr = yr, from jnt or J?l?t; but as nr, from nnt (found in 
Heb., Ex. 28: 28, cf. the Aramaic mr), see the forms Iimr,io:6, Jinr, 
12: ID, sntsns, Pognon, B. nr, 31: 3. 

"Demon, Satan, Destroyer," all epithets of the one demon; cf. above 
pp. 58, 68. 

pDfSV : with reversal of the alphabetic order of the first four letters — 
to indicate the bouleversement of the demon? 

xnaj max : abbdda gabbdrd, abbad not otherwise found ; for the forma- 
tion cf. Noldeke, Syr. Gram., § 115. Notice that the Hebrew and Greek 
Abaddon is represented in Rev. by 6 avoX/.vuv, as though the original was a 
noun of agent, not an abstract. The epithet = n'ntron ^si)0^, 2 Sa. 24: 16, 
n^ntron, Ex. 12: 23, the Samaritan xbanD, etc. 

3. ]iT^•. for the vocalization of the conjunction cf. X^Ti, 14: 6; 
• Baethgen, Beitrdge, 82 f., Lidzbarski, Handbuch, 153. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 131 

n3'nSc6'l, 14: 7, etc. The conjunction is also similarly pointed in Targum 
Onkelos, Dt. 14: 37 (ed. Berliner), '^T\'"\; see Berliner's note, ii, 140. 

pn'D'X: the half-vowel after D is indicated, as in Mandaic. 

l^sriD 101X 101K : thus the uncanny stealthy movements of the demon 
are expressed. 

4. nriN: probably the first element in such a name as nnxnnns, "sister 
of her father," of. 'mriN , "brother of his father," a frequent name in the 
Talmud. Cf. biblical 3Sns<, and the Babylonian Ahatbu, Ahatsuna, 
Ahat-immisu, etc. (Tallquist, Neubabylonisches Namenbuch, 3), and similar 
names in the Glossary. 

'lans: hypocoristic of Persian Farruchan, Justi, p. 94 ff. 

5 . pm = hawen, cf • tnc, |»T , 6 : 4, pi. ppl. with future sense, as 
common in Syriac. 

pT: appears only in this phrase, so 16: 13, 19: 20, is archaic and 
seldom in Talmud ; for the ptonouns see end of Glossary C. 

6. "From the burning fire," i. e. of hell. For the threatening of 
demons with pangs of hellfire, see Pradel, 21, 1. 11 ff. ; for the threatening 
of demons in general cf. the Paris Magical Papyrus, 1. 1227 ff. (ed. 
Wessely), and see in general Tambornino, De ant. daemonismo, 78. — The 
angel of death appears in Schw. F. The charm of which he is afraid is 
a potiori more fearful to the demon. 

7. P'l'V': for the second ' representing the scwa, cf. the Sabbioneta 
text of Targum Onkelos, ed. Berliner, to Ex. 21 : 13, Num. 35: 26. For u 
in ^inT , see Noldeke, Hand. Gram., 219. N. B. the two prepositional 
forms 'niDKlp and rrmp along side of each other, the latter attributed 
to the "Palestinian" dialect by Dalman, Gram. d. jud.-pal. Aramdisch, 181. 

The Great Name, or True Name, at which devils and all things created 
tremble and flee away, is a common thesis in the Greek magic: Wessely, 
xlii,' 65, ad infra: the God of Israel whom the heavens bless and (the 
oceans?) fear and every devil trembles; Dieterich, .^^Z^rajtraj, 140,1. 55 ff:the 
name at which trembles the Gehenna of fire and every mountain trembles; 
Wiinsch, Antike Pluchtafeln, no. 4, 1. 44 (with editor's notes), and no. 5, 

* "Neue griech. Zauberpapyri" in Denkschriften of the Vienna Academy, phil.- 
hist. Class, xlii, 2 : his earlier publication in vol. xxxvi is cited as "xxxvi." 



133 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

1. 21. It is not necessarily a Jewish phrase, Wessely, xxxvi, 50, 1. 244 ff: 
"This is the primitive ( trpurevov') name of Typhon at which trembles earth, 
deep, hell, heaven," etc. Cf. Heitmiiller, pp. 148, 231, for citations from 
the Fathers, and Pradel, p. 40 f., for Greek magic. Dieterich regards 
this trembling before the Name as of Orphic origin, p. 141. 

The bowl CBS 16093 is almost identical in text with this one, and 
bears the same design. It is about two-thirds as long. Its clients are the 
couple named in Nos. 32 and 35. Also another bowl (unnumbered) is 
practically the same as the present text, but shorter, with the same design, 
also made out for the clients of Nos. 32 and 35. 



No. 4 (CBS 2923) 

KHB'nK Kn'jnn 'Jin tnnn itj"!)! xn^'n 'nni b^-t pti"-!? i^ax^a i'^^oh 'Sd'd 
Konna n'nu nnt (2) ymx lo snnn im^a^nm nnn^Dx ptdk pnn'DN pn't}'''33 

KjnoK 3in Kims' [sonnai] sb"3 nid'S3 113!) kjidnt ^id'd Nao^a (3) xiji 
Kcu N-nD'K3 ]):>)> s:iDs (4) nin ■'t;''3 iins iijnK nn 'tidnt NniD'W p^^ 
pB"i^D nw pini P3313 ny3B' n^a nonxn NniD['X3 p3^] n:ids 3in kii-idi 
'n ^b p3'i;''s-n Kjp-isi 'n3-i »nv^ iii\ «Jm (5) sm kdv nj? I'trxMiJO 

'B'J'K 5'33 pn3 n^3DJ i6 '^D3N1 «n3nj IS NJ13K3 pHS PDnTl k!' . . . 

iTnn n[nnD 'joinmbiD'o Kao'3 Ki>i N^l"i'3 nb 'Kn^2i3 13 (6) P3N2n n^nu 
linx (7) nnoj n'b'KSj'ni' iritspj rrwn n:iN n^!' nmns Ktynji k3-) xme'i nr» nnn 

'KHisn "13 P3KDT nnn3i «n3nj n3 njuxt nnns 

Translation 
Covers to hold in sacred Angels and all evil Spirits and the tongue ^ 
of impious Amulet-spirits. Now you are conquered, you are charmed; 
charmed, you are charmed and sealed in each one of the four (2) corners 
of his house. You shall not sin against Pabak bar Kiifithai, nor shall any 
do folly against him, against all the people of his house, either by night 
nor (3) by day; because I have bound you with an evil charm and a sure 
[seal]. Again, I have charmed you with the charm with which Enoch was 
charmed by his wicked brothers. Again I charm you with an evil and 
galling seal. Again, (4) I charm you with the seal with which were 
charmed the Seven Stars and the Twelve Signs of the Zodiac unto the 
great day (5) of judgment, and to the great hour of the redemption of 
your heads : you shall not . . . , nor sin against them, against Abiina bar 
Geribta, and none shall at all do folly against them, namely the people 
of the household of Pabak (6) b. K., neither by night nor by day, because 
well sealed is his house and well armed, and with a great wall of 

(133) 



134 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

bronze have I surrounded it. I, what I desire I grasp, and what I ask I 
take. (7) You are in the place of Abuna b. G. and in the place of Pabak 
b. K. 

Commentary 

A general charm against all evil spirits, made out for the Pabak of No. 
3. The introductory lines are of interest as they definitely settle the use of 
these bowls (§8). The design represents the sorcerer waving his bough, 
see p. 55. 

I . ba'obl '^D'O : 'D is to be identified with the plural of the Syriac 
m'tall^tha, m^talle, or mattHe;^ the ' probably represents the pronunciation 
mctf^Ie. The second word ^3'0 is the infinitive of bia, "contain," whose 
original meaning is retained in the Hebrew, even in the sense of holding 
in with force, e. g. Jer. 6:11, over against the later meaning of "measure." 

]''Z''''\p fasbo: See p. 79; also cf. xnNK'nxp N'loin, Ginza, ed. Peter- 
mann, p. 231, 1. 10, and the Mandaic NcmpT Knn. 

'nni: the first letter was written by inadvertence. 

KTT'JT't 'JTr : case of dittography. 

KriSTiX: for the prosthetic X, cf. Noldeke, Aland. Gram-, § 32. 

3. 'i^ nu n^DST: we find here the idiom of the active use of the 
passive participle, as in Neo-Syriac; see Noldeke, Gram. d. neusyrischen 
Sprache, §§ 103, 143. An approximate use of this participle in verbs mean- 
ing "to carry," etc., and also with IDX is found in classical Syriac (Noldeke, 
Syr. Gram., § 280). But in these instances the participle is middle voice 
in meaning; thus XT73 TDX means, "he bound himself with a crown." 
In the present case the participle has assumed a completely active sense, 
with an object other than the subject. 

nuns : this spelling is found in a passage from the lexicon of 
Karmsedinoi, quoted by Payne-Smith, col. 266, .?. v. DitDDna'DJS. 

'IPIK : "his brother" and "his brothers" have the same spelling, differ- 
ing as -uhi and ohi; the forms in -iii, 6i are Mandaic, and also Palestinian. 

There is reminiscence here of a cycle of personal legends concerning 
Enoch which have been preserved only in the Arabic, see Weil, Biblische 

' See Noldeke. Syr. Gram., 8 59. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 135 

Legenden der Musselmdnner, p. 62, a compilation from manuscript sources.' 
According to these legends Enoch (Idris), who foretold the flood, suffered 
at the hands of the wicked Cainites, even as Abraham was made a martyr 
for his faith. Our passage must refer to some spell laid upon Enoch by 
his adversaries. The early Samaritan theologian Marka (fourth century) 
cites a book of the Wars of Enoch, which may have contained these tradi- 
tions.' A spell laid by the wicked on a saint was a fortiori potent; see 
above, p. 64, for other apocryphal examples. For Enoch in incantations, cf. 
19: 17. 

pt^'S'lTO: the word is written twice; in the first case the scribe emitted 
the X, then inserted it above the line, and on second thought rewrote the 
word correctly. It is the Syriac and Mandaic XDXi^ND. The first ' 
is unique ; it is to be classed with the phenomena noticed by Noldeke, Mand. 
Gram., 223, where, e. g. -yun for -mm. 

Tim Knvc, X3T KDV : cf . "the great day," Hexaplaric Syriac to Is. 
1:13, the New Testament "that day and that hour," the Syrian Ephrem's 
expression, "the hour of judgment" (ed. Lamy, iii, 583), and the Arabic 
"the hour." For the feminine form TilT, see Noldeke, Mand. Gram., 145. 

In lines 4, 5, we are introduced to an extensive and ancient cycle of 
myths concerning the relation of the Seven Stars (the planets with sun 
and moon) and the twelve zodiacal signs, with the creator of the kosmos. 
There were two distinct developments in this mythology; in the polytheistic 
development the planets became highest deities. But in what we may 
call the monotheistic trend of thought, in which one of the gods, like 
Marduk became monarch, or, as in Israel's faith Yahwe is the sole God, 
stress is laid upon the antithesis between the Creator-God and those 
celestial divinities. The present regulated orbits of the planets and the 
fixed positions of the zodiacal constellations signify that these beings, once 
autonomous, have been brought into subjection to a higher god. In 
process of time they came to be regarded as "spirits in prison." Thus 
Tiamat became, when slain, the fixed firmament (or the zodiac?), while, 
according to Zimmern, KAT , 502, the eleven Helpers of Tiamat are the 
twelve signs of the zodiac, minus that of the Bull, the sign of Marduk 

' For the later Jewish Enoch literature see Jew. Bnc. i, 676. 
• See Montgomery, The Samaritans, 224. 



136 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYEONIAN SECTION. 

himself. This unfavorable attitude toward the celestial bodies is thus 
ancient. The monotheistic trend was native to the Hebrew theology, and 
in line with it we have the passage in Is. 24: 21 &., according to which "the 
host of the height on high," as well as the kings of the earth are punished, 
being bound in prison. For the later theology the Book of Enoch is a good 
witness; e. g. 18: 13 ff . : "I saw there seven stars as great burning 
mountains. When I inquired about it, the angel said: This is the place 
where heaven and earth are at end; this is a prison for the stars and the 
host of heaven. The stars which revolve over the fires are they which at 
the beginning of their origin transgressed the command of God for they 
did not come forth at their time. Then he became angry at them, and 
bound them for 10,000 years, till the time when their sin is accomplished" 
(cf. 21 : 6). The "spirits in prison" of i Pet. 3: 18 flf. is in line with the 
same notion, depending directly upon Is. 24: 21 ff., and we may compare 
the invidious use of "planets" in Jude 13, in the expression aartpe^ nlavfrai.^ 
But our text also bears witness to another development of the myth. 
The "binding" of the Seven Stars and the zodiacal signs was for a fixed 
term. According to the passage quoted from Enoch, it was for 10,000 
years. In the Isaianic passage, a term is fixed: "after many days shall 
they be visited."' In Peter the ancient myth is revived in the notion 01 
Christ preaching to the spirits in prison. It is left somewhat obscure what 
shall take place when "they shall be visited," or when "their sin is ac- 
complished" (with Enoch). Exegetes differ over npB' in Isaiah, whether 
the verb is to be understand favorably (of a visitation for release) or un- 
favorably (of chastisement). Also the Petrine preaching to the spirits in 
prison is understood by commentators in equally opposite ways. In our 
text the term of "the great day" and "the great hour" is evidently to be 
one of release to the stars bound in prison. There appears to be applied 
here the idea of a universal Apokatastasis. Now for this notion of the 
redemption of the imprisoned celestial deities we have a basis in Babylonian 

* See Bousset, Hauptprobleme der Gnosis, c. i, "Die Sieben." In the Mandaic 
system the seven planets and twelve signs have become utterly evil. In this line 
of thought, taken up by magic, there is, I think, an open anthesis to astrological 
fatalism. 

• There is literal reference to this passage in No. 34 : 6, — «3npiB2 . There is 
possibility of confusion between KipllB and «31plD, 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 137 

mythology. In Tablet vii, 1. 27 f. of the Epic of Creation (King, Seven 
Tablets of Creation), among the titles given to Marduk are: "Who had 
mercy upon the captive gods; who removed the yoke from upon the gods 
his enemies." And Pinches has now published a text ("Legend of Mero- 
dach," in PSBA, 1908, 53 ff.) which is a late supplement to that epic, and 
apparently continues the theme of the release of the captive gods : "He 
(Marduk) goes down to the prison, he rises to approach the prison. He 
opened the gate of the prison, he comforts them. He looked upon them 
then, all of them; he rejoices. Then the captive gods looked upon him. 
Kindly the whole of them regarded him." The "day of redemption" of 
our text is therefore in line with this Babylonian myth, and probably the 
passages from Isaiah and i Peter are also to be explained in consonance 
with it. This mythical trace probably descends from the Enoch literature. 

5 . Abuna is intruded awkwardly. — "h^u^ for 'piaDN. 

6. ntD ■'mt: the root nt (DTO, nt) is found elsewhere in these 
bowls, and also in those of Pognon and Lidzbarski (see Glossary C). It 
is used in parallelism with "ids, etc., in preventive magic. The verb means 
in the Aramaic dialects "to arm." But Pognon (B, 74) assumes for the 
noun sntsixr the meaning "admonition," and Lidzbarski (Eph. i, 96, n.) 
the sense of "binding up" a letter, etc. But there is no necessity in depart- 
ing from the common meaning; it refers to the magical armament of persons 
and things with power to resist the forces of evil ; so a passage in the Ginsa : 
"Arm yourselves with arms not of iron" (ed. Petermann, p. 25, 1. 20). 
That is, it is the magical equipment of a person or charm against evil. Paul 
may have been making use of well-known magical language when he 
exhorted the Ephesians to "put on the panoply of God," Bph. 6: 13. The 
following phrase, "a great wall of bronze," is equally parabolic;, bronze 
possessed atropaic use in magic, like the other metals; cf. 15: 7, and see 
Pauly-Wissowa, i, 50 ; a Talmudic instance, Sabb., 66b. 

01 n^yaT nJS: our magician displayed the same assurance in No. 2. 
At least this confidence had its psychological efifect on the client, 
nnna jinx: "hoist with their own petard"! 



No. 5 (CBS 2952) 

ponn'm jnrn nw2 I'tyni! pB>inl'i jno'p 'tdpi pcnn icnm in^Ds n'[DN] 
na inj3N n'l 'ans na ihjvji 'atns in inan n' . . nTi'a I'o ppn-i'm 
Nnnji nanai noKi 'rn ■'T'E^> i)3i N'nB"a (j/c) Kni"i'"'i' ij^ (2) pnj'o nrj'ni una 
nysB-a pn'TDS «ijd dvij'd ^31 p£''pn piaivi pt5"3 pt^nm xrinpi Knm^i 
Nbi'Pi Ktn ne piB 13s nuiil'sn n'»B"3 ponn nyne'a (3) pniD'nm piD^s* 
(elided nn inE) IT' niDt5"nt5' iinjn non nitj'n ^ybv n''j;[2B'K] . . .pnjiis 

lai N2ipn k:dd idi snB"3 sj^y to 'ana (4) na injrj it'I 'as'is 12 ins 

nin' 's ^y (5) n^D iok P2K n«2 hk nin^ aitya nmn niom i"3B'U d^'vc^di 
^K nin^ iDKn ntj^ T3 mn' '2 ^y noB' mn' moB'o nx lyo' nini '2 '?v un' 
(jjc) nis nt «bn o'^'a-iTn Tnmn 12 (6) nin' nyr [tson la m,T nyr pen 

niiD los I2K trxo bsiio 

Two lines on either side of figure in center. 

nl'D loK JDK nSn^ nynK (7) 

niiD IDK toK nts'o it^x noK 

Translation 
Wholly charmed and sealed and bound and enchanted [are ye], that 
ye go away and be sealed and depart from the house [and property?] of 
Farruch bar Pusbi and Newandiich bath Pusbi and Abanduch bath 
Pusbi, and that there depart from them (2) all evil Liliths and all Demons 
and Devils and Spells and Idol-spirits, and the Vow and the Curse and the 
Invocation, and evil Arts and mighty Works and everything hostile. Ye 
are bound with the seven spells and sealed (3) with the seven seals in 

the name of Eldedabya Abi Ponan, lord of spoil and curse I conjure 

against you in the name of the great Prince, that thou keep Farruch b. P. 
and Newandiich b. P. (4) from the Evil Eye and from the mighty Satan, 
and from . . . and from the many Satyrs in the road of Hamad, in the 
name of Yhwh, 'H, B'H. Amen, Amen, Selah. (5) "According 

(138) 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 139 

to the mouth of Yhwh they would encamp, and according to the mouth 
of Yhwh they would march; the observance of Yhwh they kept accord- 
ing to the mouth of Yhwh by Moses." "And Yhwh said to Satan: 
Yhwh rebuke thee, Satan, Yhwh rebuke (6) thee who chose Jerusalem. 
Is not this a brand plucked from the fire?" Amen, Amen, Selah. 

Commentary 

A general incantation against evil spirits for a man and his two sisters. 
The latter half Hebraizes. 

1 . The duplication of the ppls. is for intensity, "twice charmed." ficp 
error for jn'Dp. — pE"n^, the only instance of this verb in the bowl-texts. 

nns: cited by Payne Smith, col. 3246; of. Farruchan and composites 
in farruch, Justi, p. 95 f. — '3ens ? 

inJVJ, innx: Justi, pp. 228, I. 

n'l: by heedlessness of construction; cf. 1. 3. 

ntJn: nrJ (also Talmudic) = nnr, see to 3:2. 

2. nox: the place of the term in the list shows that the charms were 
regarded as personal entities. Cf. above, p. 86. 

"Seven spells," etc. ; cf. the fever-remedy in Sabb. 66b, "7 twigs from 
7 trees. 7 nails from 7 bridges," etc., etc. For this magical number in the 
Talmud, see Blau, pp. 73, 86, who quotes the Jewish maxim pv^cn ba 
fTsn. 

3 . 'i^ rranibx : obscure, probably name of a genius ; '3X may indicate 
his paternal relation to another well-known genius. For nuT cf. 2: 2. 

"The great Prince": the technical title for Michael (see p. 97). It is 
to be observed that this bowl is peculiarly Jewish in theological form, while 
the following adjurations are in Hebrew. The double use of n'v^t'N intro- 
duces a mixed construction here. The verb generally is used of exorcism, 
with by of the object, = t^opKi^u. But at the same time he adjures the 
great Prince, whom he addresses in the second person. All these terms 
denoting magical binding could be used indifferently of the good and evil 
genii. The angel is adjured in Hebrew, which according to belief was the 
only tongue the angels knew. 



140 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

4. "The hobgoblins in the way of Hamad, the many"; cf. the Rodwell- 
Hale\-y bowl in which a geographical location is given, "upon the road to 
Husi," and Wohls. 2417, a demon who dwells in Samki. The reference 
is to the demons which beset some particular road. For the satyrs see p. 80. 
D'ann in the text is awkward. 

5. Literal quotations from Num. 9: 23 (cf. 26: i f.). The applica- 
bility of this quotation lies in its triple use of the efficacious word ^0E' (as 
above in 1. 3). Hence the magical use of such Psalms as the 121st, I22d, 
the Aaronic Blessing, etc. Later Kabbalism, found in the theme the abbre- 
viation of ninn D'P'TD cnc:', see Schwab, Notices et Extraits of the Paris 
National Library, xxxvi, i (1899), 288. 

7. There is no evident sense in these words around the figure. nyriK and 
nt^K are reminiscent of the interpretation of the Name, Bx. 3: 14; nbni) = 
"avaunt"?, nK-o = Moses. 



No. 6 (CBS 2916) 

KrcJTt noiniji xnts'^a •'nni'i (2) nsn'sS'i ■'JDoi'i •<v-ib\ n't?!' im^ I'rnsi xtj^a 
na nnKii 'insn "i3 pint iina^'V i^ih snnp'Ji (3) ''•\ti t^n^b^b^ 'b'pi 'D'^^i 
imu tins' iBTDi iinn2i3D'N ijy panni iin^nDm (4) tna'ii iin»:'y imJ't "insn 
K0V1 1JB' i'331 'm's i!:v3 nnS" «JB"33 (5) inn «k'3'31 pl'DPi i»ni )nj2i im 
KJTV1 'JE? pn^i3'» (6) Kin sriE'i 'ni' iin^ia^n pin xnTi ■'ar pn^n^o pin 
KJOTim k:is<vi njt kjt iin^nn naisD'sn pn^ wnnni sjnKi ut-j; pnbis'-D pnn 
vnty pS>n Ditrn pn^ sja-oa inn «B'aoi imnrx ijsi (7) pn-nn's pTX pn'^j; 
paB"3 KDj'j'n (8) GIB'S ^'2-121 pcB"3 Knn cisra pna pts'os nynsi n^ob"! pb''o 

'nn ^3 pB'33n'n pna v B'^as (9) iinan pB-ao Nn'j/'2E' die's ^Jams 

prnrrn sbi sni'i'Di '^2'pi 'D'ji xnnp^ji nan «n'!"!'i snijnn noim 8«nB"3 

k!'1 nii^lsn Kol^na Kb ^i (10) 'insn nn r\n»b\ ■'inxn 13 pns^ ]^^b 

pH'jn piJtapin si'i pniJcB^n «nt2'Di'i pnjinn NnD'oij pmpTi xiJi xson xnrB-a 
5)ri loi Di'iy^i in xisr lo pni" 'imi pn^i (11) n^sn pnj'j'p 1)33 pt2i"B"n sh 
nt'D3 nr^Ji wn ^2 ntJX'ji kiik u nps'': i"3pt3 »b vn pijm ns'j kb'3''3 pnn 
pi Kor lei non b\»^ ii22>2 nnn ^nui (12) k'db' '^rJ3 n'^p ^T3 ns'nj 

n^D IDS ION obvSi 

Translation 
A press which is pressed down upon Demons and Devils and Satans 
and impious Amulet-spirits and Familiars and Counter-charms and Liliths 
male (3) and female, that attach themselves to Adak bar Hathoi and Ahath 
bath Hathoi — that attach themselves to them, and dwell (4) in their arch- 
ways, and lurk by their thresholds, and appear to them in one form and 
another, and that strike and cast down and kill. And this press (5) I 
press down upon them in days and in months and in all years, and this 
day out of all days, and this month out of all months, and this year (6) 
out of all years, and this season out of all seasons. And I come and put 
a spell for them in the thresholds of this their house, and I seal and bind 
them. Fastened up are their doors (7) and all their roof. 

(141) 



142 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYI<ONlAN SECTION. 

And this press I press down upon them by means of these seven words, 
by which heaven and earth are charmed : in the name of the first, Gismin 
and Marbtl; of the second, Gismin and Marbil; of the third, Marbtl; of the 
fourth, Masbar; of the fifth, Morah; of the sixth, Ardibal; of the seventh 

Kibsin (presses), with which is repressed (9) with them are 

repressed all evil Spirits and impious Amulet spirits and Liliths male and 
female and Familiars and Counter-charms and Words, that they appear 

not to Adak b. H. and to Ahath b. H. ( 10) and to neither in 

dream by night nor in sleep by day, and that they approach neither their 
right side nor their left, and that they kill not their children, and that 
they have no power over their property, what they have (11) and what they 
shall have, from this day and forever. 

And whoever will transgress against this press and does not accept 
these rites, shall split asunder violently and burst in the midst, and the 
sound of him shall resound with the resonance of brass in the spheres of 
heaven, (12) and his abode shall be in the seventh (?) hell of the sea, 
from this day and forever. Amen, Amen, Selah. 

Commentary 

A charm in behalf of a couple (each with a mother of the same name) 
and their household; the incantation consists in seven magical words, and 
concludes with a threat against any who destroy the bowl and ignore its 
ban. 

1 . Nts-a's : cf. '^tD'O ,4:1, and see § 8. Cf. the verb, 1. 5. N. B. similar 
use of B'aa in Pcsikta R. 16 (Jastrow, p. 611) : the sacrifices are "presses 
because they press down the sins." 

2. 'D'J , also 12: 9, in both places before '^3"?. Out of several 
possibilities of interpretation I suggest that of O in the sense of "side" 
(cf. 34: 4), and then one who is familiar (Jastrow, s. v.), hence := the 
■Kapefipog or familiar spirit of the Greek magic; e. g. the ovetpovo/nvnl and 
irapefipot in Justin Martyr, Ap. i, 18, Eusebius, H. B., iv, 7: 9, occurring also 
in the magical papyri, Dieterich, Abraxas, 161, n. They may be the genii 
invoked by manipulation or rubbing of the amulet as in the Arabian 
Nights. In Arabic superstition we learn of the "follower," tabi'u, that 
accompanies the bewitched man, Noldeke, ZDMG, xli, 717. And cf. the 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 143 

Satan who is a "comrade" to an evil man, Karin, in the Koran (e. g. 41 : 
24), see van Vloten, WZKM, vii, 182 ff., ND'J could be the Syriac word 
for marauding troop, an appropriate description for a demoniac species, 
but the meaning given above is more appropriate in the context. 

3. plN: cf. the Persian name Adaces, in Ammianus, see Justi, p. 2, 
and cf. Noldeke, Persische Studien, 417. 

'inxn: cf. the Syriac name Hathi, "my sister," cited by Payne Smith, 
col. 1408, here with the Persian diminutive ending. 

Jin'rau : the Syriac K3U, "transverse beam," hence probably door 
lintel, — so Payne-Smith, col. 670; radically the word refers to the arch of 
the doorway. For the abodes of the demons, see p. 76. 

101 lona: the same phrase in the Mandaic, Noldeke, Mand. Gram., 
§ 216, 2. 

]vr\, tno: cf. Mk. 9: 14 ff., Lu. 6: 4. 

5. For the selection of a special day for the exorcism, see p. 55. 

6. «:■'?«: unique form; blN is treated in some forms as though UK, 
and here metaplastically as KtN. 

NJian : the only occurrence in the bowls of this ancient magical term. 
— The root "iix is used here not in its Aramaic sense. 

pnTia = jinnu, cf. 1. 4. 

7. Jimrs: cf. Pesah. nib, nrx "an, of the demons. 

8. These magical words are wholly obscure; see §11. 

10. "Sleep by day": cf. the special term in 7: 16. The midday siesta 
was perilous, especially for those in the fields; in the Greek superstition 
this was the chosen time for attacks by the satyrs and fauns, whose place 
was taken in Jewish legend by the '"ino 3t3p a demon representing sun- 
stroke, etc. See Griinbaum, ZDMG, xxxi, 251 f., and Roscher, Bphialtes. 

Magical protection at right and left hand is frequently referred to in 
Babylonian sorcery; e. g. the Utukki-stncs iii, 93 (Thompson, i, 11); or 
four deities surround the sorcerer, in front and back, at right and left, ibid., 
iii, 142; the Maklu-stri^s, vi, 1. 123 f. Cf. 13: 7. 

pt2b't^"n : for the new vowel see Noldeke, Mand. Gram., § 25. 



144 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

11. The penalty for infraction of the charm is bombastic enough! 
For the threatening of demons, see above, on 3: 6. 

"13'J, xps'j : Manclaizing spelHng for layj, vps: ; also Nnx = xni?. 

A dialectic formula may be used here. N. B. 3 of the preformative, 

DrJ from Syr. DDT, and '?J'J is Syriac over against the Rabbinic and 
Mandaic forms. 

12. "In the seventh hell" (with awkward use of the numeral) in 
contrast to the seventh heaven. For the seven hells, see Eisenmenger, ii, 
302, 328 f. 



No. 7 (CBS 16007) 

This bowl is a replica to that published by Dr. Myhrman of Upssala 
(No. 16081), see above p. 20. The latter is more perfect than my text, 
in fact almost the only perfect one in the collection; for this reason and 
also for the value of comparing the numerous variants I give the two 
texts in parallel, making such emendations as appear necessary in the first- 
published text, which amount chiefly to the proper grammatical distinction 
of yod and ivarv and he and heth. It may be observed that the designs in 
the two bowls differ: in 16007 merely a circle enclosing a cross, in 16081, 
a linear figure, the stem surmounted by a head capped, at the other end a 
pitchfork-like termination (the forked tail of the demon?), while four rays 
represent the limbs. On either side of the figure are three characters like 
the Greek 2, or looked at from the side like C, with which we may compare 
the E^'s shuffled into Pognon's texts, see p. 60. For convenience of refer- 
ence I give the same line-numbering to Myhrman's text as to my own. 

In the commentary I make such few notes as are necessary on Dr. 
Myhrman's ably edited text. 



16007 

KJiNV •<'avm K2n «'Dx (2) 
i? KJD^nnai (3) KJO'nm i? 

injnT'K 13 (4) ISTT' 



«in3i nisnvT 'vvai (5) bv^ kik't 

trnpT iO"i 

. . .V n't? i>3 ppci nvtyir^i pvnn 

ptj^pn pJtoD !'3i (6) 



16081 (Myhrman) 

xnnnn no -\'av^i 

Kjnux ^t2n-n nan n^os (2) 

P3^ (3) sjanni p35i 

nnns m3E'di tjsdx 12 (4) "j 

n^in im^nui pn^ tim «n:3i 
nsT Konnni nm kh^int niotru 

niKDVT •>li''V31 (5) HK'n 
'TtJ' ^3 PP2M PJ/TITM pytH 

noim KnNB"3 ^nm nn^ nm (6) 
pm ^31 inB* 5131 Kn^nn 



(145) 



146 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 



i? «jD'nn»i sjoTini nij k:-ikv am (7) 

nnjnr'K [in (8) nxin^Jn 

nwn) isKiDii S'X'D'Di i'xnn; nitt'a 

N3n innNi (9) [in^n in^ cits'n 

KriKnts 'nm kjidjo K3T d313ni 

^a^ij «jntDJo nnKB'^3 'nm sji'[nnn]i 

n^jo'pi (10) [n^mn n^nu] h^b'ej 

^m''D Nim nm[m njn^n hb'ej 
'piB« i^JiD ijai (11) pB-Cn pcnln ^3 

!'31 

iiai sriDiS' i'3i snnp !'3i snpjy 

5131 "B-p 'jmi3 !'3i ... .^31 nyx', 

nDi[n ^31 n3]ns ^3i ^B'^a ^jod 

■"Ej'pn (12) vno i'31 [«n^]jin 

inn 10 pn!' «jp''£:d 'i^n n' ninn ion 

■•nioip iDi pjJia "13 pjjis aiB'3 
n'D[B''3] piiD pj/'t 'nnn3 lei «d' yt 

nn nm 

n'ninn SiKntro 13t (13) n''nB"[3i] 

i3y Hi'? n^mDQ bv b'j^n 131 xina 

P3n['] ^bazb tnn xn xn 

"1D131 'sm "'B'Nino iai ''tj'in m 

[Knnp]i snpjyi m'Ji n[n]'Pi 

noini snN!i'''3 inm (14) snoii'i 



KB'J'K '33 i>3 IDl Sn''3 PIH nij^ [O 

nn pitn 
P3!' xjoTin'ri na!) kjikv 3in (7) 

^niNi nnnx ■'otj'oi tJSDK 13 (8) '^j 
n33B''D n'3i HE'D pnn «n'3i m3 

i'K'BT DIB'31 isRO'DI 5'Sn3J mB'3 

K21 Nnn D'Dinni ^K'DVI 

n3n "inaKi (9) inu in^ aiB-a 

«n3t3 ''nm sjitijo n3n d3-i3ni 

P3i> «Jit3JDi KnB"3 'nm sjij^nsi 

P3i' Njo'nnDi p3^ K:injei 

pnn 8n''3i pi"K 'mxi 'isb'oi 'u (10) 

]mb pon' K^T 

!'31 'b3D iiSI MH ^Sl (11) n'B' ^ 

NHDil'i n3na i'3i Kn!'33Di Kn^S"^ 
I'B'p 'Jt2D 1531 Nnp^yi 

pB"3 (12) ppno !'31 

pnS" Nip'S^no 'b'l n' pan 

'monp pon pjjns nn p3:nB nica 
p'Vt pnita 'nnn3Di no' syt 

Knnnn i^xne'D nnn (13) n'Dt5"3i 

n3y Kb n^mtDo ijy b'J's n3i nimj 

ivm n'B' p3n'' sSjonij pnn «n sn 

snpjyi xnoii'i Kn5'330i Nn'!"!'i 

Knn3n2i n[3n2i] xnnpi 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 



147 



ppno i'31 'JDD1 lyjEi (14) 

tSTCT 

xnin monm Konni kvp'B' nicn^a 

nnriKi n-uj mmui (15) K2i[yi] 

ipiBi ib''D3 t'Ji3 !'3m IDT Sjaai 

to 

tina pDn^n xSji 

KB'n K^3n pn3 iiijan^n k^i (16) 

(jic) pnnnnn pm'n n^i 

n''!'i!'T pnoi'''n3 v.b \\nb innnTi xi'i 

pi «aT ID Ncon iinnj'tJ'3 k!'i 

r]'?o lax icN D^iyiii 



'B'n •'P'TO ^31 'B'"'3 ':DD1 ■'J/JBI 
pK»i3 ppnO iiSLl] IDTiOl 

[s]nin monni Koani «vp'>b' ninT-a 
snniNi n-\2i nionai (15) «2iyi 

IplSI "6^02 PJVJ ^331 ion ^331 

n''!'i3 poi n'mn t^ni n^nu pn 

TijnT'N 13 nxTT' pim r]'<-\:s 

'Nj«3 n3 n'nrr'N in^c p*2i 

i'3 pel nnnJ3 poi iin'J3 I'ci 

Iin'n'3 'K'j''s 

Kcu «!'N3n i'3 iin3 ii^3n^n si'i (16) 

pnn' pTis'n k^i iinri'' pj^'Ti xi'i 

Iin3 pDn'n Ki)! 

Kh iri'^h KD5"n3 Ni) pn!) prnrrn xiji 

pi Kor la Ktian xmnB'3 

ni'D tDN loK D^yii'i 

Njy3tJ'D1 NJ'-OIO Tiyi _ _ _ 

py3B' pD''p:i p"i3; py32'3i 111311^ nvai nana D^'oaa k31 kid iinn' lijj; (17) 
pcnoa I'j-in p^33a b^ rn3 n^x'^'i'i pB'''3 in'tj* !'3 Iin3 btipob «nKsnn pijJD 

niii'i'n niiD tax ids pn^Diy bv ■'aii pijii 

Translation 

In thy name, O Lord of salvations, (2) the great Saviour of love. 

I bind to thee and seal (3) and counterseal to thee, the life, house and 
property of this Yezidad (4) bar Izdanduch; in the name of the great 
God, and with the seal of Shadda El, (5) and by the splendor of Sebaoth, 
and by the great glory of the Holy One : that all ... Demons and all 
mighty Satans remove and betake themselves and go out (6) from the 
house and from the dwelling and from the whole body of this Yezidad 
b. I. 

(7) Again I bind to thee (Myhrman, to you) and seal and counterseal 
to thee (M. to you) the life and house and property and bedchamber of 
Yezidad (8) b. I., in the name of Gabriel and Michael and Raphael, and 
in the name of the angel 'Asiel and Ermes (Hermes) the great Lord. [In 



148 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

the name of Yahu-in-Yahu] (9) and the great Abbahu and the great 
Abrakas (Abraxas), the guardian of good spirits and destroyer of evil 
spirits, I guard to thee (M. to you) the life, house, dwelling (10) and 
property of this Yezidad b. I. And I seal to thee (M. to you) the 
life, house and dwelling of this Merduch bath Banai, that there sin not 
against you (M. them) all evil Arts (11) and all (magic) Circles and all 
Necklace-spirits and all Invocations and all Curses and all Losses and all 
. . . and all sore Maladies and all evil Satans and all Idol-spirits and all 
impious Amulet-spirits and all mighty Tormentors, (12) which under my 
own hand I banish from this house in the name of Pharnagin bar Pharnagin, 
before whom trembles the sea and behind whom tremble the mountains, 
in the name of HH, HH, and in the name of (13) Bar-mesteel, whose 
proscription is proscribed and none trespasses upon his ward. 

Lo, this mystery is for frustrating you, Mysteries, Arts, and enchanted 
Waters and Hair-spirits, Bowls and Knots and Vows and Necklace-spirits 
and Invocations and Curses (14) and evil Spirits and impious Amulet- 
spirits. And now. Demons and Demonesses and Lilis and Liliths and 
Plagues and evil Satans and all evil Tormentors, which appear — and all 
evil Injurers — in the likeness of vermin and reptile and in the likeness of 
beast and bird (15) and in the likeness of man and woman, and in every 
likeness and in all fashions: Desist and go forth from the house and from 
the dwelling and from the whole body of this Yezidad b. I. and from 
Merduch his wife b. B., and from their sons and their daughters and all 
the people of their house, (16) that ye injure them not with any evil 
injury, nor bewilder nor amaze them, nor sin against them, nor appear to 
them either in dream by night or in slumber by day, from this day and 
forever. Amen, Amen, Selah. 

And again I swear and adjure (17) thee: May the great Prince expel 
thee, he who breaks thy body and removes thy tribe. And by the seventy 
Men who hold seventy sickles, wherewith to kill all evil Demons and to 
destroy all impious Tormentors, — are they cast prostrate in troops and 
thrown on their beds. Amen, Amen, Selah, Halleluia. 



j. a. montgomery — aramaic incantation texts. 149 

Commentary 

A charm made out for a man, his wife and household, against all 
manner of demons. 

A comparison of these bowls, each written by a facile scribe with a 
well formed ductus, throws light on the history of the transmission and 
development of our magical inscriptions. Myhrman's text is shorter, in 
the other an appendix has also been added addressed against some particular 
but unnamed demon. The spelling in M. is more archaic, avoiding matres 
lectionis, the masc. pronom. suffix being represented by n alone, n is gener- 
ally used for final a, the antique form SJiTSino is found (1. 6), as also the 
true reproduction of Hermes by n. Also my text is more confused in the 
arrangement of the exorcised powers, M. follows the historical order. 
Formally then M. appears to be the elder text, in comparison with which 
mine is more inflated. 

The most interesting point of difference is this: in M. the sealing 
is done "to you" throughout, but in my text "to thee" (1. 2, etc.). This 
plural has justly troubled Myhrman, and he suggests three possible 
explanations. But I believe the only explanation is that his text is 
polytheistic or rather a product of the common magic religion ; in expressing 
three names of "the great God" Elaha, Shaddai and Sebaoth, the magician 
regarded them as a trinity of deities, just as in the magical papyri these 
Jewish (and other) divine names are invoked as so many deities (see 
§ ii).' M's text is then of eclectic religious character. My text abjures 
all such polytheism, but that it is secondary to the other is shown by 
comparing them in 11. 9 and lo. M. retains its polytheistic plural; my 
text has clung to the form, but misunderstanding it has read 'a^b (i. e. }137 = 
laS = '3^ = '3'S ") , and I suppose made it refer to the following fem- 
inine CSJ, or to some feminine demon. For the same reason it reads, 
awkwardly, 1132 in 1. lo for the correct Jin^. Thus an eclectic text, or 
its original, in which the deities invoked are the names of the Jewish 
God, has fallen into more orthodox hands and produced our monotheistic 

' Cf., among the seven planetary spirits of the Ophites (Origen, C. Cels., vi, 31) 
lot), 2a/3aui>, KSuvato^, "R'Auamq: the "angels" Arfuvaj, Baatjti/z, lau^ Dieterich, Abraxas, 
182, 1. 12; also in Pradel's Christian texts, Sabaoth and Adonai are found among 
angel-names (p. 47). 



150 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

text, leaving but a trace or two of its original source. Such are the com- 
plications of this magic! 

I . The opening singular invocation does not agree with the following 
plural in M. 

l^T'f : name of a Nestorian writer, Payne Smith, col. 1586; Justi, p. 
149, thinks the Syriac form an error, but our text confirms it. Our word 
could be Semitic = "n "iT. Also note Izeddad in Justi, p. 147. 

4. nnJir-N: Justi, p. 146. 

With T3SDK, M, cf. in addition to his reference to Aspenaz, Dan. i: 3, 
the name Aspazanda, Clay, BB, x, 41. 

5. •'V'V: plural, "the rays of light." This and the following term 
represent Hebrew 1133. 

l)]!^: with expression of the half -vowel, as in cases cited earlier; 
cf. Stiibe, 1. 62. For the following Hithpalpel, s. Jastrow, p. 407. 
pniT, M: so the spelling surely, see above, p. 81. 

6. "from the body": cf. the (t>v?.aKTT/piov au/iaroiphla^, London Papyrus, 1. 
589, Wessely, xlii, 39. 

8. For the angels, see § 13; for four angels (cf. the four gods sur- 
rounding the magician in Babylonian magic; see above, on 6: 10) see Luek- 
en, Michael, 34 f. Nuriel-Uriel is generally the fourth. In Stiibe, 1. 58, ?H^3V 
takes this place. bx'Dy occurs in Scfer Raziel, s. Schwab, Vocabiilaire, 214, 
and probably in a text of Pradel's (p. 22, 1. 16), where aaa and a^o doubtless 
=: Asael and Raphael. N. B. the care with which the scribe rewrites the 
name of Asiel ; all four names are made to terminate in -iel. 

D'oi'S = M. D'Din (the latter the closest to the Greek of our 
spellings) = Hermes, see to 2: 2. Myhrman's suggestion, which I 
originally (and independently) favored, that the word is Hormiz =: 
Ahura-mazda, is ruled out by the fact that that element in our proper 
names is given by PDTin . 

in'3 in' : cf. Stiibe, 1. 15 n<3n' .t»K"3 ; Pognon B, no. 5, N'3 n^ K'3n, 
above 2:2 {q. v.) ; nu in', 13: 7. in' ancient form of the divine Name, 
appearing (apart from biblical proper names and probable Babylonian 
forms) in the Assouan papyri, in the Greek magical papyri (Deissmann, 
Bibelstudien, 4 ff, Blau, p. 128 ff.) as lau, surviving among the modern 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 151 

Samaritans (Montgomery, JBL, 1906, 50, n. 5), and used in the magical 
texts current at Mossoul (PSBA, xxviii, 97). I think the doubled term 
here is theosophic: Yah-in-Yah; cf. the Christian Logos-doctrine and its 
terms, and Kabbalism. It is possible that Stiibe's rran'' = Yahbeh (ia/3?/) 
=^ Yahweh. At all events this spelling-out of the full Tetragrammaton 
occurs in a proper name below, 26: 4. 

9. inaN, and fJJia below, 1. 12, probably correctly diagnosed by 
Myhrman as exalted sorcerers' names ; see above p. 47. For the two 
Amoraim Abbahu, see Jew. Enc, s. v. A suggestion in another line is 
possible for Abbahu. King in his Gnostics and their Remains' London, 
1887. 246, says that the Pantheus or representation of the pantheistic Deity 
of the Gnostics, appearing on the Gnostic gems, "is invariably inscribed 
with his proper name iah and his epithets ABPAHA2 and 2ABAi2e and often 
accompanied with invocations such as .... abaanaoanaaba, 'thou art our 
Father.' " Our Abbahu may represent this epithet and the passage would 
accordingly preserve three of the Gnostic designations of Deity: Yahu, 
Father, Abraxas. For Abraxas see above, p. 57, and for treatments of 
the subject and bibliographies the articles "Abrasax" in Hauck's Realencyk., 
Jezvish Encyc, and especially the splendid monograph by Leclercq, in 
Dictionnaire de I'archeologie chrcticnne, etc. Variants in the bowls are 
D'Oaias and D'313N. These forms represent Abraxas as against the original 
form Abrasax, hence I use the former word in the present volume. Myhr- 
man remarks (p. 345) : "As over against the view of Blau-Kohler {Jew. 
Enc. i, 130b) this would prove to be at least 'a single reliable instance' of 
this name occurring in Hebrew" — or at least in a Jewish document, as 
my text is. Abraxas is found in Sefer Raziel, 5a. 

Kji^ano, NJiDJD : instances of the Syriac nominal formation from de- 
rived stems. 

xnxati 'nn : recalling the Jewish "good demons," see above, p. 76. 
The expression is also reminiscent of the Greek aya&b( Saifiuv^ frequent in 
magic. 

KntiJO (2d) : ppl. w. suffix. It is represented by three ppls. in M., 
the second = SJinjD, which M. translates, with a query, "pierce." This 
is impossible; I would suggest to read n for n, and understand the Afel, 



152 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

= (Rabb.) Heb. T3Tn, of naming a person to a deity and so placing him 
under his protection. 

10. ini'O: Mer-dCicht, = Mithra-ducht, Justi, p. 208, Bemerk. 

'KJK3 = K3N3 27: 8; a masc. name among the Jews, Sefer ha-Doroth 
ii, 84. But these names appear to be indifferently masc. and f em. ; cf . i : 4. 
The same name '33 is found in Nabataean and Palmyrene inscriptions, 
Lidzbarski, Handbuch, 238, and = the frequent Babylonian Bani-ia, cf. 
the name lists in Clay, BB, viii, pt. i, pp. ix, x. 

11. 'p'BK PJID , occurring frequently in the unpublished No. 2918. 
I interpret this from the Syriac S3"iD, as of the magic circle, cf. N'JS3T iKTn, 
39: 7, and see p. 88. The circle was used particularly for necromancy and 
devil-raising. Cf. Eliphas Levi, Dogme et rituel de la haute magie, Paris, 
1856, ii, 1. 14. The objection to this interpretation is the entire obscurity 
of 'P'SK, 

nyv: for nj?VN, is'ar, cf. ])>Iaclean, Did. of Vernacular Syriac, 193b; for 
the meaning, see p. 94, above. 

For the epithet "t?"?, cf. the epithets x"^^^, violentus, etc., of the 
demons; cases cited by Tambomino, De ant. daemonismo , 15, 23. 

12. "under my own hand": there is much imitation of legal forms in 
magical formulas. 

J'Jns: evidently a Persian name; Myhrman as from farna, "good 
fortune," and gin ( ?) comparing Pharnakes, etc., Justi, p. 92-96. I may 
compare the Persian name Frenanh, Justi, p. 105b. 

ITt, »T, parallel to M's p^VT, syt, in the latter as from root Kyt. 

13. Ssnc'D 13 = M. ^"'KnE'O 13, translated there "son of the inquirer 
of the oracle." We must go to the Assyrian for the explanation. There 
the corresponding form mustalu means one who gives an oracle upon being 
asked, i. e. an oracle-giver, and is an epithet of deity. See Jastrow, JBL, 
xix, 99, and the reff. in Delitzsch, Ass. Hwb., s. v. ^NtJ'. The expression 
has the connotation of deciding the fates, with which cf. the following 
phrase in our text STtJ nTiinn n3 may here be used like the Arabic ibn, 
without modifying its regimen. Or may the phrase = baru mustalu, 
"oracle-giving seer"? Some ancient phrase has been conventionalized and 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 153 

personified. For the following expression concerning the inviolability of 
the "decree," cf. 38 : 8. 

'E'Xino 'O: ppl. pass. The root Bnn came to be used particularly of 
poisoning. The 'B^t are probably "hairs," Syriac zeppa. Any portion of 
a person's body, especially hairs, nails, etc., as detachable, could be used in 
magic directed against him. See Thompson, Sem. Magic, Index, j. v. 
"hair," and with abundant citation of comparative magic, Abt, Apideins, 
179 ff. ; also Blau, p. 161. 

14. For the appearance of devils in animal forms, cf. the reply of the 
demon to St. Michael in a text of Pradel's (p. 23) : "I enter their houses 
metamorphosed as snake, dragon, vermin, quadruped." 

15. }'Ji'3 = g'wantn, cf. 1. 16, vs. M. pJU gawwantn or gaunin (?). 

16. pbarrn, JIJEJ";! : Paels, with ' for preformative half-vowel. I 
understand p^B"" and JlTiSTl, of the demoniac bewilderment of the 
victim (see Jastrow, j. vv.), or actual insanity. M. has for these verbs 
"pnTD kS in their house"; Myhrman's translation, "shall not dwell," would 
require fnnn. It looks as if piTTl is for JlTiEJ'n, or an error for tlTTD, 
from Kin = 11s. 

NmriB': so also 8:11, but generally in parallel occurrences, e. g. Myhr- 
man's text, snJ't;'. The same noun is found in the Mandaic, 'K"i HT\i<i> 
(Ginza, Norberg's text, ii, 18, 1. 12), and the verb. 33KTinB' (it., 1. 19). 
It means to "snore, sleep profoundly" (cf. Heb. noinn) = Arabic sahara. 
Cf. 6: 10. 

17. N3T sno: cf. 5: 31 and see p. 97. D'DBD: cf. Ass. pasasu. 

"70 men holding 70 sharp sickles" : i. e. the 70 angels or shepherds, 
representing the 70 nations, Enoch 89: 59 (originally regarded as good 
angels, Schiirer, GJV, iii, 198, n. 32, Lueken, Michael, 14, but later legend 
regarded them as fallen). The "sharp sickles" are an echo of Rev. 
14: 14 ff., where the Peshitto uses the same words as here. This coin- 
cidence (cf. also Mt. 13: 37 ff.) argues for a common source of ideas. 

n'ye': inf. of "'VC, Targumic but not Talmudic. 

psnoD : Pael pass, ppl., of the Syriac and Mandaic root "prostrate." 
Or possibly cf. the Rabbinic meaning "put on a cover," with reference to 
the inverting of the bowls, see to 4: i, 6: i. The "beds" are metaphorical 
of weakness and subjection, cf. Is., 50: 11. 



No. 8 (CBS 9013) 

'QKs "13 '»jvj pi'iT n'ni3i «nann^ «dd inn loto snsiDx no- n'cca 
KD^I^i'i t<-i3n 'i"^ «n'l''>^ bi< nin' irsi n'cB'^3 Kn2"2 xri'^'!' nro (2) nrn"i 
rn^n^^B' [il"D^y I'^'ncJ'cni ps'nvaix pa^jriri (3) NirsDni Nn'ji>2'i snap^j 
n'OB' Dnija painsi (4) po'i'j; v'sb' pD'23 mnx 'oni pDnvD itidi pn^tj'ni' n^i 
13 •'KJVJ inm nTiin poi ninu po 'Piei ^nivi 'yof noB- nn^a ps'O'si 
Ki'i ninna «!> iini) prnn^n «^ aim n-iso na (5) nTin^K 'iJ»-i pci •'noko 
p3''0'Si n'BB' Dnbs ]•<T2»■^ i^a^'^v vobh biD'o [pn]'33B''o r\-<22 n!?! iin'mns 
sima 13 yts'in'' lan snoB' ps'^y ni'^n i^d''!'v V'db't i'",D'o noB' imbs (6) 
i<:b ninj sti'j pd'-qis Tin^a die'3i (7) p3'2N oniJE [xip^a p3'!'V] nv:it? 
Kim SD'l'S SD^'ET n''eB"'2 p^nn'ni'i i'j'Vio'B'i' nu n'ns n2n'j"'Si s^'ctj' po 
i<n''b>'?\ Nnan •'!'•'!' sri'^'b tuk- pjmoai (8) i'D'o^'j la-ntj'-ai 'rD'j •'^b dtid 
no« P3ni K^me 12 ynn"' ['si] . . . snoB'a 'in Kn^sDm xno^n sna-p'j 
nu 2T\2 nDnc"»i kq' ns^'V po '3^ xns sd'j (9) K^ma in ymn^ 'm icb 
pni) ^265' . . . s'lnn'N jn . . . noc iinlja pD'io'si iT'sb' a-'?s p3us[i] 
po '[pi]2i Tiivi 'ycE' sua xnj sjin . . . tj'u po'tr (10) p^**^! W'pi r» 
aim JTiNO nn n^nn-'K iu6r[n pai 'sesa] nn 'kjvj pnm n^mn pei nwa 
5>tn n^npt'W 'n^oTim iiiD'o Nonn Nmn55'n k!'i No!"nD nI' (11) ]^r\'? prnn'n si' 
N[i3n I]!'''!' Kn'l'['i' tiJjn 'nionpi -yzBOi K'nis 13 J/B'in'' nm kdpt'Wi na' 
pns'' 11X3 nm3K T3K3 p3^ «jy3B'o sn^atsni »n'jS2'i snsp'J (12) Nn'!"!'i 
ps'^y (13) KJ''!:io . . . n'oi snenn-.x nan n.3 "iBts me' n.3 3pj;' ^^3 
. . . .b pmsDi laD^j ''OKo 13 n^y3 ''sjvj poi mso n3 'ub'-i xin i''o ii3Dt, 
I^J^J3 Kii: n[i«]3S ... }n3 ps-np i"'3s^?2 t'3 ni'B'o n . . . 3 pi3''B' mrxi 
IK'S nnx •'bri d'031 ikd''3 b'S3 ninnE'''2 nrnn Dnaiy (14) D'ja iJK '313T 

^K .... 3 ptrnp pasi'cT Knoio3i lotr otj' . . ir:r lotf p« lotj' nns 

s3K^a ^xnpyai K3i kdn^o i'S''P3p3P3i N3"i (15) k3k!'i: bxntysi «3i Lk3n]So 

mrsi [']b'u ''>3''P snsm siri"!' "tuk !ik KnNK"'3 xnpjy nnpy N3n 

n^D IGS les n^iyi'i pn sev I'D pn'^y imnTi »b 3im (16) [pi]3'r 

iim'2 xnni [sng'ju sn'!"!' x 3in bKn35 . . . ni^y 'cnn 

(154) 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 155 

n-iKo na [^ub'-i] »in fa ppmnTi . . . p^Dp'n is ri-33lo bv (17) 

iTii'Si n'?o loK ION [p'Jni' iiovriM 

Translation 
In the name of the Lord of salvations. 

Designated is this bowl for the sealing of the house of this Geyonai bar 
Mamai, that there flee (2) from him the evil Lilith, in the name of 'Yhwh 
El has scattered'; the Lilith, the male Lilis and the female Liliths, the 
Hag (ghost?) and the Ghul, (3) the three of you, the four of you and 
the five of you ; [naked] are you sent forth, nor are you clad, with your 
hair dishevelled and let fly behind your backs. It is made known to you, 
(4) whose father is named Palhas and whose mother Pelahdad : Hear 
and obey and come forth from the house and the dwelling of this Geyonai 
b. M. and from Rasnoi his wife (5) bath Marath. 

And again, you shall not appear to them in his (sic) house nor in 
their dwelling nor in their bedchamber, because it is announced to you, 
whose father is named Palhas and whose mother (6) Pelahdad, — because 
it is announced to you that Rabbi Joshua bar Perahia has sent against you 
the ban. I adjure you [by the glory (^ name)] of Palhas your father 
(7) and by the name of Pelahdad your mother. A divorce-writ has come 
down to us from heaven and there is found written in it for your advise- 
ment and your terrification, in the name of Palsa-Pelisa ('Divorcer- 
Divorced'), who renders to thee thy divorce and thy separation, your 
divorces (8) and your separations. Thou, Lilith, male Lili and female 
Lilith, Hag and Ghul, be in the ban .... [of Rabbi] Joshua b. P. 

And thus has spoken to us Rabbi Joshua b. P. : (9) A divorce writ 
has come for you (thee?) from across the sea, and there is found written 
in it [against you], whose father is named Palhas and whose mother 

Pelahdad they hear from the firmament (10) .... Hear and they 

and go from the house and from the dwelling of this Geyonai b. M. and 
from Rasnoi his wife b. M. 

And again, you shall not appear to them (11) either in dream by 
night nor in slumber by day, because you are sealed with the signet of 
El Shaddai and with the signet of the house of Joshua b. Perahia and by 
the Seven ( ?) which are before him. Thou Lilith, male Lili and female 



156 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

Lilith, Hag and Ghul, I adjure you by the Strong One of Abraham, by 
the Rock of Isaac, by the Shaddai of Jacob, by Yah (?) his name .... by 
Yah his memorial .... I adjure (13) you to turn away from this Rasnoi 
b. M. and from Geyonai her husband b. M. Your divorce and writ ( ?) 
and letter of separation .... sent through holy Angels .... the Hosts of 
fire in the spheres, the Chariots of El-Panim before him standing, (14) 
the Beasts worshipping in the fire of his throne and in the water, the 
Legions of I-am-that-I-am, this his name .... And by the adjuration 
of holy Angels, by ... .el the great angel, and by 'Azriel the great angel, 
(15) and by Kabkabkiel the great angel, and by'Akariel the great angel, 
I uproot the evil Necklace-spirits. Moreover you evil Liliths, evil Counter- 
charms, and the letter of divorce (16). And again, do not return 

to them from this day and forever. Amen, Amen, Selah. Sealed upon 
him .... Gabriel (?). 

Again (I adjure you), evil Lilith and evil Spirit .... (17) .... or 
kill .... depart from this Rasnoi b. M. And be they preserved for life ! 
Amen, Amen, Selah, Halleluia. 

Commentary 

A charm for a man and his wife, particularly against the Liliths (a 
picture of one of which obscene creatures decorates the bowl), made out 
in the form of a divorce-writ. The inscription is very indistinct and towards 
the end becomes almost illegible. No. 17 is in large part an abbreviated 
and mutilated replica. 

1. 'SJn: Gewanai (cf. 7: 15), or Ge(y)6nai (from ]\«i, or pj, 
"color"?). Cf. 'NiVJ appearing in Bar Bahlul's Syriac-Arabic lexicon, 
where it is equated with wald, etc., to which Payne-Smith adds, "vox 
corrupta ex 7<ivof," Thes., col. 708. 

'DNO, and below "'NOSO, in No. 15 NOSO: one of the most frequent 
feminine names in these texts; see Noldeke, WZKM, vi, 309, Lidzbarski, 
Bph. i, 75 f., 97, n. 3 ; ii, 419. Budge in his edition of Thomas of Marga's 
Book of Governors (ii, 648) gives a note contributed by Jensen that Mami 
is a name of belit Hani, the mother-goddess. 

2. xnt5"3 ND'b'^: the generic lilith is differentiated into several different 
species, the male and the female, the ghost and the vampire, hence "the 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 157 

3, the 4, and the 5 of you" below. In the following text it is a question 
whether the 2d per. sing, or plur. should be read in many places. The two 
numbers are clearly distinguished in 1. 7, end. But the obscurity consists 
in the equivalence of ''ih and p3^, like the case of the loss of I in the 
verbal forms in ]T\ in later Aramaic, e. g. TT'O'nn, 1. 11; also 'nJS, 1. 15, 
is plural, as Nnse^a shows. Also the confusion of 1 and ' in our script 
renders the distinction between masc. and fem. uncertain. Do the imper- 
atives in 1. 10 terminate in i or ti, the latter a masculine form (inclusive 
of the feminine), the former possibly to be compared with the Syriac? 
My English "you" covers the uncertainty between sing, and pi. 

hn " nrsT n'DE;"2 : a prophylactic "word," like the magical quotations 
from Scriptures; cf. a similar case at end of No. 42. 

At end of 1. 2 are named the five different "modes" of the lilith. 
NJTJPB' and XITSon are unique demoniac names, found only here and in 
No. 17. The probable identity of 'n with the Arabic Ghul suggests con- 
necting 'EJ' with the Arabic si'lat; Lane, Lexicon, 1365, and at length his 
Arabian Nights, c. i, n. 21, and also van Vloten, WZKM, vii, 179, who 
quotes an Arabic author to the effect that the Si'lat is the witch of the 
feminine Jinns. (The Arabic root sa'ala, "cough," = Syriac ^vtr.). We 
have then to account for the loss of the V. The form would be comparable 
to Kn^JlKS'. Another possibility is = Assyrian sulii, "ghost," Muss-Arnolt, 
Diet. 1036 (from n^y?), the formation being originally selamtu (cf. elanu 
from n^v). The witch or Ghiil is preferable in the context, however in 
No. 39 the Lilith appears as the ghost of a dead relative, so that the context 
does not determine the etymology. 

Nri'stjn, or Kn''B''t:n No. 17, "ravager," represents the Heb. Donn 
("ostrich"? — such is the tradition in Onkelos and LXX) in Targum Jer. 
to Lev. 11: 16, Dt. 14: 15 (where these two spellings also are found), 
among the unclean birds. Horrible bird-like forms were given to the 
demons by the Babylonian imagination, Jastrow, Rel. Bab. u. Ass., i, 281 ; 
also cf. Utukki-series, B, 35 f. The ostrich itself even in the rationalizing 
Old Testament is half demoniac; cf. the notes on the piT, p. 81. Prob- 
ably the 'n is exactly the Arabic Ghul, which is thus described by Doughty : 
"A Cyclops' eye set in the midst of her human-like head, long beak of 
jaws, in the ends one or two great sharp tushes, long neck ; her arms like 



158 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

chickens' fledgling wings, the fingers of her hands not divided; the body 
big as a camel but in shape like as the ostrich; the sex is only feminine. 
She has a foot as the ass' hoof and a foot as an ostrich," etc. (Arabia 
Deserta, i, 53, quoted by Thompson, Sent. Magic, 60). 

3. pa'n^^n : for the sharpening of the vowel, tHittai from 
t'lattai, see my notes on tO'iB, p. 73. 

I^'tanv: supplied from 17: 5, as also other bracketed passages. [''^''lyD 
is sing., as TDD shows. Nakedness and dishevelled hair are standing 
descriptions of the lilith, witch, etc. See references above, p. yy; add 
Kohut, Jiidische Angelologie, 88, and for Arabic legend, Wellhausen. 
Skiasen, 3, p. 32. The picture presents the abandoned character of the 
lilith — e. g. the Labartu is called a whore — , and also her shameful, out- 
lawed position. 

p3'?5? yoE' : ^1? = ? as constantly in these texts and as in Mandaic. 
The naming of the demon's forbears has a compelling power, as part of 
name-magic ; see p. 58. Cf. the naming of the parents of the demon TiaivxtMMx 
in the invocation of his appearance in a charm of Wessely's (xlii, 60, from 
Brit. Mus. Pap. cxxiii). The same names distorted and applied vice versa 
appear in No. 17; similar names also in No. 11. 

•'plB: often along with synonymous verbs, pmn'S, j?lt, etc. Cf. the 
Babylonian istn btti si. (Utukki-series, iii, 158), the long series of impera- 
tives in Maklu-scries, v, 166 ff., etc.; Mk. 9: 25, Acts 16: 18; in Gollancz's 
Syriac charms; in the Greek, e. g. Reitzenstein, Poimandres, 295, 298 
(where the demon is also bidden not to disobey). 

4. '13E5n : probably hypocoristic from Rasnu, name of a Zoroastrian 
genius, see Justi, p. 259. Cf. the names inJ'E'n, inrJB'Xl, in Glossary. 

5. mSD = Nmo (15: 2), "Martha." 

6. "Rabbi J. b. P.": see commentary No. 32, and below, 1. 7. 

"by the glory of your father" : hardly an appeal to the demon's sense 
of honor, ip' must be equivalent to "name," cf. the parallelism and 
the equivalence of the Name and the Glory in the Old Testament, where 
1U3 is also used of the human personality. 

7. X3P D'n: sts^J : the separation of the lilith from her victim is 
expressed in terms of a divorce-writ. This was a happy thought of the 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 159 

magicians, who thus applied the powers of binding and loosing claimed 
by the rabbis to the disgusting unions of demons and mortals. The logic 
of the procedure was very simple — if only the liliths were as submissive 
to divorce as their human sisters. The decree is frequent in these bowl 
incantations,, and first appeared in Ellis's bowl, no. i. But I do not know 
of any case of the occurrence of this magical Get outside of the bowls. 

The magical writ affects the same forms and formalism as that of 
the divorce court.' In the parallel bowl, No. 17, a form of date is given 
(1. I NDV pn), which was a requisite in the legal Get. The names of 
both parties are exactly given, hence the parents of the liliths are here 
specifically named. The very terms of divorce are repeated in 17: 2: 
'DW n'aini nnoDi np^2Z' • cf. the facsimile of a Get given as a frontis- 
piece in Amram's work ('3'n' rranni n^p2^ nnLJS). It was necessary 
that the writ should be properly served on the divorcee, hence in 26: 6, 
'3D'J '^IpC: "take thy writ," a sentence consummating the process, and 
then the divorced demon must betake herself from her victim's property, 
as commanded by the peremptory; "Hear, obey and go forth" (1. 10). But 
there is a diflference; against spiritual powers divine authority was neces- 
sary. And so it is affected that the writ has come down from heaven (1. 7), 
that is, it belongs to the category of writs from foreign countries for 
which there were special forms; hence the SO' i3'j; po ^?nx stJ'J, 1. 9. 
The commissioners and witnesses are the holy angels, etc., 1. 9 f. A rabbi 
is also at hand to seal as notary the divine decree, none other than the 
famous master-magician Joshua b. Perahia. For a further phase of this 
"divorce-writ" see to 11: 7. In 1. 7, both the sing, and pi. are carefully 
used, so as to include both the definite lilith and also the whole brood. 

7. p'yiD'r, pniTn : Pael infinitives with first syllable in i. 

HD^ba nobs : the root = "split asunder." 

3'nD ( ?) may be ppl. from 3in in sense of Latin reddere. 

II. "the house of Joshua": i. e. of the school of sorcery; in 34: 2 
the sorcerer calls himself "J.'s cousin." 

' See D. W. Amram, Jewish Law of Divorce (Philadelphia, 1896), esp. c. xiii; 
Jewish Ettcyc, s. vv. Divorce, Get. 



160 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

nyaK'a: "by the Seven"? — i. e. the seven angels, genii, etc.? The seven 
planets are so called simply in Syriac. 

12. 01 Dn-i2X -i'3sa: cf. Is. 49: 24, 2pv 'H; for the Rock of Isaac, 
cf. Is. 30: 29, Rock of Israel. The "Shaddai of Jacob" is unique. The 
scribe was not mighty in the Scriptures. But cf. Bcclus. 51: 2: "give 
thanks to the Shield of Abraham, .... to the Rock of Isaac, .... to the 
Mighty One of Jacob." 

13. pn'B' mrx: another term for the divorce-writ. 

From 1. 13 to end the text is largely mutilated or illegible; this is the 
more unfortunate as there are traces of interesting apocryphal or kabbal- 
istic passages. Viz. "the hosts of fire in the spheres"; "the chariots of 
El-Panim" ; "the beasts worshipping in the fire of his throne and in the 
water," with which cf. the glassy sea of Revelation. The following term 
'!>jn ("banners," then "cohorts") is a common word in the Targumic 
literature for the angelic hosts, according to Shemoth Rabba 15, = niK3V. 
(But the phrase may mean, "who is revealed as.") The language is Hebrew 
and the allusions are taken doubtless from apocalyptic literature. 

14. ^Knry is known as an angel of the divine chariot, Schwab, 
Vocabulaire, s. v., and bsnpy is found ibid.; n. b. play with nnpj?. 

15. The reference to the snpJJf indicates that witchcraft is behind 
these devilish manifestations; the lilith and the witch are practically 
identical, see p. 78. 

17. "may they be established for life"; cf. the finale of the Mandaic 
texts, "Life is victorious." The same expression in 12: 3, and the negative 
wish against devils in Wohlstein 2426: 9; but in his no. 2417: 22 the verb 
is used of the resurrection. At least the vague idea of immortality may 
be contained in the phrases. 



No. 9 (CBS 9010) 

na (3) yt^ini '2-n . . . n^^: sin sini kjtsi; (2) siaiyi nj['pb']i sj''ci kiib 
K'''J33i (4) pnnn iini) innn^an iir^^b^b b:ib 'lj'j pn^ sjariD x'nnp 
Konn (5) snj'B'31 n^l^H KcSj^na nTinj^s ptb* na nommi [xnjerp na 
Dityi (6) nvnis iina nvniKi nix iino nix niti'3 rpi^^ll [pniD]'!n sd'-jt 
npyn's smD nnsi x^ct^' i3;i'3rT'x pnan [oupjn] nino npji nio'tj'n lino 
pDa Koi'j; 10 n3K pnn sn'^'b '3D^i Mnv 'trin n^tj' nx (7) ^ddd's pna Knaii 
l[o Ii]3ri' KP2«!'i pnn'' xij^n^ K^ans: (8) pa'i'y titi^ni Nana'!' iin^bj? rrp^bo 
BnjaxaT pno3B"c irn inx . .na ba ici iin'DBipD'K tm pn^mn t^i pn'ria 
Noi)'n3 t6 [lin> innn'n] Ni) aim n'nnj'K in'tr nn ncniDni (9) Nnovp -\2 
. . . [p]pi3't5' mjKi . . . (10) I'Dn' s:-iDE . . . [xaon KnJj'Z'a «i'i n'l'''i>T 

nj3 ma 

Exterior 

Kin by lainn !'K2-n bjo-iai iiKnaa mxav n^'ni'K nin^ tiib'j; latr^i' •'JK (11) 

ID« IDK nnaipD'N «nn bv^ snonn 

Translation 

The bowl I deposit and sink down, and the work (2) I operate, and 
it is in [the fashion of] Rabbi Joshua (3) bar Perahia. I write for them 
divorces, for all the Liliths who appear to them, in this (house of ?) (4) 
Babanos bar ^ayomta and of Saradust bath Sirin his wife, in dream by 
night and in slumber (5) by day; namely a writ of separation and divorce; 
in virtue of letter (abstracted) from letter, and letters from letters, (6) 
and of word from words, and of pronunciation from pronunciations; 
whereby are swallowed up heaven and earth, the mountains are uprooted, 
and by them the heights melt away. 

(7) Oh, Demons, Arts and Devils and Latbe, perish by them from 
the world ! Therefore (?) I have mounted up over them (you ?) to 
the celestial height, and I have brought against you (8) a destroyer to 

(161) 



168 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

destroy them (you) and to bring you forth from their house and their 
dwelHng and their threshold and all .... place of the bedchamber of 
Babanos b. If. (9) and of Saradust b. .§. his wife. And again, do not 
appear to them, neither in dream of night nor in sleep of day .... I dismiss 
you (10) .... letters of separation 

(11, exterior) In thy name have I wrought, Yhwh, God, Sebaoth, 
Gabriel and Michael and Raphael. Thy seal is upon this besealment and 
upon this threshold. Amen, Amen. 

Commentary 

A charm for a man and his wife. The inscription is illiterate, and is 
largely parallel to (doubtless dependent upon) the Syriac text No. 32 = 
No. 33; also cf. No. 8. 

1. KJ'pBl K^DI Nlia : the same phrase appears in 32: 3 and 33: i, 
whence the third word in the present text can be restored. It is very 
obscure and I propose the following explanation. 'S is a synonym for XD13 
"bowl," and is the Syriac and Mandaic Ninia (puhra) which came to mean 
"symposium," but goes back to the root ins, giving the words for the potter 
and his art, i. e. originally it was a potter's vessel. For the loss of the 
guttural in our present word, cf. Mandaic NllB' for NiniE', etc. syoi 
I take in the common Syriac sense of laying a foundation; the bowl was 
placed, as we have seen, at one of the four corners of the house. For NJ'pK', 
we must assume a parallel significance, and it is to be derived from jjpE', 
treated as S'6, in the similar sense "to sink" (the ist Form is used as an 
active in Rabbinic). As the phrase appears in our Syriac bowls, which are 
largely colored by Mandaic idioms, the reference to this dialect is 
justifiable. 

snnij;: see p. 51; in the parallels nnvT Ninv. 

2. In the lacuna Nni3»in''D might be read, sin sin is a Syriac idiom, 
taken from the Syriac parallel. 

3 . r"''"'^ : awkward ; probably for n n'H'n jnna ; cf . 32 : 5. 

4. ^1333- probably En:3S3 in 1. 8. The first element is bdba or papa 
(Persian p often = Semitic b), Justi, pp. 54, 241, the second the Persian 
genius-name Anos. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 163 

[sn]oi''p: n was legible to the original copyist of these bowls in 1. 8. 
The name signifies patrona. The masc. awp appears in Pognon B. 

noniD : apparently a form of Zarathustra; see Justi, p. 379 f., where 
the frequent spelling Zaradust is cited in names. But strange is the 
application of this masculine name to a woman. 

I'TC: cf. the name Sirin, Tabari's Chronicles, ed. de Goeje, i, 4, p. 100, 
1-3- 

ppiaen piD'sn SD'n: the repeated 1 defies construction; cf. 1. 6. 
The terms all appear in No. 8. 

5 . ':) nix lino nix Dltra : a parallel phrase appears in 32 : 6 ; here 
the words are Hebrew. The general sense of these obscure phrases is 
clear; they refer to the magical use of letters and words and the manipu- 
lation of their pronunciations, such for instance as we find in the 
treatment of nin'' and in the Greek magic of the seven vowels. Cf. Pradel, 
P- 3S> 1- 9> "in the name of these angels and letters." 

6. 'i^ 2pi^ : this root appears in the Bible where it passes from the 
physical "prick, prick out," to the sense "distinguish," that is, in speech, 
"pronounce clearly." It is the question in Sank. 56a whether nirr Dt^ 3p3 
is so used or in the sense "blaspheme." In the present case it means 
"pronounce," and is synonymous to the Piel t5""ia as that appears in DtJ' 
eniBOn.' Mystic or traditional renderings of the Tetragrammaton are 
doubtless referred to, but all this is only mysteriously suggested here; the 
magician does not offer us samples of his rare art. There is a garbled 
form of these phrases in 32 : 6. 

ivbn' pnyi: cf. 7: 12. 

X'llD : a Mandaic spelling for the plural in e. 

7. '313? a category appearing only in the bowls, see above p. 81, and 
Glossary. 

['33: probably the Targumic "therefore." 

This and the following line are difficult by reason of an inconsequent 
use of the pronouns ; the scribe was writing by rote. Light is thrown 

' For this discussion see Dalman, Der Gottesname Adonay, 44 ff. 



164 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

on the passage from 32: 8 f. (q. 7;.), where is given the tradition of Joshua 
b. Perahia's ascent to heaven, by which he obtained mastery over all evil 
powers. Our scribe boldly turns the 3d person of the legend into the 
first person — of himself, — an instance of the attempted identification of 
the magician with deity or master-magician. 

NDnD'P: so the parallel demands. 

Ti'JTK: appears to be Afel; Tt- is hebraizing. 

8. xbnD = rrncon, Ex. 12: 23; in the parallel the abstract ab'zn. 

1 1 . For the asyndeton connection of the angelic names with that of 
Deity, see above, pp. 58 f, 99, and note the Greek parallels. Sebaoth 
appears to replace one of the four archangels; cf. the personification of 
S. in .Myhrman's text. 



No. 10 (CBS 16014) 

nnim ma nn npnc nn ni'va ^j221 'jsa nn injv: xnm nniox!' nyep kj"; 

nnsipD^Ni jnn nnu nnnr:i D^nn (2) ns. in' n' DitJ'3 n^n nnEipD\si 

[i']N'^'Ki JJKnaJi i'siuB'i imti'i'T H'sk'u H•^•<n n'l sun iinrN 

ma riB'i' n«mp ms nnnm x-inn Nin na injvji "'nr [p]^n ponnoi (3) 
pisn pcnnoi po^nn nin pjdd toi pi'aan lai pin |qi (4) [pi^jB' la tdjitxi 
nnu'ni' nj ncnm Nnnn Kin na mn ^nn 'Jed (5) na nnnrx injvji npiB' in 
iinCTiT]! iDi iinn'3 idi pnj'-c ppmnn iipQ'ii iii'tjaM iimrM (6) N:sim ni» la 

IDK IBK D^iyi'i pn «av la imuasj-a rra lai (7) 

Translation 
This amulet is for the salvation of this Newandiich bath Kaphni, and 
Kaphni her husband bar Sarkoi, and Zadoi her son, and her house and 

her whole threshold, in the name of Yah, Yahu, Ah (2) Sealed, and 

countersealed are this house and this threshold .... in the name of 

LLZRyon and Sabiel and Gabriel and Eliel (3) And sealed are 

these, Zadoi and Newandiich, with that seal with which the First Adam 
sealed Seth his son and he was preserved from Demons (4) and Devils 
and Tormentors and Satans. Again sealed and countersealed are these, 
the son of Sarkoi and Newandiich his wife b. (5) K. and Zadoi her son, 
with that seal with which Noah sealed the ark from the waters of the 
Deluge. (6) And may they fly and cease and go forth and remove from 
them and from their house and their abode and their bed-chamber, from 
this day and forever. 

Commentary 

A charm for a woman and her family. It is decorated with a figure 
having a beaked, bird-like face. 

nyap: see Introduction, p. 44. 

nnJVJ: for the name see to 5 : i ; the same person appears in No. 11. 

(165) 



166 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

'Jsa : probably for Kafndi, "the hungry one." The woman's husband 
and father had the same name. This is a case of the father's name being 
given, against the rule; for other examples, see 12: i, Pognon B, p. 98, 
and the name KQKB, in Lidzbarski 5. 

■'IplK': cf. the Persian name Serkoh Justi, p. 296. 

(')nT: the full spelling appears in 1. 5; for the name, ibid., p. 382. A 
Zaroi appears in 37: 3. 

2. 'IJI ninrs: I can make nothing out of these words. 

For Sabiel and Eliel, see Schwab, Vocabulaire, 251, 57. The first 
name is probably mystical. 

3. Sin na: emphatic use of Kin; cf. Dan. 7: 15. 

For these apocryphal references to the seal of Adam and Noah, cf. 
p. 64, and for the Jewish legends see Jezv. Bnc, s. v., "Seth," "Noah." It 
is in the Babylonian story not the Biblical that the hero shuts himself in. 

5. XJB1D: found in Targ. Onk. to Gen. 6: 17, = ti^^uv, frequent in 
the Greek magical vocabulary. 



No. 11 (CBS 16022) 

A charm for a woman and her household, in terms of a divorce from 
the evil spirits. 

The text would be legible only for a half, but for the interesting 
fact that it is one of four almost duplicate inscriptions. The longest 
and clearest of these is the Mandaic bowl, no. 5, published by Lidzbarski. 
Another is, remarkably enough, the first inscription of this category ever 
published, Ellis no. i, in Layard, Nineveh and Babylon, 512 ff . ; see § 2.' 
The latter is given in poor facsimile, and none has taken the trouble to 
collate afresh the bowl in the British Museum, a simple task which doubtless 
would have allayed the difficulties. 

Of this text the bowl from Nippur is practically a duplicate, and, with 
the help of Lidzbarski's inscription, I am able to restore almost the entire 
text not only of our bowl but also of that in the British Museum. 

There is also a fourth duplicate. No. 18. It can be read only by com- 
parison with the three presented here, and so I have left it in its original 
place in my arrangement of these inscriptions, especially as it contributes 
nothing further to the understanding of their contents. 

I have thought it worth while to present the three texts in parallel 
columns. This process facilitates the verification of emendations, while 
the variations which present themselves throw interesting light upon the 
natural history of magical inscriptions. We mark how magical terms 
which once had a meaning become blurred and obscured at the hands of 
generations of sorcerers and copyists, until sense becomes nonsense, or 
simple word or phrase receives a kabbalistic interpretation. The Mandaic 
appears to have the latest type of text, having evidently transferred its 
material from another script and dialect. Cf. the parallel texts in No. 7. 

In the following texts I have slightly abbreviated the names in the 
2d and 3d columns, and omitted a few unimportant phrases in the 3d 
(always so noted). It is not necessary to give a translation of Ellis's 

' As suggested in that section, n. 4, this was the bowl obtained by L,ayard from 
Nippur. 

(167) 



168 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION, 



bowl, as the text is now almost entirely intelligible. The enumeration of 
lines in Ellis's text is according to the spiral lines. 



No. II 
Hinb n'DC 10 sniDX 
'Drrrn ijsa nn -iinjrj 
JO nicB' 'oma (2) 
JDK tcK Nni'intDi Kn5"i' 

(3) i'DDri'm nr'n mn 
injVJ to nro pmn'm 

(4) Nmpyi Nmytj'i 
TinsT fso Dica snbani 

itrs n'HK DiK'3i sn''5"i'i 

xnaa (5) -iid^'n 

tin[''0''b]Bn pn^'r^jo 

Iin's^o 

niyaB'N xn'l'''!'[i 

Kii'S"!' 'Jin nmn na (6) 

nmnai nn''33 [sarrlT 
'JE23 [n3] -in:iijT 

XSp[65n] 

KnpTi[ni] vTiT 

[O'bv NJV]3E}'0 



Ellis I 



Lidzbarski 5 



"inijS'i njdd!'1 N[in]^i 

■1103K^1 . . . ^"1 (2) 

Nn''i"!'i . . . iji «iio 
injin3 (3) io ti^t23n 
13 mn3 lei nnjvj n3 

Kjn33 IID'N bn (4) 

KD'i'tS' Mmi pTB'T 

K3T 

NJJ73E'a Kn''i'''5'T 

f?n'5>'i' (5) D^D3n 'a^y 
Nn^i"^ijin nm3 n3 



■<2->'?il NJ3;3B'D 



ini'oi' 

N31 xD'i^tfi K'rm 

n'3tJ'K xn'i"!' p-^i3T 

NTT'!''!' n!'3Kni sn'!"!' 

Nnsi3Dy3i nn''N3 X3nsn 

13 |"o-iin n nn'N3T 
ns Nnsnsm Nns!?no 

KPJNm 
NriKpnxii «'pinNT 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 



169 



Dsmcja pnon'm (7) paini"^' msiDa pncnm 
''^•'b]! . . . D'bc Sim iniJ"]; a^b^ xin xnnj (6) 



['Ji nn:vj It: 



pnnsT (8) [n'tr Koa] 
pn'i'y t[m]n xiJi 

O'D'3 ''^IPK' 



'JED na (jjc.) inj^j to 
«!> nCi" pjrnn'n NiJi 

k!'1 n[»'v] I'aae'n t6^ 
nn:3i nja n' pbop'ri (9) 

c ts' 13'' TT V rrnn 



nnprw 
n^j; Pi'i^ji Tsi 



N2n33 n^ans xn 

'j n2 
ma 121 (7) 

pt3'3 pT'B' p3n3T NCJ 

pn'i'V imn xi) 

P3''L3'J i'lPB' 
p3 . . . 1^'2P1 

ipn''j;i (8) 1P121 
'3 na 'nan snsiaD's [;d] 



;irn Di&'a 

Dt2C3 'iTHI 



X-I3J Di?''m . . . 

PD'^[B'n] n'npt'vai 
^r^^bv1 (9) 



yz'b DisnxDa •'xnonTn 

D^snDSPT nn^jTicai 
bv Dsi'NB'eT KDN^a 

Xn'B'l NMm X'-iHD 

xriN'!"^! snoim ^''nni 

6 Dsnbn T^'asna prxn 

■pn-iKDEK prxni 

reiim mjEi nrrxa ic 

'1 na 'X nir pi '» ^a 

nnK:ai nja [si 

KD''j Nnitj" «'anK3T na 

Dim KntJ-iaa p^'KB-Ji?!' 
(?) xmasxi'i sm.xnx!' 

'31 Dsn^n TnxaiD l?UNpi 

psHKinvi pinj?i piai NTpi 

'31 T'Diim '31 nn'sa p 

ti»Ka!'''naKl' pi^Ktn'n k^i 

KOXDn p3Nir'naxt'i tfb'bi 

'31 nri'Na DTi^ni tdvt 

^'^3 TV T nnpnya 

SQvnsns Tsiti'a nhn^n 

11V iiy nxi3Kmx2x rsn 

IDS'' UN'' nx' nx' x'' x'' nij? 

x^nxD'n'ni x^nxTDj; 

Nnx'b'!) 

xnxapi3i xna't 

xabo po'l'B'T Nnp''T5/a 

TIXI 13 

XniiX fl'^3 TV T 

fl''i'3 NTipn X31 nciB' 



170 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

n!'D toN ie« lo« Etc. '■> ]nv 's na'aiv 

Translation 

Salvation from Heaven for this Newandtich bath Kaphni, that she be 
saved (2) by the love of Heaven from the Lilith and the Tormentor. Amen. 
Amen. Again, fly and refrain (3) and remove from Newanduch b. K., 
the Lilith and the Tormentor and Fever and Barrenness (4) and Abortion ; 
in the name of him who controls the Demons and Devils and Liliths, 
and in the name of "I-am-that-l-am." 

For the binding of (5) Bagdana, their king and ruler, the king of 
Demons and [Devils], the [great] ruler of Liliths. I adjure thee, Lilith 
Halbas, granddaughter of Lilith Zarni, [dwelling] in the house and dwelling 
of Newandiich b. K. and [plaguing] boys and girls, (7) that thou be 

smitten in the courses (?) of thy heart and with the lance of who 

is powerful .... over you. 

Behold I have written for thee (i. e. a divorce), and behold I have 
separated thee [from N. b. K. etc.], [like the Demons] (8) who write 
divorces for their wives, and do not return to them. Take thy divorce from 
Newanduch b. K. and do not appear to her, neither by night nor by day, 
and do not lie [with her]. And do not (9) kill her sons and daughters. 
In the name of Memintas (?) keeper of Habgezig (?). Y6, Yad, Yat, 
Yat, Yat. By the seal on which is carved and engraved the Ineffable Name, 
since the days of the world, the six days of creation. 

Commentary 

1 . Newanduch b. Kaphni : the same as in No. 10 ; here without 
mention of a husband. It is also the name of the mother of the client in 
Ellis's bowl. 

2. pT'CC 'Dm : cf. "the great Lord of love." "Heaven" is used here 
and in parallel passages as surrogate for Deity, after ancient Jewish use; 
the same use in 18: i and Wohlstein 2422: 3. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 171 

3. KmvtJ' : a new word. I would connect it with the Arabic root s'r 
(Heb. "I5?D, iJfB'), with the meaning "be hot, rage," etc. See the various 
derivative nouns in Lane, Arabic-English Lexicon, 1363: sa'r, "burning, 
shooting," su'r, "demoniacal possession, madness, mange"; sa'rat (our very 
form!) "cough," etc. Possibly fever, or poison. The Arabic su'r connotes 
infection. 

4. Kn^sn: "bereavement," then used of abortion, the reference being to 
a mischievous killing by magic of the unborn child. 

It is unfortunate that in the first line of Ellis's inscription, the name 
following TTJ , i. e. "Nirig" is indecipherable from the facsimile. For 
yi'i = rT3, cf. b^2. on the Nerab inscriptions, = Nin-gal. In KilD ni03K, 
the second word is a careless repetition of the first. 

5. At the end of this line begins the parallelism with the two other 
inscriptions. Our very first word, which appears as one in a series of 
divine names, e. g. El-sur, is explained from the parallel which shows that 
niD'N ha was meant ; the unusual form b« (= hv) was taken to be = "god," 
and the passage became hopeless. The same process of corruption will be 
found below on the Mandaic side. 

Hii:2: so in Ellis, but in the Mandaic bowl NJSnjnK (= S3S3JnK in 
Pognon B). See Lidzbarski's attempts at explanation. But our NJnJa 
is the elder form; see on 19: 6, 13, where '3 is both generic and personal. 

pn'3'bo: the first ' is an error as the subsequent spelling shows ; the 
second represents the half-vowel. The scribe in our text has been con- 
fused and repeated his words here. For the "king of demons," see p. 74. 

Dabn = D^iDan = DXnSn, in the three texts ; cf. the names in the parallel 
texts Nos. 8 and 17: onbs and Tin^S, mniiD and [nba. Proof of the impos- 
sibility of etymologizing on these forms! The accompanying lilith in the 
Mandaic, nbasn, must be connected with our xn^an above ; abortion is 
personified. The granddam of the lilith appears to be better known as it 
is identical in all three inscriptions. The two liliths in the Mandaic are 
interpreted by Ellis's text; they are the male and female respectively; cf. 
below, 1. 8, no'v faacn «b. 

7. DD11D = DiBltS = DinSND: these various forms throw no light on 
the word. It looks as if it were a corrupted Greek anatomical term. 



172 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

'D33'b = pa'a^'^ (Ellis) : our text explains the reading of the elder 
bowl ^bb = 22b, the former a metaplasis of the latter; the same form in 
18:7. 

? = DpTi = D'isntiNp : the latter has, as Lidzbarski recognizes, a 
peculiar Mandaic form. I am inclined again to hold that the parallel 
shorter forms are more original. The reading in our bowl is different 
from the other two. For NlDJ opT) cf. '3 K13S, 3: 2. 

JTana Nn: explained by the second column, where plus sanaa i. e. the 
divorce-writ. Curiously enough the Mandaic has taken the interjection Nn 
as a pronoun' and rendered it by j'TXH. 

nnOB: cf. Ass. pataru, "break a charm." 

'D'a pansT n-'^y sD3: cf. 8: 7. The additional thought appears here 
that inasmuch as demons divorce their spouses, divorce-writs must be as 
effective on them as among human kind. Cf. also No. 18. It may be 
noticed here that the first and third texts address a special lilith in the 
singular, the second goes over into the plural ; the same uncertainty in 
No. 8. 

9. (133: (:= plural) Mandaism; so also below 'niPy = <^bv. 

B'nJ''Oa Dlt;'3 = Mand. ^«Dyn^?os , the second text obscure. Again no 
light! There is considerable similarity in the following magical syllables. 

'31 n''npf''3;3: with the help of the parallels we can make out the 
reading. It and Ellis's inscription are almost identical. The Mandaic gives 
here a striking instance of perversion. The prepositional phrase nby (or its 
equivalent) was understood as "God" and turned into xnbs; this took with 
it the ppls. TV and Iva, which were raised to divine dignity to accom- 
modate the epithet xnbN. The invention appears to have been prized, as 
the deity Sir-Geliph is also introduced above in the same inscription. The 
KHiso DC is thus reduced to a travesty ! The well-known Jewish phrase 
appears also in Schwab, E.' 

• Cf. Noldeke, Mand. Gram. § 81. 

' For the true explanation of this term, see Arnold, Journ. of Biblical Lit, 190S, 
107 ff. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 173 

Solomon's magic ring (first mentioned by Josephus) inscribed with 
the Tetragrammaton is the subject of Haggada in Gitt. 68a, b. Later 
legend, especially Arabic, developed the wonders of this magic ring.' Ac- 
cording to the end of our inscriptions this seal engraved with the divine 
Name was in existence since the week of creation (= rrcxia). This is 
an addition to the ten things which according to Pirke Aboth, 5 : 8, were 
created on the eve of the first Sabbath — among which were the alphabetic 
script and the tables of the Law. 

* See Jewish Encycl., xi, 438 ff., 448; for the Greek magic, Dieterich, Abraxas, 
139, 1. 28, and at length, p. 141 f. ; for bibliography, Schiirer, GJV, iii, 303. 



No. 12 (CBS 9009) 

pn'jn^i n'nn's mtii na (2) 'ipiB'i'i inoDs in nziib N'ot- p khids 
\D (4) intijn'i iiB'pnM pn'T pn pni" iinn iinj'rpi'i (3) nn^rrai'i jmnjabi 
prnn'OT xni'^ao ]c\ kjtI'''^ lai xncii' irsi odd p:i 'taair i-Di iin toi "'T'ts' 
nDKiJO (6) si^^T nn n'b pp n»i3 ^"33 na K'OJr id n^njn nssi'D i?v sj'did pnis (5) 
nTinaB'ini ISC' (7) K'otj"2 nnriB^ei ixb' 'jdo '•nnn 'tJ-a^: Sjvi ■'nnm Kniyi tsvt 
kS" (8) pnnrji xobv ^ar p p-inoDi [p]2'PT n'S'V pK^criM isd ny-isa 
'3 Vp-\2 spn 13 pets': pmriKn po'pi p^nn n^i'is xi:^j;i' n'!' pnnpna prniT'o 
KHBip'tJ'i Knnpi Kncii'i ^pjsi ''i'3''pi "'D'j ^3 pnoc'i iiijoa^ lu'x (9) xpna 
DVn>o '?2^ Kn^32ei nsnai xn"'i"i'i lanm nni (10) n''n xni'i'Di xno^trxi 
pijin IDI n'nrr'K msn nn (11) 'ipntj' 1^:1 injaoK "11 nmi to PPS'i pntn tru 
IiHTi'in toi 'ip-iB' '33 •'S'ls' iDi 'UD IDT nm3« 101 inno loi 'rr-sn lai pcD'^ pi 
niN3X niiT QiB'3 n'?)]!'?) [31 Kov p n3 ptfT ni'13 iin'mn pi nn3i3''p (12) pi 

1B'S3 n« moB" yn isisn hsudk" mn' ni'D px pK 

Exterior 

STi'SD'KT «3miNT (13) 

TrANSIvATIGN 

Salvation from Heaven for Dadbeh bar Asmandtich and for Sarkoi 

(2) bath Dada his wife, and for their sons and daughters and their house 

(3) and their property, that they may have offspring and may live and be 
established and be preserved (4) from Demons and Devils and Plagues 
and Satans and Curses and Liliths and Tormentors, which may appear 
(5) to them. I adjure thee, the angel which descends from heaven — there 
being kneaded (something) in the shape of a horn, on which honey is 
poured — (6) the angel who does the will of his Lord and who walks upon 
the (throne-) steps of his Lord se'u, and who is praised in the heavens (7) 
sc'ii, and his praise is in earth semu; — they are filled with glory, who endure 
and keep pure since the days of eternity, and their feet (8) are not 
seen in their dances by the whole world, and they sit and stand in their 

(174) 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 175 

place, blowing like the blast, lightening like the lightning. (9) These 
will frustrate and ban all Familiars and Countercharms and Necklace-spirits 
and Curses and Invocations and Knockings and Rites and Words and 
Demons (10) and Devils and Plagues and Liliths and Idol-spirits and 
Tormentors and everything whatsoever evil, that they shall flee and depart 
from Dadbeh b. A. and from Sarkoi (11) b. Dada his wife and from 
Honik and Yasmin and Kiifithai and Mehdvich and Abraham and Pannoi 
and Sili the children of Sarkoi and from their house and from (12) their 
property and from their dwelling, wherein they dwell, from this day and 
forever, in the name of Yhwh Sebaoth. Amen, Amen, Selah. "Yhwh 
keep thee from all evil, keep thy soul." 

Exterior 
(13). Of the inner room, of the hall. 

Commentary 
A charm for a man and his wife and their seven named children, in 
the form of an adjuration of a certain potent angel. There is rubrical 
reference to a magical operation for compelling this angelic assistance. The 
same family appears also in No. 16 and the Syriac Nos. 31, 33. Prof. 
Gottheil has presented a tentative translation in Peters, Nippur, ii, 182. 

1. nmi: probably abbreviated from Dadbuyeh; see Justi, p. 75. 
inJDDX: see ibid., p. 281, the Armenian name Samandvicht. 
'ipiB': see 10: I. 

2. msn- Justi, p. 75, Dada. The name is Semitic, e. g. Palmyrene 
and Syriac KIXT, from root nn. The name looks like a masculine (for the 
use of the father's name see to lo: i), but may equal N'nNi, 39: 2. 

4. 'D21B': for the form cf. Noldeke, Mand. Gram., § 19, and for the 
species, p. 80 f., above. 

5. 01 b'aj 13 (read niOT for nm) : a rubic directing an operation 
compelling the presence of the angel through a simulacrum and its manipu- 
lation. The insertion of the rubric into the text of incantation appears 
in the Babylonian magic, see King, Babylonian Magic, p. xxviii. It may be 
queried whether our sorcerer is not reciting a form unintelligible to him; 



176 ^ UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

cf. the intrusion of rubrics into the Psalms. The ancient charm was for 
binding the good spirits as well as the evil ; the incantation as well as the 
exorcism was a KardSea/ioi (see Heitmiiller, "Ini Namen Jesu," 2d part). In 
the early Babylonian magic images of the favorable gods were made and 
used in the rites; a good example is found in Zimmern's Surpu series, no 
54 (p. 169 = Thompson, Sem. Magic, p. Iviii). Probably idolatry has its 
basis in this magical idea. Reverence gradually obscured the idea that the 
gods were thus bound, it survived only in the word-magic. But in the 
present case a "horn" (symbol of power?), probably a cone of wax or the 
like is kneaded, and honey poured upon it, with which we may compare 
the antique anointing of the sacred stone or bethel^ wherein the suppliant 
literally "smooths" the face of of deity (Heb. n^n).' The rubric is, I think, 
unique in Jewish magic. For the magical use of honey, see Thompson in 
Index, J. V. 

6. niiD : for the plural, cf. instance in Jastrow, Diet., 834b; or the 
form may be regarded as parallel to MUK. 

We have here a bit of poetic lore about the angels, describing their 
worship and service of the Almighty. It appears to be a quotation from 
some Midrash. Who the angel invoked is, does not appear, — Michael? 
The terms IDD, iKtJ', are probably mysterious utterances to awe the hearer; 
cf. omo, omo, 3: 3 (from yoc, "hear," NE'J "lift up in worship"?). For 
the description "blowing like the blast," etc. , cf. Ps. 104 : 4. 

7. n'W: cf. niK3Vn "W. 7: 5. The description passes to a plural 
subject here. 

pnnrJ: a Rabbinical form; -ijj = lib = bn, "foot." For b = i cf. 
Noldeke, Mand. Gram., 54. 

8. The choric dances of the angels are a pretty fancy, cf. Job 38: 7. 

' Small conical stones are found in the oriental explorations, doubtless domestic 
baitylia; see Vincent, Canaan d'apres I'exploration recente, 177, and Scheil, Memoires 
de la Delegation Perse, vii, 103, 112 f. (Fig. 34-37, 340 ff, 374, 381). 

' For an extensive collation of like instances in Graeco-Roman magic see Abt, 
Die Apologie des Apuleius, 222 ff., 227. May the term in Apuleius, /JaffMraf, the magic- 
god whose image is formed for purposes of sorcery, (a term much disputed by the 
commentators') = -jSn = ikSb. the word used here? 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. l?? 

9. For the 'D'J and xnsip'B', see 6: 2 and p. 86. 'pJN is a masculinized 
form of snp:v (see p. 88). 

11. p'3in: I cannot identify. The Glossary shows two other men of 
the same name. 

}'OD' : a Persian name, = "jasmine," cf . Justi, p. 145. 

'JTBID: the same name in No. 2 (in "•»-). 

inno: cf. Syr. 'nanTO. Justi, p. 186. 

■"IJB: the Arabic Fannuyeh; see Noldeke, Persiche Studien, 405. 

'TC hypocoristic of s^'tr, name of several Amoraim; see Seder ha- 
Doroth, ii, 347. Cf. biblical rhv, from ni?NB' N^tr, "hv, also occurs in the 
Nabataean, CIS, ii, nos. 185,208,221. Noldeke (in Euting, Nab. Inschriften, 
74) vocalizes the name Sullai, and Berger (see to No. 208) compares the 
Nabataean name Sullaios. But Lidzbarski (Eph., ii, 16) rejects this deri- 
vation and derives the hypocoristic from D^B'. — Note that among these 
nine souls only one strictly Jewish name appears. 

12. The scriptural quotation is from Psalm 121, — a psalm admirably 
adapted for a charm. Cf. note to 5 : 5. 

13. The two words: "of the room (recess, bedchamber, etc.), of the 
hall (also, cavern)" evidently refers to the place where the bowl was to 
be placed. The first word may be in construct state, or the two terms 
may be parallel, as the words might mean the same thing. piTX = 
Ass. idrdnu, and is current in the Aramaic dialects. Jastrow defines 
ktIjbdk as especially a "sitting room in the shape of an open hall"; for 
some discussion of its etymology, see Payne-Smith, col. 315. 



No. 13 (CBS 8694) 

'KOD na nnjonan nep id n'':^-''?) (2) .Tooan rrooy j^n^i'm nn''ois noo 
/ponT psx^D .iirx (4) nbs^a i'N^j^j[n]i nDsi'B bs'ani nas^D ^ix^Dn-ii (3) 
i^i[Ni] DiK 1J2 ^3 isjxa «DD na (5) TnJDna ni pp^n^ [lon']i jnan'i 
ino->n 'p^vn n:iD3' ,iinniD3'm njitynl" jjinnni^n (6) .nn'oipij b'iv: nin n' 
nm ^K^'K n'3 mn' Q^&2 TEt^nD pn^n'o ,n'o hm^d ,i''3n' ,no'i; (7) iHnhtn 
. . .bpbp IV) hbivb nnci wp nom sn tnn ,ids< b3 nna^oni si^m (8) 

Exterior 

»b'i «^3non snS'inn .srin^KT x!'p sn'jn ...... 3t s!)? !5p mn k5'P !>? (9) 

na nnjanm ncu ijiji n'ri^a ,fnji' nmnia' la msK ^n^ji unj (10) •■nnj 'on snb' 

JOS 'i'^i'3''!' Nnmn hdk ^3 «i'?-' «b) wijanan 'iri'as. id n'nn^K (11) ndd 

yiDNn . . . mDisK kdd nn injonni' k^cb' id j<niDx D'pi nntj-i (12) id«i 

nvi [iv'?]) Qbwb n'DB' [to kJoS'B'i xmoK n^iD jon iox . . >r]>p>v» 

Translation 

Closed are the mouths of all races, legions (2) and tongues from 
Bahmandiich bath Samai. (3) And the angel Rahmiel and the angel 
Habbiel and the angel Hanniniel, (4) these angels, pity and love and 
compassionate and embrace Bahmandiich (5) b. S. Before all the sons of 
Adam whom he begat by Eve, we will enter in before them; from their 
clothing they will clothe her and from their garments they will garb her, 
the garment of the grace of God. (7) With her they will sit, on this side 
and on that, driving away (demons?), as is right. In the name of Yhwh- 
in-Yah, El-El the great, (8) the awful, whose word is panacea, this mystery 
is confirmed, made fast and sure forever and ever. 

Exterior 

(9) Hark a voice in the mysteries ! Hark the voice of , the voice 

of a woman, a virgin travailing and not bearing. Quickly be enamored, 

(178) 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 179 

(id) be enamored and come Ephra bar Saborduch to the marrow of his 
house and to the marrow of Bahmanduch b. S. (ii) his wife; as (she 
was) a virgin ( ?) travailing and bearing not, so (may she be) fresh 
myrtle for crowns. Amen, Amen. (12) And made fast and sure is 
salvation from Heaven for Bahmanduch b. ?>. (13) A preparation (?) .... 
leaven, press it (?) .... Amen, Amen, Selah. Salvation and peace from 
Heaven, forever and ever and ever. 

Commentary 
A charm for a certain woman against the reproach of barrenness, that 
her husband may love her and she may have children by him. The couple 
is the same that figures in No. i, which is particularly a charm against the 
liliths ; these are supposed to have prevented the natural fruit of the human 
union, affecting not only the woman but also the man's love and virility. 
At the end probably is given an aphrodisiac recipe. 

This text and No. 28 are unique among early Semitic incantations, 
for they are love-charms. In this they bear the closest relation to the Greek 
erotic incantations, on which I will speak more particularly under No. 28. 
But in the present text it is the barren forsaken wife who speaks, not the 
passionate lover, as in No. 28 and the Greek charms. The incantation has 
a Jewish cast in its address to certain angels, whose names are expressive 
of love and in its use of biblical divine names. Apparently the text is 
shortened from a longer model. It is illiterate in style and script, and 
contains numerous Hebraisms. A feature is the use of a wedge-shaped 
sign (indicated in the transliteration by a comma), occurring as a separator 
between words, but without consistency. 

I. n3D : for 'TDD. 

n'3C"Pi n'DDJn n'Doy: either antique emphatic plurals, or else =: 
Mandaic plural in K' — (see to 9: 6). The second word is an artificial 
enlargement of the Syriac tegma (rdy/ia^ for the sake of assonance with 
'V (spelt in the usual archaic Syriac fashion). The passage is reminiscent 
of Dan. 3: 4. Do the words refer to classes of mankind, and the taking 
away of the woman's reproach among men? Or not rather to ranks of 
demons? — to whom we expect some reference; cf. p. 80. The closing of 
their mouths means forstalling their curses, cf. p. 85. NOJD is particularly 



180 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

used of the cohorts of evil (Payne Smith, s. v.) and in the Peshitto trans- 
lates the "legions of angels" in Mt. 26 : 53. 

3. The three angels appear (upon some reasonable emendation) to 
have names corresponding to the verbs in the next lines. Angels were 
chosen, or invented, for the pregnant meaning of their names ; so Raphael 
became the patron of healing. Rahmiel is the genius of love in No. 28, 
and in one of Thompson's Hebrew charms from Mossoul (PSBA, 1906- 
1907), which contain many incantations for love, love between man and 
wife, and also for breaking marital love; once we find a philtre in which the 
angels invoked are Ahabiel, Salbabiel, Opiel, names signifying love and 
its passion (1907, p. 328, no. 80). W^2n and bxJin are found in Schwab's 
Vocabulaire, and the latter also in Stiibe, 1. 56. 

5 . The line is obscure ; it appears to present a dramatic scene in which 
the sorcerer and his client, in the presence of the adversaries, shall obtain 
judicial vindication of love from the favoring angels. The reference to 
Adam and Eve's offspring has a sympathetic value. 

6. 'Jl CU^'O assimilation of JO, as in Hebrew; for the idea cf. 2: 2. 

NlDTi ^TO : a common Semitic idiom; cf. Is. 61: 10, Eph. 6: 11; in 
the Samaritan, NmiCK B^abs, ca^^ isa nJ3 (Heidenheim, Bibliotheca 
sam. ii, pp. xlii. 197, § 24) ; actual investing with "grace" occurs in the 
newly-found Odes of Solomon, 4 : 7 : "inu'D B-nbi TJ 130. 

7. 'fO nT»: again Hebraic. The following word may be a ditto- 
graph, or a Pael of nit. For this protection on right and left, cf. 6: 10. 

For n'la nin' see to 7: 8. bx^x, in the Mandaic religion, epithet of the 
sun-deity (Norberg, Onom., 9, Brandt, Mand. Schr., 31), also found in 
the Greek magic, Wessely, xlii, 67. It may be a magical reduplication; 
but cf. the reduplication of W in the South-Arabic plural, and the Hebrew 
Wn, probably once a divine name — to be connected with Ellil of Nippur? 
— see Clay, "EUil, the God of Nippur," AJSL, 1907, 269. 

8. 1DN ^3: cf. 15: 2. 

nom : this spelling occurs also in a neo-Syriac manuscript published 
by Lidzbarski {Die neu-aramdischen Handschriften der konigl. Bibliothek 
z. Berlin, Weimar, 1896, 447) ; otherwise nom = nvnv. For a discussion 
of the word and its origin see Noldeke, Neusyrische Gram., 386. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 181 

int'i D'p: the same formula in Lidz. 5. 

At the end of this line which is on the edge of the bowl, the scribe 
has attempted to continue and has written a few characters ; he then started 
afresh on the exterior. 

9. vhp bp ■ bp is used like the Hebrew b)p. The piteous plaint of 
the sufferer is thus expressed, to move the sympathy of the celestial ones. 
In the same way the Babylonian magical texts preface their rites with a 
description of the plight of the patient; also the biblical Psalms often 
commence in like manner. A similar phrase appears in a bowl of Pognon's, 
B 20, but there the reference is to the curses of unfortunate souls which 
alight on the living. There may be the reference here to such a ban — of a 
virgin gone to her death without children. In this case 'Dn (= biblical on, 
Syriac on), would refer to the stilling of her "tongue." (Cf. the magical 
use of aiyTi in a text of Wessely's xlii, 60 f.). But the repetition in 1. 11 in- 
clines me to the view that the virgin who "travails and does not bear" is 
the wife, subject perhaps to miscarriage or feminine maladies. Then ''On 
would be from Din = Kin , "hasten," and so = "quickly," cf. Ass. SOn; 
the word would then correspond to the frequent f/Sr/ i/S^ raxv raxv as at the 
end of the Hadrumetum love charm (see to No. 28), and see note to 14: 4. 

'n'Jl uni 'anJ: the verb used for "love" is N3n, where we expect 2nn; 
cf. Heb. ante. For this triple adjuration, see No. 28. 

10. 01 n^n''2 flub : I have tried in my translation to express the 
difficult word ^M, which primarily "body," comes to mean the essence, 
essential thing. The reference is sexual, and the word has such connotations 
(see Jastrow, j. v.). 

11. 'n'bax ''D: this appears to be an error for Kn^ina, as in 1. 9; or 
possibly ppl. fern, in -te, "mourner"? '3 ... '3 are used correlatively, and 
we must suppose a lacuna: as she (was) in the joyless condition of child- 
lessness, so (her future state shall be symbolized by) fresh myrtle for 
crowns. Some literary form has been so rubbed down as to be almost 
unintelligible. For this correlation of '3 ... '3, see some, as yet unnoticed 
cases in the Hebrew, e. g. Gen. 18 : 20.' Myrtle as sacred to the goddess of 
love (Baudissin, Studien, ii, 198 f.) makes an appropriate simile. 



' See my notes in JBL, 1912, p. 144. 



188 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

12. '31 Qiansx : this line is provokingly obscure. Since a magical 
philtre is here prescribed, I venture to suggest that 'B = Latin praeparatum 
(the verb being used by Pliny for preparing drugs, foods, etc.). Or it 
may be the Rabbinic mans, "hash, salad" (which however does not explain 
the 12 ). ^'osn is leaven, which as a ferment would be appropriate to an 
aphrodisiac. \T'p'VX is fern, imperative, "press it." Aphrodisiac herbs, 
used magically or medicinally, are common in all erotic praxis. 



No. 14 (CBS 16917) 

info'nn!' snonn^ nn^'j kd3 inn N2"i xnl^K mn-' nnj? "js ■i»e'''3 [nds pin] 

DiB'3 m ro'ciB-n SK'np D''3-i3K DicD Kt}"[3] (2) pno iby n'nE'K inna nn 

D"! niBt52 im (3) N fiiDT xa' ^jj; n^nn^no ri' p'nm pin' pin' sid ns 

n'D-n3i «Ti3i K-iu ^a^ni nTij'aB' i-itfjo lo3 \'iy'?v n^yatys 3in hid 

... ion issnaji ^''K3'a niB'ai n'tfinx nn' dni nnl'S'n n^i^^n kci ssbo s . . (4) 
bK-':^ ''js I'xmj i'^'Donoi i'sniv iiKiaiDn niDB'2 i'sntj-n n^'aB'n (5) !> . . . nivs 
pnioa' nniT-s xi'T'i inn Koan pn'oe' isn^Nn pE'U ivtsi (6) \>P''i 1)31 bxnnj 
Kntr^K n3''ni'B'i''i smv niu iji) parr' p^ini inn pan cin"' «' (7) S' pnn »cd2 

nbo ISK pDN ox 

TrANSIvATION 

[This bowl] in thy name do I make, Yhwh, the great God. May this 

bowl be for the sealing of Hormizdiich bath Mehdvich. I adjure thee 

(2) evil, in the name of holy Agrabis, in the name of MS MS, in the 
name of SP SP YHW?: YHWK, who removed his chariot to (above?) 

the Red Sea (3) David, the Psalm of the Red Sea. Again I adjure 

you by him who lodged his Shekina in the temple of light and hail, and his 

(4) . . . the exalted king. Hall'eluia, Halleluia. Oh avaunt, oh 

avaunt, avaunt! And in the name of Michael and Gabriel (5) in the 

name of Sariel, in the name of Seraphiel, Suriel and Sarsamiel, Gadriel, 
Peniel, Nahriel. And all Blast-demons (6) and evil Injurers, whose names 
are recorded in this bowl and whose names are not recorded in this bowl, — 
oh, (7) oh, avaunt, sit down there! And ye shall be cast down, sitting 
within the glowing light and fiery flame (8). Amen, Amen, Selah. 

Commentary 
A charm for a certain woman, in the name of Yhwh and the angels, 
against some definite (now obscure) demon in particular, and against the 
devils in general. 

(183) 



184 ' UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

2. yo J'D : the syllable is Athbash for iT; cf. y&SK) = nin\ Stube, 1. 66 
and p. 63. D'anJN is probably also a mathematical anagram for the divine 
name or power; cf. Abraxas, = D'aias, etc. (see p. 57, and to 7: 9), of 
which the present form may be a corruption. The syllable f\0 seems to 
have suggested the sea of ^1D. pin' is for n\n''. 

3 . T'n : the lacuna makes the reference obscure ; a reference to one 
of the Psalms of David, or, by error to the Song of Moses ? 

n^nrac ntJ'Nl: the Targumic phrase, e. g. Dt. 12: 5. 

xnnai siu ^a'na : hail and fire are frequently found together in the 
Old Testament as manifestations of the divine presence; e. g. Ps. 18: 13 f. 
Esek. 38 : 22. But cf . especially Rev. 11: 19 : "Then was opened the temple 
of God that is in heaven; and there was seen in his temple the ark of the 
covenant; and there followed lightnings and voices and thunders and earth- 
quake and great hail." 

4. n'K^nN, Enn\ Enn': cf. tnn k', 1. 7; Ya = interjection "Oh." 
Reitzenstein has called attention to the equivalence of these expressions 
(commenting on Stiibe, 1. 14, Poimandres, 292, n.), to the ¥n ¥v ■^ax^' '^<^x^ 
of the Greek magic, as applied to demons in the sense of "at once 
avaunt." For examples, see the endings of nos. 3, 5, 6 in Wiinsch, Antiks 
Fluchtafeln, and the editor's note p. 13. Cf. a Christian charm in Pradel's, 
p. 72: vemat sanatio celeriter, abeat abeat abeat malum. 

5. All these angel names are found in Schwab's Vocabulaire, our 
!)K'DD"iD being probably the same as the bN''0"iD there. For magical refer- 
ences to Suriel, see Lueken, Michael, 71. 

6. The sorcerer spares himself the trouble of naming the evil spirits 
by applying a "blanket" charm to them all ; cf . i ; 14. 

sbl'l : see to 3 : 3. — n^iaTN: evidently a confusion between the 
passive and the ist person active. 

pnn : the only instance in these bowls of this rare demonstrative; 
elsewhere here \''\r\ 

7. pDiri: probably Etpeel. — For the curse at the end cf. 7: 17. 



No. 15 (CBS 16087) 

ninul' n)> Mnn n'ob-h snios (2) 'on-n «n^s< nmoK ija no -po'tt^ noc^a 
13 '23'tJ'n3i'i nn la I'l'j-iai'i Nmn (3) na nm nn-in[!'i] nod la roiim 

D«i 'sntDKi 'staxi p^^D io D»b nb-\2 (4) nmn^i n'^n nn''a[!'i] nrxnn'tj'n 
Dub Did trjiKi ina''nia njo (5) B'i''K dkt 'cntiKi pii'D sb dk^ b'J'n sjo i» 
ptiaiB'i (6) pp'tri pnn pa'^v ^nijci 'nra njo e'J'k dst 'antjxi piiJD «i> 
(7) [nn]B"a nrci^i'i inanei i'S"'pn piaiyi pB"a pcim pa'B'i pyaai pnivi 
Kim Knpfy miva Piarr n'onni sbnei Ncnj niD'xa pan'' nnoN » . . . . 

Kmo] na nn ici nod la t^omn id pnjo pan' mosi (8) 

■la ''ino jDi (9) ■iTNnn''B'D ha] 'aa^'Cia pi nn la ^^J-ia [joi 

i>sniDi IJS'on.i iJK'Dnm ij^n . . . ^xnaai i'Knioi bs'sn Dica nn 

p« ie[*< toK] Vfzbv n>p nisav mn'' nninai i-KiTiDi 

Translation 
In thy name and in thy word, Lord of all healing, God of love. 
(2) Salvation of Heaven for the house of Hormiz bar Mama and for the 
dwelling of D6d(a)i bath (3) Martha and for Bar-gelal bar Dodai and for 
Bar-sibebi bar Cirazad, even for all her house and dwelling (4). 

Las tnin selik : watrefe das min mena 

Enas las la selik: watrefe das ems (5) mena 

Bhybdyn 

Wenas las las la selik : watrefe das ends mena. 

I scan and rhyme ( ?) against you, Spirits and Goblins (6) and Plagues and 
Howlers and Strokes and Circlet-spirits and evil Arts and mighty Works 

and Idol-spirits and the evil Lilith (7) And I bind you with bonds 

of brass and iron and seal you with the figure of a seal of fire, (8) 

And I banish you from Hormiz b. M. and Dodai b. [M. and] Bar- 
gelal b. D. and Bar-sibebi b. C. (9) and Mehoi bar Dodai, in the 

(185) 



186 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

name of Rophiel and Suriel and Gabriel [and . . .] and Rahmiel and .hatiel 
and Suriel .... and Serariel . And by the seal of Yhwh Sebaoth is it 
established forever. Amen, Amen, Amen. 

Commentary 

A charm for several persons, whose relations to each other are not 
definite. They may be members of one household — a kind of Pension. 
The virtue of the charm lies in the use of a doggerel couplet. The figure 
in the center of the bowl is a serpent with its tail in its mouth; see p. 54. 

1. T^Diin: for this abbreviated form of Ahura-mazdah, see Justi, p. 
98, the same name in Lidz. 

KOKO = 'KOSD, 'OKD, as in No. 8. 

nn: 38: 4, 'snn; hypocoristicon from IM, "friend, uncle," etc.; cf. 
the biblical name nn and its variant nn, also Dada, 12: 2. The present 
name is feminine; may it mean the dudai, "love-apple"? Justi, p. 86, lists 
a Diiday. 

2. xmo: a Jewish name found in the Gospels and in a Palestinian 
ossuary inscription (Lidzbarski, Handbuch, 318) = mxo, 8: 5. 

^^313: a proper name after Arabic formation? bbi = "round lump, 
excrement," etc. Galal is a biblical name. 

ua'Kna : '^ is a form of necklace charm, see to 1. 6. The mother has 
named her child after the amulet whose virtue she supposed gave to her 
or protects the babe. 

nrKnn'CD: the Persian Cihrazad; see Justi, p. 163. The CC is an attempt 
to represent the Persian hard ch. The name is the same as that of the 
famous raconteuse of the Arabian Nights. 

3 . nnu : doubtless referring to Dodai, who appears to have procured 
the charm for the household. 

4. 'i\ p'bo ID DS^: this and the following line contain a magical 
incantation expressed in a rhyming doggerel couplet. (In the first occur- 
rence of 'SiDNi, the T was first omitted, then written above, and finally 
the word was rewritten that there might be no infraction of the charm.) 
First of all, there is a couplet rhyming at the caesuras and at the end; 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 187 

then the last Hne is repeated in 1. 5, introduced by the obscure combination 
pn3'n'3. A similar doggerel formula is presented by Myhrman in his 
edition of the Babylonian magical Labartu series {ZA, xvi, 188; cf. Jastrow, 
Rel., i, 339). It is there called a siptu, "incantation," and runs thus 
(following Jastrow's arrangement) : 

ki I risti libiki | risti la libiki | la libi | pis | pisti sa 
anzisti | sa anzis | su anzis | anzis.| 

For Greek parallels see p. 61. The repeated »m of the couplet is taken 
up by Tl'JDl TlJ'a . The roots NJO and p3 may refer to the scansion of 
the couplet. 

5. ['p'ty ^ the Arabic demon sikk — sometimes interpreted as one-half 
(sikk) man, one-half demon, but probably a demon of weariness; see Lane, 
Arabian Nights, c. i, n. 21, van Vloten, WZKM, vii 180. 

6. piT: see p. 81; here between categories of maladies, in Myhrman 
between "devils" and "spirits." 

}'3'C: the Targumic p^ac (Jastrow, p. 15 10), a feminine ornament, 
some kind of pendant chain, see Krauss, Talm. Archdologie, i, 204 and 
note; belonging to the category of nnin, Knpjy, etc., see p. 87 f. Cf. the name 
above '33'Bn3, where the uncontracted form survives. 

7. Brass, lead, fire, all potent against demons. Cf. the "chains of lead," 
39: 4 f. The bonds of hell are called catenae igneae in a Latin charm, 
Wiinsch, Ant. Fluchtafeln, no. 7; also the "adamantine chains" in Paris 
Papyrus, Wessely, xxxvi, 1. 1227 flF. 

9. Mehoi: hypocoristic, cf. Mehducht, etc. 



No. 16 (CBS 2920) 

poD''bi P'Jini'i n^nri'K kini na •'ipnB'i'i (2) ^^^J!:DN in nnm!' K'ok' lo sniDK 
tinj'Jvi'i nn,'in'Di>i (4) iip-itJ' 'J3 'S"{^'!'1 amnsi'i ■'usi'i innoi'i 'n'i3i3!'i(3) 
na-i n''OB"ai xai-ya niKi pno ^3 iinn (5) yr Kiii ti2''pn'i pnn pjn pni' imni 
KDTDK mnn xnno KiinJ mnn nsiirn {5"3Dt (6) n'i' iB'-im xtynp NnS'K npn 
■•jn iin^n ptrus snij mnn «TJn snpe' mnn (7) xnij^n sj'ju mnn K-in'D 
inn sjn2 id'pj '•in pruD iniDK n'2tj'(8) nn Kni'sn n'oma mnn nsit^n 
Kniisnoi li'NJ'i no nni nswrn (9) laiani snnoitn sn'jnn noini »n&''2 
Kno^B'xi NnsipnK"xi (10) Knoioi »r\'?'?o) '^a^pi snpjxi snoii"! «oom n^^iisn 
nnnsi (11) 'jddi iini nin Knu'DD'CT -idsi nnpi xSpnai smyasi kvjs 
Itron p'OK KDom n^i'ii'i sni'Dao wb'I lEvn nmvi '^"3 'tJ'ini Nnii>i''i 
poD'' ID1 pijin 121 n'nn'K snsn na ■'ipia' loi ihjcdk nn nmi ta (12) jaae'ei 
niiJiD iin'nn loi ■'Ipib' ij3 'S'ib' }di Dmns loi (13) mjq pi inno idi sn'tjia idi 
nini iDSM nbo i»k (14) los D^iyi'i ijt kcv id nijia ivn'mn tm pnj'JV toi 
E'N'D !'XD niK nt wiin D^i'B'nia "rnnn in nin' nyr pon in mn^ ivj' toon !>« 

Translation 
Salvation from Heaven for Dadbeh bar Asmanduch (2) and for 
Sarkoi bath Dada his v^'ife and for Honik and Yasmin (3) and Kufithai 
and Mehduch and Pannoi and Abraham and Silai the children of Sarkoi, 
(4) and for their house and their property, and that they may have 
children and may live long and be established, and that (5) no Injurer 
in the world may touch them. 

And in his great name, whereby the holy God is called — wherein are 
arts ( ?) — (6) which suppresses darkness under light, plague under healing, 
destruction under construction, injury (7) under ban, anger under repose: 
suppressed are all the sons of darkness under the throne of God, in 
whose ( ?) name (8) are bound, suppressed Devils ; gripped likewise are 
evil Spirits and impious Amulet-spirits and Names and Princes of (9) 

(188) 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 189 

darkness and the Spirit (breath) of foulness and fatigue and the Tormentors 
of night and day and Curses and Necklace-charms and Words and Adjura- 
tions (lo) and Knockings and Rites, the Plague and the she- Plague and 
the voice of Invocation, and the Spell of poverty and Demons and Devils 
and Satans (ii) and Idol-spirits and Liliths and Arts and mighty Works 
and the seven Tormentors of night and day. They are bound, suppressed 
and laid, (12) away from Dadbeh, etc. (as in 11. i ff.), (13) and from all 
their house and from their property and from all their abode, from this day 
forever. Amen, Amen, (14) Selah. "And Yhwh said to Satan," etc. 

Commentary 
A charm for the large family that appeared in No. 12. It contains 
an extensive and repetitious list of demoniac species. 

5. 'Ji n'0B"3: I have translated literally; the original form may have 
been : n'b »Knn npi 'p anbai 'i '2 "the great name . . . which magicians 
invoke." 

6. traa: ppl. act. 

7. "Sons of darkness": contrast the "sons of light," i: 9. 

8. SaiCm '3^3■1 : cf. the Pauline Twf Koanonparopa^ tov aK&rovg TovTov, Eph. 

6: 12. 

'^KJl no nn : lit. "foul and laboring spirit" (breath ; in Bekor. 44b 
(an obscure passage) there is a disease or demon called N^KJ, which is 
interpreted as "asthma" (Jastrow, s. v.). Foulness of breath was cause 
for divorce, Krauss Taint. Enc. i, 256. Cf. the n^B'3 13 of 29: 7, which is 
found in the same passage from Bekoroth. 

10. n^-^pi K^pns: see pp. 52, 84. 

11. patW: Af. ; cf. English "lay a ghost." 

xniraD'on moK: cf. the Rabbinic 'Jitdt 'k, "genius of nourishment," 
and see pp. 79, n. 70, and 86, n. 112. 



No. 17 (CBS 2922) 

nnDEi (3) rrpiDty snsl'ne na a"'Dia njs n^:!'}; (2) mi '':ej' nct i'ss xer p 
pD'nwiK ps^nlri njs Nn3''Dni xrr'ji'K' (4) Kim n^!"^ xni"!' tijk '^ti' rrianm 
VDB' (6) p3''33 ^ro p3nvD i^no rnB^nij xiji pnn^B' l"to-iy (5) pa^ntf'on 
K"D3!' kIj (7) iiD'DD N^i 1P21 ivcB* nni"^ nin^ psnsi nca' ini'S p3»:'KT pa'^v 
nJ3 (8) nnKTi-isai sn!'3 tci nmn 121 nnu la ba pnx pa nnu2 xnsi'na na 
IiD'^KT xnpu pD'-l'V 'n'oiN ,Tnn2 p ya'in'' ps^'l'V nbzn «nt:B'2 p^'i'V ""'"'^ 
xn&K'a tnni'tj' nxT ipiioisi ■'^d'-j pd'-iD''Ei p3'D''3 pa!) 3'D1 i^30'kt xnpiai (9) 
K3l5 sriK nt3'j n'ms 12 ya'in' sai' t:n piam n'mspynn^ps'bv (I0)n^tj'n 
ipBi itoos sn^"'!' nnljs p33si nsK' in^e (11) pa^o'ST aTia n3nB'''K kd' layo 
n^onm (12) nnox nmna siji nn'23 k^j xnel'nc nn b'":i3? nij jiD'on n^i 
K^ety 12 KDiDsi sniDK s'DK H'nna 12 ytrinn snpt^w, hb' Jist sripfM 
xncB'a pnij pptst sniiano iia liJDaoi ii"D2 (13) k^'did 'i2 P":inbi nnrbi b) sasb 

niiD IDN ION jinb 

Translation 
This day above any day, years and generations of (2) the world, I 
Komes bath Mahlaphta have divorced (3) separated, dismissed thee, thou 
Lilith, LiHth of the Desert, (4) Hag and Ghul. The three of you, the four 
of you, the five of you, (5) naked are ye sent forth, nor are ye clad, with 
your hair dishevelled behind your backs. (6) It is announced to you, whose 
mother is Palhan and whose father (Pe)lahdad, ye Liliths: Hear and go 
forth and do not trouble (7) Komes b. M. in her house. Go ye forth 
altogether from her house and her dwelling and from Kalletha and Artasria 
(8) her children. I have warded against you with the curse which Joshua 
bar Perohia (sic) sent against you. I adjure you by the honor (name) of 
your father (9) and by the honor of your mother, and take your divorces 
and separations, thy divorce and thy separation, in the ban which is sent 
(10) against you by Joshua b. Perahia, for so has spoken to thee Joshua 
b. P. : A divorce has come to thee from across the sea. There is found 
written (in it), ye whose mother is (11) Palhan and whose father 

(190) 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TBXTS. 191 

Pelahdad, ye Liliths : And now flee and go forth and do not trouble Komes 
b. M. in her house and her dwelling. 

I bind (12) and I seal with the seal of El Shaddai and with the seal 
of Joshua b. Perahia the healer, healing and release from Heaven for Aba 
and Yazdid and Honik sons of Komes. Thwarted and frustrated are all 
Injurers, whom we have removed by the ban upon them. Amen, Amen, 
Selah. 

Commentary 

A charm effected by a woman for herself and her children, who appear 
in two different groups, in the name of Joshua b. Perahia. It is an abbrevi- 
ated and often incorrect replica of No. 8. 

1 . For the corrupted formula, cf . 6 : 5 and see p. 55. The full form 
appears in no. 16020 (unpublished) "this day out of all days. I Honik," 
etc. 

2. C"D13 , 1. 7 EJ"DD; the name obscure; cf. Ko/ioaapi'ri ^ Justi, p. 165. 

NnslsnD: for this name, frequent in these bowls, and its equivalents, 
see Noldeke, Encyc. Bib., s. v. "Names," § 62. 

n'p'3E': Peal, the following verbs Pael. 

3. For the singular and plural number, see to 8: 2. The word With 
is spelt badly. For the si3n 'h cf . 29 : 7, and see p. 78 ; the parallel has 

5 . The correct grammatical forms are found in 8 : 3 ; the lilith names 
following are also mangled. 

6. po'DH: Afel of DD3. 

7. sn^3, i. e. "bride"; cf. the Babylonian name Ina-ekur-kallatu, cited 
to me by Prof. Clay. 

nncmK: a form of Artachsathra, and cf. ApTaati/noc, Justi, p. 35. 

8. n'm-iB: so 1. 12, but the correct spelHng in 1. 10; probably assimila- 
tion to Persian farruch. 

For "glory" == "name," see on 8:8, and n. b. the equivalent naTip<M 
S6^ai, Wisdom, 14: 24. 



192 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

9. 3'D: f. pi. impr. of 3D3; but irDET in 1. 6. The following tnn^B' nsT 
is a perversion. 

10. Ksb = 'S'S- 

11. itiDB = lOlD, cf. pS, 1. 7, /i/mj conjunction B; for another instance 
see Glossary; probably a dialectic survival, s appears in the Senjirli inscrip- 
tions and the Elephantine papyri. 

12. x'DK: the same title in 34: 12. 

KmoB: formation from Pael, = Rabbinic niidb. 

K3N: frequent Talmudic name, Seder ha-Doroth, ii, 3-18. 

THTV probably error for IIT. see 7: 3. 

13. rpl'S: Pael, ist pers. plural. 



No. 18 (CBS 8695) 

tio'pnn rr^ n^xn dib' (2) ^31 'n's 12 msxi Kn''ni'[i sb'dj^] xnipx k''OB' ;on"a 
[tnna] pnn i'3 pna yr Ki)! iio'priM (3) \)n^) nnn^s 'njsv^s |s [fjn n'!)] 
[Nti'^E'i nm 'Jt'B't pn^Di'D K3^o n:i33 -iid's ^n (4) r>^r]« ntrs n-nx nitj'n xoiij; 
[K2nn sri'i']''^ 'j-in nmn na sn'S"^ oni'na '3'5'j; (5) rrysK'N sn'!"i'T xm 
...[Knpnn]i 'pin s^ski spjni nqioi s^noni ...K'3^5^1 (6) kt naxa naipD'N !>» 
. . . PDT xn'jnioiT ■<:2>2b'b Dsntia fn^^m ^S'i'V (7) n^ynE'K sn''V 'o'a nvo 
KD'3 pdI) rrnns kh xn^i"!' i'jn iJi nons (8) ^i;i 'in ^vi n'tf ^y d'>!5' ini. s[-i33] 
i'lpB' pn^'i'V imn x^ (9) mm pn^'tj':!' ko'j 'tb' p[2n3 N23 p3]n' nntasni 
ptnnin Ki>i [n^Js in k-isnt pm snE-a 10 ipnl'yi impi p^noia i"3pi ps'D'j 
D'KT ['Ji pjni'i pnlj palnp'n ts^i pyrn k^ji nTin'-K injEVKi) nb s^ niy n-^ (10) 
. . . 'mn nn ranx' jonno . 0^2 necn nob'na n!'i (11) n'l^l'T nob'nn k^ p"^ 
tax rr'B'Knn ■'o' ntj^tr (12) a^^bv lov to {niE[D ntr nby fi^'^ji tvt «nprv]3 

niibbn n^D pK 

Commentary 

This inscription is yet another duplicate to the three collated under 
No. II. It is badly written and mutilated, and would be in large part 
unintelligible without the other texts. It presents little that is new and .1 
translation is not necessary. 

1. The name of Ephrah's father is uncertain. From what appears 
here, it may be 'H'X; cf. 'n'Ki3, in Seder ha-Doroth ii, 47. In 1. 9 it 
looks like "'S, i. e. Aye? But the strokes may be for abbreviation. 

2. A prayer for offspring is here expressed. — 'nJsVK : hypocoristicon 
for TomjBVK, see 26: 4. 

5 . Dl^na : again this name differs ; but the tradition of the granddam's 
name is accurate. 

KT naso: i. e. msKi. 

6. n'3KT: ppl. of «21. 

(193) 



194 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

'pin : if not an error, this is a further development of a word with a 
history: dakdak = dardak =: darak. 

xn^X 'D'D nV'D : the probable reading. sn'V is biblical. The dirty habits 
of these foul demons appear in the Babylonian magic; they are compared 
to pariah dogs and are exorcised by the spirit of foul streets, see Utukki 
series, B, 46; cf. v. col. 5. 1. 21. 

8. nntiBn: for 'a sn. 

9. imp: if we read so, we may compare the magic formula in Pesah. 
iioa, '3"mp mp (see to i: 6). The verb = P"iy, by transposition, com- 
mon especially in Mandaic. Lidzbarski in his parallel (see to No. 11) 
reads xnp and translates "spring up" ; but read there Kip = mp. 



No. 19 (CBS 16018) 

n'noip (3) N^i.3 Nonnoi Non''ni ston 'on-n (2) Km k'dn NnsiDx no lOB'^a 
K^n p-iD's swss'D NnaS'ns nn 'snm (4) nprroT n^'.tyiB'D pirn n'JDB"Dn'ai 
■•nl'in N3T joJiD i)n''N Kno ^ott'n pnarr'a tib^i (5) pnnn n-jonai pinr'D 
K:n Kno ^Jpp^c nirai xriK-incxT Nnan sna!'^ (6) nii'n'K pmc 7Dt5'3i 
Ki'''i'e Kno Ditrm dtijjk dicsi jl^a 13 ^n^s DiK-ai (7) iiotuhd Ditrai 'jnjaT 
mcni KHKi . . 3v:p ne ompj niB'ni (8) d'^^vi seik dik'31 KotDiKi x^noi 
KriKsp'j xriKnnD'N 'Joni (9) nan Mi's pn''a' citj'm xtcni «jn no ^n'bid 
. . . .r\'<oi «m Kno ijn ma'ai nTiKUS po b'ib'p kb'ib'P snnD Knomx oicai 
KvatJ'T K13KT Kri'i^'D n^n'^^'D n'!) «:pn?3i xtJ'nji x^ns ^'vi' pon 'pt'Jxi (10) 
irj^E msj'm iiD'!'yi t. . . SM-isim (11) bain na Kjnaa Qits'ai KJnam ron noo 
^KntJR Ditrai D'a-ias nitrai Djn na dts Diem b . . . :: b'jt'Joi tpjnjoi 

DiB'31 Dnn5>yT ona Dn3 on j.iai inx 01:^31 (12) n'b n>K t6 'omi 

natjibo (13) i'i3''« xno Disrai qib'31 ^^lD^p^ K3T KD''i'B'!' i'lpB' mc i'xns^ 

niDN imN nJT 13 pnK u.•w2^ 'jij31 t«3n xnai k,-i313 nh^'k dw31 wJi '<3-i 
n^enm Kinty pin kd3i (14) sid's 'b^s ■'Jddi iin n'K' ijs bv nnn 'X'^m 
pSim iin'DB'u TB' N^ nn'' ninn ici P'bj xi) nniD^K po tyj'KT i^n^by 'd^p 
n^tntJ'Q pn[m] nnjB3 H'kt (15) t<nr"'3 xni^'S'i B'^njm ktc ion nonij no'K 
K-1DX3 I'TDK Din K'scD pon'n3i nviK3 p-iD'K3 sncijno 13 iK3m npn'on 
IDK Nnsiino la ■•wm npn'on (16) nisnco pnni nnae po 13 «j'jn3 pcnm 
n'tyitro tnm nnaa ^y n'Ki Nisnai xmoini cnm Kim KTtf niDN 3in 
Kjpi DJ'B'3 TDK 3in n'S'i3''K3 (17) cnni !'n''K3 Knaiino i3 um npn^oi 
n''3 npT'y3 tdk 3in -i:r i3 pnK3 po^nni naj nbK3 tdk 3in kii:3 D^nm 
K3n KD''!'B'3 pD'-nm Kint? Kni'K3 pi'dk 3in Knvn n3-i Ni"D03 I'O'nm jun 
tirs KnEljno 13 'K3ni npn'oi h'B'ib'o pini nnja po la moipi (18) 
n''n3iD . . , nspi3 o'tJ'ai disi pooni I'KntK ksp kdip kpjib' du^'Pik oimcB 
n'B'Kii'a ii"y iin' ii3tk3 MijK ni'yi (19) kj'^v K3.n di»'31 l3in'D '3i>'^ 
nsiiB Koiyi n^'^'Kii Kn.3 po cnnn'j xna^no 13 'K3m npn'oi n'tfitro pim 

K3m npn'Di (20) .I'tt'itfoi Kni3 pini'i pn'j k^ ks!? did i3''n3 n'^ri 

pD KDD'3 Kb'i n'b'bs »b n'ls ptnn^j k^i n-'b ii3ip''j i^bi \)bv^: is.b Nnc^no 13 

n^yiii tJi KDT 

(195) 



196 university museum. babylonian section. 

Translation 

In thy name, O Lord of salvations, the great Saviour (2) of love. 

Charmed and sealed and countersealed is the whole (3) person and 
the bedchamber of this Mesarsia, surnamed (4) Goldsmith, bar Mahlaphta, 
with the seven spells which may not be loosed, and with the eight seals (5) 
which may not be broken. 

In thy name, lord Ibbol, the great king of the Bagdani ; and in thy 
name, our lady Ibboleth, (6) the great queen of the goddesses (she- 
demons?), and in the name of Talasbogi the great lord of the Bagdani; 
and in the name of Sahnudmuk; (7) and in the name of Ibbol son of Palag; 
and in the name of Angaros ; and in the name of the Lord, the Word and 
Leader and Armasa (Hermes) ; and in the name of Azpa and 'Alim; (8) 
and in the name of Nakderos the lord of . . . ; and in the name of Seraphiel, 
lord of judgment and of (divine) beck; and in the name of the 60 male 
gods (9) and the 80 female goddesses; and in the name of Ardisaba (or 
Ardi) the most ancient of his colleagues; and in the name of Anad the 

great lord (10) cast above (him) iron and bronze, and fastened 

to him fetters (?) of lead and the 70 exalted priests of Bagdana; and in 
the name of Bagdana son of Habal (destruction). (11) ...; and in the 
name of Palnini and Mandinsan and Menirnas . . . ; and in the name of 
Iras son of Hanas ; and in the name of Abrakis (Abraxas) ; and in the name 
of Agzariel, who is without compassion; (12) and in the name of Arzan 
and . . . , ros herds deltcros; and in the name ... to Ariel he sent a message : 
"Lift up" ( ?), ... to the great Ruler before him; and in the name of . . . ; 
and in the name of lord Ibbol (13) the great angel of the Blast-demons, 
and in the name of the great God and the great Lord of the Bagdani; in 
the name of Arion son of Zand : Ye are charmed and armed and equipped. 

Against all Demons, Devils and evil Satans, this charm (14) and bowl 
is sure and its seals established against them, from whose charm none ever 
goes forth and from whose control none sallies forth. 

In the name of these charms are bound there Demon and Danhis and 
the evil Lilith (15) which are in the body of this Mesarsia, surnamed 
Goldsmith, b. M., by charms in earth and by seals in heaven. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 197 

Again, (ye are) charmed with a charm and sealed a second time away 
from the body of this Mesarsia, (i6) etc., Amen. 

Again, charmed are the Demon and Devil and Danhis and Amulet-spirit 
and Idol-spirit, which are upon the body of this Mesarsia, etc., by Ibbol, 
(17) and sealed by Ibboleth. 

Again, charmed by Sinas and Mana, and sealed by fire. 

Again, charmed by the great gods and sealed by Arion son of Zand. 

Again, charmed by the seal of the family of Haniin, and sealed by the 
great ... of Zeiiza (Zeus). 

Again, charmed by the true God, and sealed by the great Ruler (i8) 
who is before him, away from the body of this Mesarsia, etc. 

In the name of Patragenos, Okinos (Okeanos), Sunka, Kosa, Kapa, 

Azaziel (19) his constellation (?), that this Mesarsia, etc., 

be sealed from the top ( ?) of his head to the toes of his feet they 

shall not be, nor this house of Mesarsia, (20) etc., shall they enter nor 
approach, nor appear therein, neither by night nor by day, from this day 
and forever 

Commentary 
A charm made out for a certain man whose body is infested with evil 
spirits; with great elaboration of incantations they are exorcised from him 
and his house. The inscription is thoroughly pagan, and is interesting 
because of its invocation, for over half its length, of an extensive list of 
deities. Cf. a similar long list in Wiinsch, Ant. Pluchtafeln, no. 4. Unfor- 
tunately by reason of the coarseness of the script and its general illegibility, 
most of these names are obscure. Some of them are definitely Greek, — 
Zeus, Protogonos, Okeanos, and perhaps the Aeons, male and female, may 
be made out; several others are of Greek formation. Others again are of 
Persian origin, and some are purely charm-words, "mystical" names. Some 
forgotten cult may have given certain of the names; notice the reference 
to the 70 priests of Bagdana. 

2. SDD'n: error for KO^nn. 

3. n^nnip: the word = "stature," then, as here, "body," as is shown 
by the phrase, in a similar connection, in bowls published by Schwab (E) 



198 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

and Stiibe (11. 56, 64) : the demon depart, etc., from the 248 HTieip 'Dnn 
of such a one (the word is not recognized by either editor). The same word 
occurs in the interesting magical passage in Ese., 13 : 18. 

iTEHCD : also in Schwab, G; a frequent Talmudic name (see Sefer ha- 
Doroth, ii, p. 276). 

4. 'Kam: this surname appears as a proper name in Hagiga 2a. 

"Seven spells .... eight seals" : for this cumulative expression, cf . Mica 
5 : 4 ; see 5 : 2. 

5. yovi : cf. 28: I. 

h\y«: also below, 11. 7, 16. In 1. 7 he is ibs 13, and his consort 
ri'^U'S is "our lady." Professor Clay has cited to me a divine name 
Ubbulti appearing in a Cassite tablet, in the name Ubbulti-lisir. 7UIN 
might also be read, and I am inclined to make the word = Syriac ubbdld, 
"generation," etc., and so Aiuv. For a discussion of Aeon as supreme deity, 
god of time, etc., see Reitzenstein, Poimandres, 269 ff. The Aeons appears 
in the magical texts, e. g. Dieterich, Abraxas, 140, 1. 51 ; 192, 1. 21 ; 203, 1. 18. 
The syzygies of Aeons were male and female — cf. the names in Origen's 
list at the beginning of his work Adv. Iiaer., and n'"7U''X would be a forma- 
tion to express the female Aeon. Derivation from Apollo also suggests 
itself, but the feminine is not thereby explained. 

6. 'J1J3 : Comparing what precedes, the word means some class of 
deities or demons. In 1. 13 N3nJ3 is a divine name, = the demon in 11 : 5 
(q. v.). It is then a word like Nn5N, etc., which can be used individually or 
generically. It evidently contains the Indo-European element baga, "god." 
It is difficult to decide whether Bagdana is a propitious or maleficent demon 
(as in No. 11) ; in the latter case he is charmed to work the good of the 
sorcerer's client, as in the Greek incantations, e. g. Hekate. In W. T. Ellis's 
Syriac text (see § 2) appears «JsnJ3 «no NPnoE', "Samhiza the lord 
Bagdana," or "the lord god"? The spelling gives the vocalization of the 
penultimate vowel. For S. cf. the Enochian Samaeza. 

7. DIIJJN: the ending D1- in this and other names recalls Greek 
formations. May this word =; ayye^^f? 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 199 

Nb''bn: in Syriac, "logical," etc., and used nominally = t^ UyiKdv. It is 
here associated with sddik, both being names of a potency; the passage 
is parallel to 2: 2, q. v. 

K73nO: if the reading is correct, the Rabbinic ^3"i , Afel, may give the 
interpretation, — "leader," which would be a fitting epithet of Armasa- 
Hermes, "the shepherd" par excellence. Cf. the idea in the late Hellenistic 
religion of a deity, especially Hermes, as a guide, r/f/^wv, of souls; see 
Cumont, The Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism, n. 63 p. 253. It may 
be noticed that 'O is used in the Talmud of a "traditional word or saying" 
(Jastrow), i. e. = logos? 

8. b^<'S^D: also 14: 8. In his epithet, Kton appears to be used, as in 
the Syriac, of the divine nod or intimation, i. e. "command." 

9. N3Dn-iK: or the name is to be read mx, followed by KC'Cp xnao K3D 
r'K'p; why the fem. xn3D? 

10. In this and the following line most of the words can be read, but 
in consequence of the failure of the context the text defies interpretation. 
The three metals may be referred to as having magical properties, and this 
may give the clue to NianT Nn'S'D (n''n"'VD written first erroneously). 
Comparing the Mandaic text in 39: 5, K-iWKT sriN^cnKa (ST'Dj?), the equa- 
tion suggests that our NH'^'D ^ "chains"; possibly xnb'D "basket," and 
here used of a metal cage. 

bxan 13: = "Son of destruction"?; cf. DJn la, 1. 11, nit "13 1. 13; 
these deities are given a parentage like ?13'N, 1. 7. Possibly DJn is DJn, 
the verb used in the Nerab inscriptions, and so ^ ?S3n. 

11. DTK:="E/)uf, or 'Apw?— D'313S: cf. 7: 9. 

Sk'-iTJK : i^KntJ is found in Schwab, Vocabulaire. Is bsntSK "God's 
cruel one," meant? 

12. The accumulation of words in ros is a charm formula; see p. 61. 

13. S3«^D = na^o, 1. 5. — 'PVT: the 'P'T with Mandaic spelling. 

i:i n3 p'lK : found also in 34 : 8, which determines the reading here. 

01 pns : the plural is problematic, as there is but one client to this 
charm; it may have been used inadvertently. 'V^n is not Aramaic in 
its present sense. 



200 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION, 

14. tr'njT: this obscure demon appears again in 1. 16; it is evidently 
the K"3T listed with the planets in Libzbarski's Mandaic amulet in the de 
Vogiie Florilegium, 1. 251. 

17. DNytr: cf. the Mandaic dN'ro, name of an angel, Lidzbarski, 
Ephemeris, i, 104, n. 2. 

Ktiyr : Zeus, = Syriac Tit, in Jacob of Sarug (Martin, ZDMG, xxix, 
no, 1. 50), otherwise bvt and DIT- 

KJD = the Mandaic genius Mana ? See Norberg, Onom. 96. 

JlJn n'3: the family or school of some magician like that of Joshua 
b. Perahia, see p. 46. 

18. DirplN = 'aKcavd^, the parent deity in magical theosophy (cf. Ea 
in the Babylonian) ; see index of Dieterich, Abraxas. The preceding name 
recalls Protogonos who appears with Aeon as son of Kolpia and Baau in 
Sanchuniathon's cosmic genealogy, Eusebius, Praep. ev., i, 10. 

19. '3^^^: cf. II : 7. n'E'Nlbo: an astrological reference? 

n'pjn nsniD ... }'»: the same phrase in Pognon B, except that the 
word Knc't, "hair," appears there. 



No. 20 (CBS 16023) 

Kns'b^Ji KJxcbi n:sddi Kim st'B' (S) ■'o^nm n'ox snss-kx 1 mu "nDmn (2) 

ciCk-d] (5) n3 niD nn^on 'csi:': tn^i S'i'j'sa Nrnnon (4) [Knst5''']a 

KKKKKK 'S3 n'bi'n nb»ti \c» i^K ids ics i's^'sm ^S'Si-: ^Kn3J 

Translation 
Tardi bath Oni (2) Hormisdar Tardi. In the name of AAAAAA, 
exorcised and sealed (3) are the Demon and the Devil and the Satan and 
the Curse-spirit and the evil Liliths (4) which appear by night and appear 
by day, and appear (to) Tardi bath [Oni, etc.]. (5) In the name of 
Gabriel, Michael, and Rophiel. Amen, Amen, Amen, Amen, Hallelia, Selah. 
According to AAAAAA. 

Commentary 
A charm against ghosts. The interest of this bowl lies in the figure 
decorating the center. It represents a demon with arms and legs manacled. 
On either side of the figures is an enclosed space, that on the figure's right 
hand bearing the inscription KllDN, that on its left, Kitn, i. e. prohibition 
and permission. In the lower part of the body on the former side is in- 
scribed the names of the sorcerer's client. The pictures thus graphically 
presents the idea that the demon has no power over the lady in question. 
The picture is of better quality than the inscription, which is very illiterate. 
The spelling is most careless. 

1 . The connection of the proper names is uncertain, as also the char- 
acter of the names themselves. For niDOnn I might compare the Pahlavi 
Ormazdyar, Justi, p. loa. 

2. For the repeated K, see p. 60. 

3. KJKtsb: probably an artificial form; cf. KiTC, Hlbc, NJDD. 

(201) 



202 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

4. Nrnrr'n has Mandaic fem. pi. ending. — In S'^^K3 the first K has a 
point over it — to mark error? cf. the Massoretic Nikkudim. 

5. ^X'an : the first vowel as in Enoch and in Mandaic, representing 
the Hebrew active ppl., parallel to the equivalent Aramaic form in Raphael. 

ni^^n: for similar perversions see 24: 4, 31 : 8, 32: 12; cf. aUriT-ov in the 
Paris Magical Papyrus, 1. 3032, and n'b i^bnin a Jewish charm, JAOS, 
191 1, 274. 



No. 21 (CBS 16054) 

nn'3 n[n]nDi D'nn (1) 
nna nn nnsipo'si 

rm[-i b]^ ID iB'13 

KnI'Dnc [i]ei pB"a (2) 

pptJ !'3 iDi xn^i'i' im 

nnn!' ni> impn sh 

nn [nn2]iPD''Ni'i 

D'nnn nnx na (3) 

onnoi I'pty nniri-'n 

ponn ny3E'3 

im pB"3 PW2 iia 121 

It3i [pifn] (4) pnn bs 

Knb332 



niJO JDK IDK 



Nos. 21, 22, 23 

No. 22 (CBS 16006) 

nn'3 Dnnoi DTin (l) 

n3 nm nncipD^Ki 

PJ/J2 i'3 12 n-N 

pnn ijs 12 i'a"3 

Kni'33D IDI p.B'U (2) 
PPT3 i'321 «n'^'i' [21 

nnnS" nij impn xh 

nn (3) nnsipD'si'i 

c^nnn nnx n3 

Dnn]Di ppry nniriu 

pDnn nv3B'[3 

t2i sri''^'^ p2 ^3 to 

PPTJ (4) 

nn''3i' nb p3ipn si)! 

[n]m nnsipD'Ki'i 

[nnx n3] 

[t2i] pt^'^ pnn i'3 121 

nov i» (5) pB"3 pptJ b3 

a]by'?) in 

nbo id[k ids 



No. 23 (CBS 16090) 

nnu D[K]nn2i D»nn (1) 

na nn nnEiPD'si 

pyja iis 12 nnK 

pnn 5'3 121 p{5"3 

Kn^33D IDI pB"3 (2) 
KptOI SptJ !53 IDI Kn'^'^ IDI 

nrrni' n^ impn »b-[ 

''•\\'\ (3) nn2ipD'«^i 

^D-innn nn« na 

DnnDi ppfv nn^nu 

pDnn nyaca 

pprj b^ IDI xni'332 

PPTJDI (4) 

nn'3i' nb impn xh 

nn nn2ipDisi'i 

nn« n3 



n>D I2K IDK 



Translation of No. 22 

Sealed and countersealed are the house and threshold of Dodi bath 
Ahath from all evil Plagues, f^om all evil Spirits, (2) and from the 
Tormentors, and from the Liliths, and from all Injurers, that ye approach 
not to her, to the house and threshold of (3) Dodi b. A., which is sealed 
with three signets and countersealed with seven seals from every kind of 

(203) 



304 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

Lilith and from all (4) Injurers, that ye approach not to her, to the house 
and threshold of Dodi [b. A.], and from all evil Spirits and from all evil 
Injurers, (5) from this day and forever. Amen, Amen, Selah. 

Commentary 

Three identical bowls, out of the four which were deposited at the 
corners of the charmed house; see § 8. There are slight variations in the 
inscriptions; in No. 22 the writer found more room and made a longer 
inscription. All three are most roughly and illegibly written ; the characters 
1, t, \ I are indistinguishable, and S has a peculiar form. The word 
transliterated pn, 22: 5, is written in a clumsy Syriac script. 

An interesting grammatical peculiarity is the omission of T after a 
genitive with the personal suffix. This appears at the beginning of 1. 3 in 
No. 22, and throughout, in the same combination, in the other two. This 
might be taken for haplography before nn ; but the same phenomenon 
appears in the Mandaic bowls published below ; see the Introduction, § 5 B. 

For the injunction in 1. 4 not to approach, cf. the like prohibition in 
a late Greek charm (Reitzenstein, Poimandres, 294) : roi p} HiK^am ij p'/A^ai 
fi vpoacyyiaac, k. t. ?..; cf. also a Syriac charm of Gollancz's, p. 93. 



No. 24 (CBS 2926) 

NJT'B'K le S'SB* 'cn-13 'Dn'm (2) KnEiino na njnij n? 'nn k'oc ;» [sn]iDx 
nn •'pxpi' nb ■•nn s^se' i?: koids hI'sd ir;s ion . . . .'. (3) kjin j^ Knns tci 
!?;« laN 'B^a 'jnddi na-^a Nnni 'B'UK' 'sijn nyrs iiDann (4) . . . snal^nt: 
K'ajnri' s'ob' ^om: •'Drrrn na^nt: . nn K'n^it^ (5) sniDN "ibbn h^kd px 
n^nsN na k'hj nbxDiDNioN tox (6) ^^ vaoa rna '.nxni 

Translation 

Salvation from Heaven be for Hindu bath Mahlaphta, (2) that she 
be saved by the love of Heaven from Fever ( ?) and from Sweating, from 
(?) (3) Amen, Selah. 

Salvation from Heaven be for Kaki bath Mahlaphta (4) that there 
cease from her disturbing Dreams and the evil Spirit and evil Satans. 
Amen, Amen, Selah, Hallelui. 

Salvation (5) for Zarinkas bath Mahlaphta, that she be saved by the 

love of Heaven, to wit Zarinkas, that she bring to the birth her child 

Amen, Amen, Amen, Selah 

Commentary 

A charm for three daughters of a certain woman, made out in their 
names severally and for specific maladies. The misspellings are numerous. 

1. nin: the same name appears in 40: 14; it is hypocoristic of sn'njn 
38: 3, i. e. "Indian woman." 

2. Nn'CN is doubtless fever, in neo-Syriac ^= malarial fever, cf. the 
general name for fever with the Jews, NntfN (Preuss, Bib.-talm. Med.,, 184), 
and n. b. the disease asu in Assyrian, Kiichler, Beitrage, 131, 197. For the 
next word the root NTS suggests a sweating disease. NJIN may be another 
kind of fever. In general see above, p. 93 f. 

(205) 



206 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

3. ''pap: also in Hyvernat's bowl. The name occurs as that of an 
Egyptian sorceress in a Syriac biography of Rabban Hormizd (c. 600), 
cited by Budge in his edition of The Book of Governors, i, p. clxiv. Our 
word is probably the Syriac kaka, "pelican," while the Egyptian name 
may represent kuk^ (for a similar adoption of this Greek word, see Payne 
Smith, col. 3709). 

4. For the "disturbing dreams," see p. 82. 

5. Zarinkas: cited by Justi, p. 382. 



No. 25 (CBS 16009) 

pnm]na \)n'<i''i2 nn htutk snn na nnxi'i ^dkd in Mnui' niot? to Kni[DN] 
I'ri'oi (2) ti3-ip''i p33 pni' rnn iin^ pn'on p33 'o n^oK-n 'cma ^[■'ni n'{? 

ina^-iDi D^p 5? nns dib'3 nno'j ^^ki imnoo •'b^a cnip id pnanc's 

lonri Kn [pn]^3T pnun i?. (3) in namn^ Din^ n^tf D'JsiKn ba by 

I'R'Br (4) nica niB' nnan ijy nin' nn« ina tin pi J?i i'Di 'sisn D't? 

mca n' pntJD'a nDD[is<] . . nnoe' . . . n' tai mni ^'k^'j^db' ni) '•\p i'N'n' ide' 
[!>35'] KmosS' pDoen n^sK^s lu^x n^^s oema' Dsnts' o^ab D^ano (5) prtD 
[nj]3ni n'nn'Kii r\:>yp'i [r\]rf2 pnm Kmosa iip£ii tin'' (6) prs sb'^n 'n 
lOK loK Di)!; b'^bib^ in Kcr in 't3KD na 'nu pnn^ (7) n^nua ■'B'J's Sidii nnjmi 

Translation 

Salvation from Heaven for Guroi bar Tati and for Ahath bath Doda 
his wife, that there vanish from them in their dw[elling the Demons and 
Devjils by the mercy of Heaven. Whoever here has dead, who shall become 
alive to them here, and shall approach (2) and are found to be (actually) 
dead — from these you are kept and these are kept (from you). In the 

name: Thou- send (to) them, Hadarbadii bar (3) .. the 

contentions of them all. Behold, Blessed art thou, Yhwh on account 

of the name of (4) Yophiel thy name, Yehiel they call thee, Sasangiel, 

Yhwh, and so names [Arjmasa Metatron Yah, in the name 

of Tigin, Trigis, Balbis, Sabgas, Sadrapas. These are the angels who bring 
salvation to all the children of men. They (6) will come and go forth 
with the salvation of this house and property and dwelling of his, and of 
his sons and daughters and all the people in his house — (7) of this Guroi 
b. T. from this day even for the sphere of eternity. Amen, Amen, Selah, 
Halleluia. 

Commentary 

The inscription is of interest because it is directed against the appari- 
tion of family ghosts. In this respect it is to be compared with No. 39 and 
Wohlstein's bowl, no. 2417; see above p. 82. 

(207) 



208 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

1 . '1")13 : identified by Justi, p. 356, as a new-Persian form of Waroe. 
The Seder ha-Doroth lists a number of Talmudic persons named N'llJ and 
jmi3 (ii, 89) ; also a famous Syriac martyr Gurias is recorded. Apart 
from the Persian hypocoristic ending, the word could be explained from 
the Semitic ( ^5n1J , Syriac, "whelp"). Cf. also the Palmyrene S113 , Lidz- 
barski, Handbuch, 249. 

'tSND: Tata is a feminine name found in Syriac, in Asseman's Biblio- 
theca Orientalis and Wright's Catalogue of the British Museum; see Payne 
Smith, col. 1456. Cf. snsn, 39: 8. 

2. 'Vx, '^S, and n^'N 1. 5: the Aramaic pronoun with loss of t. cf. 
similar cases cited to 8: 2, — if not a Hebraism. 

''"inD''3, imnD'3: Hebrew Nifals with Aramaic inflection. 

naiTn^ Oin^ n^C: the idea apparently is that a message be sent to the 
dead to cause them to cease their contentions (}in'3n) with the living, 
then one of these departed spirits is named. The name is not recognizable 
as a proper name, and evidently, as in Wohlstein's bowl, referred to above, 
it is a fancy name. (There we have such names as Yodid, Muth, Dabti, Ith.) 

4. bx'BV : One of the six angels in Targ. Jer. to Dt. 34: 6, along 
with Metatron, and, in Schwab, Vocab., 145, a companion of M. and prince 
of the Law. 'Br is a Talmudic surrogate for nin'', see Blau, Zauberivesen, 
131- 

^X'm or ^Kinv cf. Sxinv Schwab, p. 141. The following name is un- 
known. These angels are invoked as phases or names of Deity; cf. p. 58. 

Hermes-Metatron : for the identification, see to 2: 2; here identified 
with Yah. 

5 . These magical words are mystical names of the angels ; see p. 97. 
They are dominated by sibilant terminations for which see p. 60. 

n'sspo: Mandaic plural spelling. 

6. pn' = tins'. 

7. d55J? ^'bj : cf. Syriac NnJC, SJ3t br J ; also of a cycle. 



No. 26 (CBS 3997) 

motyo riKi (2) 1VD' '"' 12 '?y\ ur' '"' 's ^v nnx '"' U'ni'N "'i iisiB" ya^ 
~fl '"' nyr laon -[2 (3) "" nvr iddh bn '"' los'i nt^D la'"" '2 i'j; netr •"'^ 
Rnc'ia xnn (4) tijs riT-nsi m^DN 3in b'ko ^vid iin nr »'?n D^I'tJ'Ti'a Tnun 
Kin..n na TsmJEXiK sini 'cno ^3 nun'sna!' tin!' irnrrn k> Kna^pn Kn'^ibi 
Kn'j? ba si'i nnvtri nnvB' ijsa xiJi, lavi tf'an 1533 v!?\ nb^b^ ab) aou kS) (5) 

'DH' . . . K1 iDDITTI lEDI ■'3110121 'DDiJ "^IpCn IinifilP [D (6) "Jft pn^'X N'Tj; 

N'Ta 'an ddo'x n^sn (7) imn »b 3ini iin^a'j"'!' po^j p'c panan soa 

K:o''e'a (8) ntr pa'o ithb-ski nB"x NJfa.K ''nB'''K k^ 

'.aia nim^K « sb . . . . x'^va a iT-nan m^.vn ova n,Trii 

Translation 

"Hear, Israel: Y\'YY our God is one YYYY." "According to the 
mouth of YYYY they encamped, and according to the mouth of YYYY 
they marched (2). The observance of YYYY they observed according 
to the word of Yhwh through Moses." "And YYYY said to Satan : 
YYYY rebuke (3) thee, Satan, YYYY rebuke thee, who chose Jerusalem. 
Is not this a brand plucked from the fire?" 

Again, bound and held art thou, (4) evil Spirit, and mighty Lilith, 
that thou appear not to Berik-Yahbeh bar Mame and this Ispandarmed bath 
H. .dora, (5) neither by day nor by night, nor at any evening or morning, 
nor at any time whatsoever, nor at any seasons whatsoever. But flee (6) 
from their presence and take thy divorce and thy separation and thy writ 
of dismissal. [I have divorced] thee, [even as demons write] divorces for 
their wives and return not (to them). (7, 8) 

Commentary 

This charm, against the evil Lihth, is introduced by three quotations 
from the Scriptures. The first is the opening sentence of the Shemd, which 
still remains the contents of the Mezuzoth, or house phylacteries of the 

(209) 



210 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

Jews. The other two have occurred in previous texts ; see 5 : 5. Unfortun- 
ately the last two lines are too broken and obscure to be read. I have 
merely reproduced here the evident characters. In the segments of the 
circle at the bottom of the bowl appear words, some of which are forms 
of the divine Names n'', in% ns^S; also llS'S (?) and in^s^ (?) 

I. "": for nirlv Cf. the common scribal abbreviation, " or "'; also such 
forms as W and l"i, in Schwab O. 

ne'D 13: for T3, as in No. 5. 

3. 3in: cf. 2: I. 

4. n^airana: there is no doubt as to the reading of this name and 
it is remarkable enough. The second and divine component of the name — 
which was an ordinary [n']3"i3, [n']3n3, or [n']3n3, has been expanded 
so as to give the awful pronunciation of the Ineffable Name. We cannot 
suppose that the name was thus ordinarily spelt or pronounced, but the 
scribe has taken it upon himself to give this interpretation ( cni'S') of his 
client's name. Here then is a clear survival of the ancient magical significa- 
tion and use of the personal name (cf. Heitmiiller, "Im Namen Jesu," 159 
ff.), as also of the pronunciation of the name itself. It may be retorted 
that n> — would hardly be used to represent e, and that the original pro- 
nunciation was Yahwe, not — e (see Arnold's valuable discussion, JBL, 
xxiv, 152). The latter thesis is right, but I think that the tradition repre- 
sented here connects with the Hellenistic magic, in which, among various 
forms, loi? occurs several times (Deissmann, Bibelstudien, 7),' although I 
have not found a case of la^v. Further, in the Talmud (Sank. 56a) nov 
appears as a surrogate for the Name, which Dietrich, ZATW, iv, 27, 
would vocalize as Yose. Blau (Zauberzvesen, 131) objects to e, but adduces 
from the Mishna, Sukk. 45a, the surrogate ^BV which he identifies with the 
Greek magical term «j^v (citing Paris Pap. 11. 1896, 2746). This would 
be further proof for v in the current magical pronunciation. As for IT- 
= -e, we have not only the masc. pron. suffix for a parallel but also the 
plural -e represented in the same way in some of our texts, e. g. 9: 6, 12: i, 
25 : 5, and also the proper name rrmi 31:2. 

' Also on an Abraxas gem, see Diet, de I'archiclogie chretienne, i, 141. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 211 

I can find no other interpretation of this unique name-form. A note 
upon it was published in the Museum Journal of the University, 1910 no. 2, 
which called forth some private criticisms from scholars (along with 
assents), but no better explanation has been offered. (Is there a 
possible explanation in the rrarr' noticed to 7: 8?). In the first amulet in 
my paper "Some Early Amulets from Palestine," JAOS, 1911, 272, fine 
16, nun' is apparently to be read for the divine Name, a proof of western 
connections for the present form. 

TonnjsV'K: cf. Glossary B for other forms. The name occurs in Ellis 
I, where it was first recognized by Levy, ZDMG, ix, 470, 486, its correct 
interpretation (as Spenta-Armaita, a daughter of Ahuramazda) being given 
by G. Hoffmann, "Ausziige aus syrischen Aden," Abhandlungen f. d. Kundc 
d. Morgenlandes, 1880, 128; see also Justi, p. 308. For the mother's name 
Prof. Kent suggests to me comparison with ''EpudSupof, see Fick, Griech. 
Personennamen, 112. 

8. KJtD'E'Si: cf. 2: 5. 



No. 27 (CBS 16041) 

TinnT'K 13 (3) iKin' SJN »:'?•']» ^omn k3-i s'dk (2) nnsiox ns ine^a 
K^DT Kim 'HDip n'?)'2 K^nsT 'napip K^insi (4) Knx'va 'naip3 'B'sjt 'b'na 
iriirK KvnKi K^'OB' sisn tsnn w^ni »b'?'2i kui sDsnsi xt^n!' (5) xit^'abi 
iTia pri'Dn ny^a dnt ]inb nnoK nna "aaib'ynai ^a'^a ^kjd3 iinn (6) rryja 
3in pab xjo'tj-B Kin' '31 .[p^ «j3'8j xriB'p n nnjnr's "i^ la-i'V kjs ''hu (7) 

Kpn NSK"S3 113l5 Kja^tTK NJK3 HD IHTD KJK 3in nn'3 n'3 (8) tin''Dn DVTO 

nnJit^N "13 1H1VV »:h nnu (9) pn'on crro 3in srjn in^v^T kbb'^nsi 
WJn iJT'T'^ iiyi «-iiD ti2Tn bv xjirnsT Knoinsi smnj xnaE' in'i'y wrrno 
nam ib'^S'i NnKB"3 'nm sji'ns 'vt B'33'o^n iiia'D mioy bv\ (10) dhd bjn 
RnK'I"5'3 '^3 n^irs (11) pn3 ri'ws rr'^tN in:it's 13 intt' kjk nnN'jTt 
. . . naiD naio m'D miD I'o'p no nnK3p'j nnNnnD'S3 n3n n3na3 KnNE"3 

pn'bv 

Commentary 

After the introductory appeal, "In thy name, O Lord of salvations," 
etc., the inscription for lines 2b-ii is practically identical with No. 2. This 
portion does not need translation and commentary. The remaining lines, 
13-24, are so mutilated or obscure, that I can make out but few connected 
passages in them, and hence I do not present them. 

There are a few slight differences between the parallel texts, this one 
being probably more correct. The most considerable variation in text is 
in 1. 9, where the sorcerer says that he laid the ban upon Hermon ; cf . my 
note to 2: 6. The same Yezidad bar Izdanduch and his wife Merduch 
bath Banai, appear in No. 7. There they are the subjects of the charm, 
here Yezidad operates magic in his own name. Cf. the mutual character 
of the charm in No. 2. In 1. 8 the wife also takes up the exorcism. 



(212) 



No. 28 (CBS 2972) 

. . . bv k!"S wuan^K k^ »^'?v :b'T3 pox ^rsnj na nns inn (2) 33nK"3i 

KB'oiB' 'JJjr npn KnK''3nnNi ^nn iudj (3) nn rT'n''^3 nb'J'N 121 n'.^J???^ 

«'n (4) 3 bv iiino-iBT snom mi [i]inj' n^^s k"tiji }SbtoD 

.....['J nn] nnK nna nariK'^ji in'nB"JT iv 'idis na [. . .nijK] pxnn ^y iironBTi 

K-it3'pi n'n'is po ppDs »b . . . . (5) n i>n2 xrinm mm nxmB' '3i 

"m jinn-iD 'n^'x Kntny na^bnn nctj-m nsK^a i'S'an'n n^atrn ni^nan 

p-sK p»N pni>i3 

Translation 

In thy name, O Lord of heaven and earth. Appointed is this bowl to 
the account of Anur . . . bar Parkoi, that he be inflamed and kindled and 
burn (2) after Ahath bath Nebazak. Amen. 

Everlasting presses which have only been pressed upon (?) a 

man in his heart. (3) Take hrk, and hot herbs ( ?) which they call sunwort 

(?), mtlln and peppers them and the rites of love which thou (?) 

hast sprinkled upon (4) She shall sprinkle them upon this Anur . . . 

b. P. until that he be inflamed and burn after Ahath b. N 

and in lust and in the mysteries of love, in order that (5) 

take pieces from his heart and the charm his name ( ?) . In the 

name of the angel Rahmiel and in the name of DHbat the passionate, 

the gods, the lords of all the mysteries. Amen, Amen, 

Commentary 

A love-charm — such is the import of this sadly mutilated but inter- 
esting bowl. It belongs to the same class of magic as No. 13, but is more 
romantic, for there we find a charm for a childless, neglected wife, here 
one for a passionate woman to bring her lover to her side. For the use 
of a bowl for such a defixio see above p. 44. The first copyist was able to 

(213) 



214 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

read more than I can now, as, since it was in his hands, the bowl has been 
cracked and then repaired. The lacunae in the text are tantalizing. 

So far as the text is legible, the charm which names the two parties 
adjures the passion of the beloved. Some praxis is described, a simula- 
crum is evidently used, for "his heart is to be torn in pieces," and on this 
image is to be scattered some kind of salad of hot herbs expressive of 
love's passion, while the beloved's name is to be formally pronounced. 

Blau has collected the Talmudic material on philtres in his Zauber- 
wesen, 24, 52, 158, 167; n. b. the recitation of Bible verses over the love- 
apple, p. 52, n. 2 (with literature). In the Old Testament we have mere 
references to this aphrodisiac {Gen. 30: 14 flf.. Cant. 7: 14) without any 
note as to magical manipulation. For later Jewish use, see the numerous 
philtres prescribed in Thompson, "Folk Lore of Mossoul," PSBA, 1906-7. 

But it is from the classical and Hellenistic field that we have most 
knowledge of this amatory magic, and the connections of the present text 
are found in that direction. Of course Theocritus's second Idyll comes 
to mind, in which the love-lorn maiden casts the various philtres into the 
fire with adjurations of Hecate. For this classical field I may refer to the 
monograph of O. Hirschfeld, De incantamentis et devinctionibus amatorii.% 
apud Graecos Romanosque (Ratisbon, 1863) ; see p. 42 for aphrodisiac 
herbs; also see section 8 (p. 233) of Abt, Die Apologie des Apuleius. 

In the magical papyri numerous erotic incantations are preserved, e. g. 
in the Paris Papyrus in Wessely, Vienna Denkschriften hist.-phil. Class, 
xxxvi, 1. 2622 flf., xli, p. 52, 1. 976 flf.' But the most graceful and famous 
of these charms is that inscribed on a lead plate found at Hadrumetum, 
N. Africa, — buried in a necropolis, just as our bowl was buried in the 
earth. First edited by Maspero, it has been since frequently published: 
Wiinsch, CIA, App. continens defixionum tabellas, p. xvii ; Audollent, Defix- 
ionum tabellae, no. 271 ; Deissmann, Bibelstudien, 21, and Bible Studies, 
271 ; Blau, op. cit. 96; Wiinsch, Ant. Fluchtafeln, no. 5. It is Blau's merit 
to have specially pointed out the Jewish connection of this text. Now, 
between this Hellenistic charm and our bowl we find an almost literal 

* I may add now F. Boll, "Griechischer Liebeszauber aus Aegypten auf zwei 
Bleitafein," in Sitsungsberichle of the Heidelberg Academy, phil.-hist. Class, 1910, 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 216 

correspondence in the trinity of terms for the passion adjured in the lover. 
With our invocation that the man "be enflamed and kindled and burn 
after" the girl, compare the longing of the Greek maiden Domitiana that 

her lover come ipuvra /iaiv6fuvov (laaavi^o/ievov ^ Or epi>vTa /iaiv6/ievov PaaaviCi/ievov , or 

ip. paa. aypvTzvovvra — repetitions like those in our texts. With this probably 
technical formula compare the second of the charms cited above by Wes- 

Scly : May X do naught until kX'Sovaa Trp6q fie rbv Selva Tr'hjpoifiopovaa ayawijaa arcpyovaa 

cfie, K. T. 1. Also in our 1. 4 there is an echo of Domitiana's wish that he 
come iv TTj (pMaKoi epurt Kal em-^vfiia, while the formula "to the name," 1. i, 
and the use of "heart," 1. 2, indicate Greek connections. 

How much Jewish, how much Grecian, the Hadrumetum tablet is, it 
is difficult to determine. Our text shows manifest ties with the love-magic 
of the Hellenistic world and is the eastern representative of the philtres 
of which the North African text is the most notable western example. The 
spirit of both these texts is Greek rather than Semitic; but the fame of 
Jewish magic appears to have made its solemn formulas eligible for the 
desires of passion. Our text, it is to be noticed, is not at all Jewish in 
religion, is of more simple original type than the African charm. 

For the praxis of our text I may compare a Moorish love- 
charm cited by Doutte, Magie et religion dans I'Afnque du Nord, 
Algiers, 1908, p. 253 : "A woman who wishes to gain the love 
of a man should procure the following materials from neighbors 
with whom she has never eaten: coriander, caraway, gum of terebinth, lime, 
cummin, verdegris, myrrh, some blood of an animal whose throat has been 
cut, and a piece of a broom hailing from a cemetery. On a dark night she 
is to go into the country with a lighted brazier and throw these different 
articles one after another into the fire speaking these words: O coriander, 
bring him mad! O caraway, bring him wandering without success! O 
mastic, raise in his heart anguish and tears ! O white lime, make his heart 
wakeful in disquietude I O cummin, bring him possessed ! O verdegris, 
kindle the fire of his heart! O myrrh, make him spend a frightful night! 
O blood of the victim, lead him panting! O cemetery broom, bring him to 
my side." Etc, 

I . n'OB"!) = «'r I"* bvona. and see Heitmiiller, "Im Natnen Jesu," 95 flF., 
and his definition of the phrase as indicating "die Zueignung an eine Person 



216 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

unter irgend welchem Gebrauch ihres Namens" (p. 107, and at length, pp. 
loo-iio). As he shows, the usage before us is not Semitic or even 
Septuagintal. Cf. also Bohmer, Das biblische "Im Namen," 4. 

2. HKibv 'Caa: I translate the words without any certain sense. For 
the noun '3 see to 7: i. If Kobv might be read, the reference could be to 
a moulded ( caa, "press") figure representing the lover. Below in 1. 4 
the space before the man's name may have contained "image of," or the 
like. The latter part of the line is most obscure. The "heart" (also 1. 5) 
appears as the seat of sexual affection. This is a Greek usage, not Semitic 
(with the possible exception of the Hebrew phrase a? bj! tyi, used five 
times with a woman as the object). See Andry, Le coeur, 5, for the 
Greek idea of the heart as the amatory organ, p. 15 ff., for the late Semitic 
use. P. 17 he quotes a Spanish Arabic poet who speaks gallantly of being 
wounded to the heart, but the metaphor is that of a mortal wound.' 

3. I translate the ppl. raoj, as also TpDB 1. 5, as imperatives; cf. 
Rabbinic and Syriac usage. 

01 Tin: to this list of aphrodisiacs the clue is given by S'nu («'- 
= pi. ending, as in Mandaic), which is the piper candidus (Payne Smith, 
col. 2303) ; its pungency was evidently regarded as possessing erotic power 
and symbolism. Then JMi, if the reading be correct, and KH'^nnN are to be 
explained in the same way from their roots, Ttfi, mn, "burn." SCO'C '33j; 
doubtless hes in the same circle of ideas. May ]b?QKi be mushrooms? 
Loew's Aramdische Pflanzennamen does not contain these words. The 
"rites of love" are the magical practices. 

4. nsn-'B': I compare Syriac KDiJn'E' {sub nitr). "boldness, lascivious- 
ness"; the ending a' a for ay a? 

5 . n^yh fO rpDE : 'D a noun, or better a ppl. like paDJ, 1. 3. The 
phrase is simplest interpreted as a reference to the lady's slowly tearing to 
pieces the facsimile of her lover's heart, with the intent that he perish of 
love ; cf . again Theocritus's second Idyll. 

' Cf. the phrase quoted in Lane's Dictionary, 782: "she has overturned my heart 
and torn my midriflf." 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 217 

n'iian: the lover's name is to be pronounced. For the angel Rahmiel 
see to No. 13. 

riT^T : one of the Mandaic forms of Dilbat, a name of the Babylonian 
Ishtar, especially in her stellar capacity as Venus. For the Mandaic forms, 
see Brandt, Mand. Schr., 45, 85 ; also in Hesychius as ^ele^ar, and in Bar 
Bahlul as na^n.' For this form, see Noldeke,, Mand. Gram. § 25. For the 
Babylonian use see Jensen, Kosmologie, 18, and the latest discussion by 
Jastrow, ZA, 1908, 155. As the goddess of love her patronage is appro- 
priate. The epithet Nnrty (cf. 38: 7) recalls the Babylonian ezzu, a 
frequent epithet of gods, while Ishtar especially appears as the raging 
goddess, whether of war, in Assyria, or of love, in the Izdubhar epic. The 
same epithet became the old Arabian name of the morning-star, al-'uzza. 
(Wellhausen Skizzen, iii, 41, Noldeke, ZDMG, xli, 710, the identification 
denied by W. R. Smith, Rel. Sent., 57). The Edessene nj? was originally 
the morning-star, Lagrange, £tudes,' 135 ; cf . the Aramaic names NTVinC'v 
and Tvmne'y (Lidzbarski, Handbuch, 347 f.). 

' So also to be explained r\tht in Schwab, Vocab., 403. 



No. 29 (CBS 16055) 

n'''n ppsi itrs-i nn (3) [B'usna ] Kmos^ nisov nin' (2) 

jtrK-i n3 trosrinb (5) D^nni irpi . as 'Wp IV'^'J !tVP IK'S (4) ri^'^ 

to nn^a in n^a lo nj'c (6) p'^ V>^t<'' na B''':snai' msnv mnn n'oca nycp 

nnpjvi r;T'E'3i (7) Nn[B']u t^n^b-'b) I'sj-u fi^Kn f»"D i^yac n^iD nmn 

tru nvTD (8) [ii3'i'y] sjysB'a k^si'j lai 'aiDi ki3t Kn:2i sn^anDi sns'p 

;3n KantsDKT 'sia •'E'tti stc pb"b' na 'SE'i'm normal n'n'an nc 

pt!"3 ppnm VP-'^ '?:>•[ 'b^a 'J3 n'ts'i «3t3i ki.d 'i'''^ yja vjj'k didip xirp. . . (9) 
SJo^pDi NJn^Ji KjavDi KJWB'ei woi;: iin'oti' nji3[t (10) k!)!! ii]n^D65' n^-isit 

Nn^N n^ns it's n^ns (11) n ra rp yp rn ra m rpi io n'ocj'n p^'^v 

n^D^'yi o'lpHB-'i' ■'pn»' u tpna n^Dim smos b:i na SHI'S sin las' nsiva sai 
sna^j sm SHI'S sin nnaiyi'i nTiun'ni'i n'nanni'i ninu (12) b ipno 

Translation 

[This bowl is appointed in the name of?] (2) Yhwh Sebaoth for the 

salvation [and sealing? of Metanis] (3) bath Resan (4) and 

sealed (5) for Metanis b. R., — an amulet in the name of Yhwh Sebaoth 
for Metanis b. R. And bound (6) from her, from her children, from her 
house, from all her dwelling, are the evil Plagues and evil Demons and the 
evil and the decent Lilith and the Necklace-spirits and . . . Menstruation 
and Tormentors and the Hags of the wild and Impurities and Epilepsy ( ?). 

We adjure you (8) whatsoever evil thing lodges in the house and 
dwelling of Haliphai bar Sissin . . . and Darsi the foreigner and Astroba 

(9) Leprosy, Plague, Stroke, the kindly and . . . Lili, and the 

Demons, ghostly Shades, and all Goblins and evil Injurers whose names 
I have mentioned and whose names [I have not] (10) mentioned: I exorcise 
and adjure and make fast and bind and make fast (sic) upon you, in the 

name of MW, of KS, SS, MS, BS, KS, KS, BS (11) I-am-that-I-am, 

the great God, Mesoah his name. He is God, the Lord of all Salvation, 
whose throne is established between the ethers and his eternity (world?) 

(318) 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 219 

is established for (12) in Yhwh and for his praise and the faith 

in him and his service. He is the great, the mighty God. 

Commentary 
A charm made out for two different parties, (i) a woman Metanis 
and her household, and (2) for several men and their house and quarters. 
These may be lodgers in the woman's house. One of the men is a 
"foreigner." The tone of piety in the charm is superior to that of the 
other texts; the incantation is in the name of Yhwh Sebaoth alone, whose 
praises are dwelt upon in almost liturgical fashion. 

I . The charm appears to have a double introduction. Most of 11. 3, 4 
is unintelligible. 

5. B"JKno:?— tC'Si: possibly the father's name, Syriac SJE'sn, "prince." 
One is tempted to compare the name of the famous Roxane; the masc. 
parallel Roxanes = Persian Rosan, Justi, p. 262. But the should be 
indicated. 

6. m'B'31 '3 h: see above, p. 76. '3 may be euphemistic and then have 
developed into a distinct species. Cf. the epithet S3St3 in 1. 9. 

7. SDS'a: Syriac kepsa. — Ki3T sn33: cf. 17: 3. — 'DID: Syriac kdixd. 
sIjs'J n3 : one might think, in the context, of abortion. But in the 

Talmud D'^'SJ p is a demon of nervous trouble or epilepsy, Bekor. 44b; 
see Griinbaum ZDMG, xxxi, 332 for some discussion of the word. Epilepsy 
was a most common disease in antiquity; n. b. the miracles in the New 
Testament, and for the Hellenic world cf. Tambornino, De antiquorum 
daemonismo, 57: often equivalent to insanity. It has been generally sup- 
posed that the Jews were particularly subject to this disease; M. Fishberg 
in The Jews, London and New York, 191 1, denies this, but admits the 
nervous pathology of the race (chap. xv). Cf. 16: 8 for another disease 
cited in Bekor. 44. 

8. rrrm: alongside of '"I'l, 1. 6; the form appears in the Syriac and 
Mandaic bowls. 

'KD'^n = Palmyrene 'Bvn ; for signification, cf. xna^no. 

PB^C : cf. the Persian ( ?) names Sisines, Sisinnios, Sisoi, Justi, p. 
303; on the etymology of Sisines see Noldeke, Pers. Studien, 404, no. i. 



220 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

Cf. the Jewish names NtT'E' and NJCB', Seder ha-Doroth, ii, 348 f. Also in 
Pognon B (where rcjJB') it is the name of the parent — mother or father? Is 
KTtJ' an additional name? Of "fin we learn only that he is a foreigner. 
Also N3i-it3DK is evidently a Greek name. 

9. VJ^N: the demon offspring of Adam are called ms '33 'yJ3 in the 
Zohar, Eisenmenger, ii, 422. 

DiDin : for this formation, see Levias, Grammar of the Aramaic Idiom 
. . . in the Bab. Talmud, § 975. For similar eruptive diseases named in 
these texts, see p. 93. 

N^'L3 •'J3: epithet of the goblins; Rabb. vhwi , Syr. tella, "shadow." 
Cf. the '3^0, Targ. Cant. 3 : 8, etc. 

The lacuna at end of the line is supplied by help of 14 : 6. 

10. For the dominance of sibilants in these magical words cf. p. 60. 
At the begining and end of the series are characters enclosed in square 
lines. 

11. '3: for p3, as also in the Talmud. There follows a lapse into 
Hebrew — probably a citation. 

D''i5ntJ' : one of the seven heavens of Kabbalism. 

12. rT'n3cnn : for iTnn3Enn? 

nn3lj; : it is strange to find this word of magical connotation used of 
true worship in a Jewish text 



No. 30 (CBS 16096) 

Tmnja''D'K (2) "i3 t3:B'nj'n:''i Kmx la srscN Nn "m sn^n nnsnoi cinni idk 

JO (3) NTI31 KIK' p KJOKD iO Kin 10 «Q^'^D^ B^astf lo 'iat:''D n[3] . . -ini 
wnnpjNi Kn3n sn'!"^ nn id sn^JTr sioin id pB'u pnn id sna^pj sn'^''^ 
nnn ikt «n wb nu fis nm kj'-j; Nrr'jnDxn KJ^y xnapj (4) sian KJNry 
PB'u pnn ID Ki[n]D sjmh id «';d (5) k"3 ii^n id xnut kid nih pB"3 b'n 

ntrnKHN ntj-a nnu-sr kid xin id 

Translation 
Bound and sealed are the house and the life of this Ispiza bar Arha, 
and Yandundisnat bar (2) Ispandarmed, and . . . bath Simkoi, from the 
Sun and Heat, from the Devil, the Satan, the male Demon (3) the female 
Lilith, evil Spirits, the impious Amulet-spirit, the lilith-Spirit male or 
female; the Eye of man (or) (4) woman; the Eye of contumely; the Eye 
which looks right into the heart; the mystery which belongs to the evil 
Potency, that impious lord; from the evil hateful Potency; from disturb- 
ing Vision; from evil Spirits; from that impious Lord, in the name of 



Commentary 
A charm for two men and a woman from certain specified diseases 
and demons. The inscription is illiterate and the script particularly 
difficult, the writer using a very individual chirography; n. b. the D, 
the non-distinction of 1 and "1 , the 8< which often consists of but two 
upright strokes, and the use of one form for internal and finial 3 except 
in the word ID, where a finial is used. 

I. -IDK: for TDK. 

WBC^K : cf. the Syriac tatJ'K (Aspaz) for the Hebrew TJStJ'K in Dan. 
i: 3. (tJSDK occurs in Myhrman, 1. i, to which I cite the Babylonian 

(321) 



222 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

Aspazanda.). The Persian XTSCN is "house," and S'3rBE"N "steward." 
May it be an abbreviated form of the latter word?' 

KmN : cf. the biblical Arah, a post-exilic name. 

t23C"13ny : so the most likely reading of the name. 

2. ''13D'D : the characters are uncertain. Cf. ^eifteiKoc in a Greek 
inscription from the Don, = Persian simikos, "silver"; Justi, p. 294. 

NC'3i C"D^5t^': the iirst word is the Mandaic spelling for "the Sun," 
which also in the Mandaic religion is regarded as an evil genius. XD'a = 
KtiV, see Noldeke, Mand. Gram., § 42. Cf. Ps. 121: 6, 91: 6, and see 
Grunbaum's discussion of the "'I'lD atop, the demon of the midday sun, 
ZDMG, xxxi, 251 f. 

KTST: an error for sian (cf. 1. 3), or intended for assonance with 
Nna'p:. Cf. the unabashed spellings in Samaritan literature to produce 
rhymes. Or is there a play on the roots, "i3T and 3p3 being used in the 
sense of "name"? — i. e. the named spirits. 

3. Nn''^''ij nn: cf. N. T. Trveiiia Haifiovo^. 

NJsrv : the last two letters are dittography. There follows a list of 
various kinds of "evil eye," for which see p. 86. 

4. NrT'jnDNn xry: so the most likely reading; cf. Lidz. 4, end, Ki'V 
NJsnDin (?). 

"The eye that sees (or of those that see) within the heart" is a 
reference to the uncanny effect of the evil eye. 

In what follows some corrections are necessary. ' isn = im ? ; for yn 
rtr'a read E"3 -n as farther on, and correct KniJT to KniJiNt with 1. 5. There 
is evidently a repetition of phrases. The C"3 i)'n (like the NC"3 I'J) ) is the 
personification of the power operating these psychological wondprs. Cf. 
the Rabbinic nin3(Joel, Der Aberglaube, i, 80), the New Testament dwdufif. 

NTiiD NJitn = lEnJC <oSn, 24: 4. 

At the end of 1. 5 comes a long series of characters which do not 
appear to form words. 

' According to Karmsedin's Lexicon, quoted by Payne-Smith under the latter 
word; in lingua Nahathaea est oecononius et viatorum exceptor, etc. Observe the 
accompanying name «ms. 



No. 31 (CBS 9008) 

rue nfm (3) nanjcDS la n^^mi sjm nnui (2) xnanni' «dx3 kjh iotd 
pi"ne (5) imB'21 ptir-: in^DK i<::"3 xc^a xol^^'ni xnoii'i (4) snijana nn'3 pi 
nanJcDK -i3 ^3^K^ sjm nnui (6) sn^nn^ xdn3 \'br\ piDjm i^onnai pi3j;o 
nriDS nn^^B'tJ' niK lana oyna d ipnainj (7) in''nN' nitya i<mnb p-tB"j nH 
+ + + + + + + n'iJ'i'n nisD poK pas kkkkkkk (8) m» nx nx ns nKinty^ Knia 
njD nt'ni nanjaDS 12 nrnxT sjm fim KnnjKi (9) nn^n lajn^ji Qinnnij 

pax iterz (10) Nai"ni snaih Knb^^c nnu jai 

Translation 

This bowl is designated for the sealing (2) of the house of this 
iDadbeh bar Asmandiicht, (3) that from him and his house may remove 
the Tormentor (4) and the Curse and the very evil Dreams. Charmed; 
fortified and confirmed, (5) corroborated, strengthened and sealed and 
guarded are these bowls for the sealing (6) of the house of this Dahbeh 
b. A., that they may not lodge together (with them). In the name of 
Yahihu (7) NHRBTMW, S, MR'S, MRMR, 'oth Sasbiboth, Astar, Miita. 
YSHN'H, Ah, Ah, Ah, Ahah, (8) AAAAAAA, Amen, Amen, Selah, 
Hallulia. 

Sealed and guarded shall be the house (9) and wife and sons of this 
Dadbeh b. A., that there may remove from him and his house the Tor- 
mentor and the Curse and evil Dreams. Amen. 

Commentary 

For a general discussion of the epigraphy and language of this and 
the following Syriac bowls (Nos. 31-37), see Introduction, § 6. The 
crosses in 1. 8 are the same as those which occur in the center "seals" of 
these Syriac bowls. 

I. 'l^ pm: cf. 8: i, and see to 3: i. 

(223) 



224 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

2. Dadbeh son of Asmanducht appears also in Nos. 12 and 16. Here 
the latter name appears in full Persian form, -diicht. 

3. nrn = nrn: see to 4: 6. 

4. pnTO: see to 4: 6. 

5. j'^'riD: for 'no.-KDt« p^n with reference to the four duplicate bowls. 

6. lS''n8<^: a play on the Tetragrammaton, with the three primary 
vowels; cf. the magical use of the seven vowels in Greek; there anu 
is also found, Paris Pap., 1. 3019 ff. 



No. 32 (CBS 16086) 

nr^m TBmj2D''{< 12 n^m nmi nnnjsii (2) nnm xn^nn^ sdkd xjn iota 
Kin 13 (4) Kinin Tavi siny Krpcn sron n-iis ke"3 iioSn, (3) xnljaao njo 
wt3Di (5) Km NTC pnija by «-iunm iin^i'V snai x'-ms 12 vib"' dt aTin 
oiiy^T KTanoT nn^^j; an^ ain TomjED'K na 'um niraa jtkt k^lj^i ari-bb) 
Nirij'j u }D KJvb'J N!:"^ nin« ninx n u id mnx ninxris nonx Ditj'a (6) 
■iDDn'x pnjnni [KnlNoi non'K pninai i<-iiDi nyisi n'idb' (7) B"3Dn'N pnjnm 
Iia'ijy p'i'Di Ktsi'V to inj; iinjnni (8) saobi sn'^^i NJtaoi xim [ktk- KB'-in] 
nn^[3 10] (9) iir[p2si'] s.psi Kmi'nni' [xj^un Sb'p b^ ei^xn^si noiid!) 
□nnoi D-nCm] tdxi KT-anoia [ii]n'P'3{5' n^rrxT ^3 ini niB-njaD-'K nn 'um 
D'nn TDK 3in nn k!) loisn K'onp i<5i':si (lo) n'[i3 Kb K''Dnp ktIbh p'k 
D'n[nn'j (11) nJiD pcK pcK] kj; h'H' n'-ni n^n^n^n^n' nw2 KiunoT Kjn^ nnnoi 
D'nnri'm Knoii'i iica to^ni KniiDno id TomjEo^K 12 Mm mm nnu iDjrr'Ji 

i> 31 HiTji KHDibi KB"3 KD^jm Knljanc fs (12) [rim nnnjK] ^t33n''n1 

PDK n.bn 

Translation 
This bowl is designated for the sealing of the house and the wife (2) 
and the children of Dinoi bar Ispandarmed, that there remove from him 
the Tormentor (3) and evil Dreams. 

The bowl I deposit and sink down, a work which has been made (4) 
like that which Rab Jesus bar Perahia sat and wrote against them, — a 
ban-writ against all the Demons and Devils (5) and Satans and Liliths 
and Latbe which are in the house of Dinoi b. I. Again : he wrote against 
them a ban-writ which is for all time, (6) by the virtue of 'TMDG, Atatot 
Atot, within T( ?), Atot Atot the name, a writing within a writing. Through 
which (words) were subjected (7) heaven and earth and the mountains ; and 
through which the heights were commanded; and through which were 
fettered Arts, Demons and Devils and Satans and Liliths and Latbe; (8) 
and through which he passed over from this world and climbed above you 

(225) 



226 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

to the height (of heaven) and learned all counter-charms, a ruin to 
destruction, and ... to bring you forth (9) from the house of Dinoi b. I., 
and from all that is in his house, I have dismissed you by the ban-writ. 
And charmed and sealed and countersealed is it, even as ancient runes fail 
not, (10) and (like) ancient men who are not ... Again: charmed and 
sealed and countersealed is this ban-writ by the virtue of YHYHYHYHYH, 
YHYH, YHYH, A'. Amen, Amen, Selah. 

(11) Sealed and protected are the house and dwelling of Dinoi b. I. 
from the Tormentor and evil Dreams and the Curse. And sealed and pro- 
tected be [his wife and son] (12) from the Tormentor and evil Dreams and 
Curse and Vows and Hallela, Amen. 

Commentary 

Nos. 32 and 33 certain practically identical inscriptions, except that 
they are made out in the name of different clients, and that No. 32 has 
additional matter at the beginning and the end. This identity is fortunate 
for the interpretation of the two bowls, for the lacunae in each one can be 
almost wholly supplied from the other. Also No. 35 is made out for the 
wife of the client of the present charm. The chirography of all three 
bowls is the same, being more cursive than the script of No. 31. 

The charms effected in this and the following bowl are attributed to a 
certain master magician, Jesus bar Perahia, evidently the Joshua ben 
Perahia, who appears in the same capacity in Nos. 8, 9, and 17. 
Now Joshua ben Perahia is one of the several Zugoih or Pairs, who handed 
down the tradition of the Law from the Great Synagogue ; and he flourished 
in the reign of Alexander Jannaeus, in the early part of the first century 
B. C. The Mishnaic reference to him is found in Pirke Aboth i : 7, where 
the following dictum is attributed to him : "Make unto thyself a master, and 
possess thyself of an associate, and judge every man on the scale of merit" 

Further, an interesting Talmudic tradition concerning the same Joshua 
appears in uncensored editions, according to which he fled into Egypt to 
escape the cruel persecution instituted by Alexander against the Pharisees, 
culminating in the crucifixion of eight hundred of that faction, circa 88 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION T^XTS. 227 

B. C The tradition is of added interest because it connects Joshua with a 
certain IK" whose identity with Jesus of Nazareth is generally recognized." 

The passage in Sank. 107b reads as follows: The rabbis taught: The left hand 
should always push away, and the right hand receive favorably. Not like Elisha, 
who drove away Gehazi with both hands, nor like Joshua b. P. who drove off Jesus 

(in the Munich MS., and in Sota 'isun IB", i. e. Jesus the Nazarene) How 

was that? When king Jannaeus killed the rabbis, R. Joshua b. P. and Jesus went 
to Alexandria of Egypt. When peace was established, Simeon b. Setah sent a 
message to him : From Jerusalem the Holy City to thee Alexandria of Egypt, my 
sister: My husband is lodged in thee, and I sit desolate. — He (Joshua) arose, and 
came, and lodged at a certain inn, where they paid him great respect. He said: 
How fair is this inn (aksania). He (Jesus) said to him. Rabbi, her eyes (as though 
by aksania the landlady was meant!) are too bleary. He replied to him: Thou 
knave, thou busiest thyself with such stuff ! He brought forth four hundred horns 
and excommunicated him. He (Jesus) came in his presence many a time, and said. 
Receive me; he took no notice of him. One day he was reading the Shema, Jesus 
again presented himself, thinking he would receive him. He made a sign to him 
with his hand, he thought that he had utterly rejected him. He went off and erected 
a tile and worshipped it. Joshua said to him. Repent. He replied, I have been 
taught by thee that every sinner and seducer of the people can find no opportunity 
for repentance. And so it was said : Jesus bewitched and seduced and drove off 
Israel. 

It is of interest that the Jesus of our texts is given a title which be- 
came the epithet of the Nazarene Jesus with whom Talmudic tradition 
connected him: N'ON jnK"'', 34: 2, =z 'ivam aur^p , Is there in this magical 
reference to Jesus b. Perahia a confusion with Jesus Christ? 

We find then in these magical bowls an independent tradition con- 
cerning an early hero of the Law, who appears as endowed with magic 
powers, and who furthermore was able to make the ascent of the soul to 
heaven. He was accordingly one of the earliest to attain that spiritual 

• See Schurer, GJV, i, 288. 

' The anecdote is found in Sanhedrin 107b = Sota 47a; cf. Jerusalem Talmud 
Hagiga, ii, 2, Sank, vi, 8. Dalman, in Laible's Jesus Christus im Talmud', Appendix, 
p. 8 ff., gives the texts of the first three passages, with critical apparatus, and Strack, 
Jesus, die Hdretiker u. d. Christen, 1910, § 8, gives the texts from Hagiga, and the 
Bab. Sanhedrin. Through the kindness of Dr. Julius H. Greenstone, I have also had 
access to his rare copy of the Constantinople edition, 1585, of Sanhedrin. Dalman 
quotes the Venetian editions of the two Talmuds, and the Jewish Encyclopaedia, s. v. 
"Joshua b. P." cites the Amsterdam and Berlin edition of 1865 for the passage in 
Sota. On the criticism of the legend concerning Jesus, see Laible, p. 40 ff., and Strack, 
ad loc. The Jerusalem Talmud names Juda b. Tabai in place of Joshua (they were 
contemporaries) and omits mention of Jesus. Cf. Blau, p. 34, for some points of 
interpretation. The introduction of Jesus is a sheer anachronism. 



228 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

privilege, which was the claim of apocalyptists from the author of Enoch 
down. See in general Bousset, "Die Himmelreise d. Seele," in Archiv f. 
Rel-ivissenschaft, iv (1901), 136 f., 229 f. Such a claim is made for 
Akiba, who alone of four friends succeeded in penetrating Paradise, Hagiga 
14b (see Bousset, p. 145), and this mystical claim was asserted by the 
Kabbalists for Moses and especially for R. Ishmael ; see full references 
in Bousset, p. 151 flf., cf. Graetz, Gesch. v, 231 and Joel, Aberglaube, ii, 35. 
The Talmudic tradition has unfortunately not preserved for us enough of 
the mystical side of the early teachers; Akiba could not have been alone 
in his mysticism. Joshua was possibly one of the good company of 
apocalyptists and our magic tradition may preserve a true reminiscence of 
his personality and claims. 

2. n33: plural with masc. sing, suffix, as in the texts above and in 
Mandaic. 

'Un : s. Noldeke, Persische Studien, 403. 

3. 'i\ NJ^Oi KiiB : see to 9 : I. I may now add the Syriac Kinia, "earthen- 
ware figures" (of the gods), occurring in Overbeck, Bphraetni Syri ... 
opera, 13, 1. 24. Compare also the Assyrian piiru, "bowl," see Zimmern, 
Beitrdge, 147, note k, and KAT, 518: but my etymology contravenes that of 
Zimmern. 

Niuy: so also in No. 33; elsewhere xnay, X131V, Niayo. 

Ninin : a duplicated form of the pronoun, found in the Syriac. 

4. 'a : a preposition appearing in the Rabbinic dialect, not in Syriac. 

yiE'" : the spelling represents the older pronunciation, the Biblical yB", 
'ii/ffoif, the Jacobite Yesii, over against the Nestorian Isii. 

NT2nm: Prof. Roland G. Kent, to whom I referred this word, has 
published an elaborate study of it in JAOS, 191 1, 359. He comes to the 
conclusion that it means "a handwritten deterrent," from dast, "hand" -\- 
bhira (Sansk.), "terrifying." The word occurs only here and in No. 33. 

5. K3t3^: see to 9: 7. 

6. The same magical reference appears in No. 32. For the practice 
see the more perfect form in 9 : 6. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 239 

pnjn : a unique spelling (occurring also in the parallel, No. 33, along 
with Y^in), for the Syriac hennon. It is an elder form and is to be com- 
pared with the Rabbinic inrK, see Levias, Grammar, § 95. 

7. IDH'K: corresponding to both Syriac and Rabbinic forms. 

iDDn'K: from a denominative verb, arising from the root "iDN. Payne- 
Smith, col. 2181, gives a citation for IDD, = vinxit catenis vel compedibus, 
with which may be compared snunoDD, actus ligationis, ib. col. 324. Also 
cf. ISO, Glossary C. 

8. s^un : also found in 37: 11 and in Lidzbarski, Mand. Amulet, 1. 33 
(de Vogiie volume). 

papBN^ : for the infinitive, cf. 9 : 8. 

p'S := Syriac aikannd; the good Syriac I'X appears in the parallel 
34: 4. What follows is not perfectly clear. By the "ancient songs" (ktc 
rare in Syriac), are meant charms (i. e. carmina), such as the master Jesus 
b. P. once used. But the following clause remains obscure because of the 
unintelligible "IDIVT. 

10. NCiS: cf. the Rabbinic 'tyrs , which Noldeke (Mand. Gram., 182) 
understands as enase, not inse. The Syriac rarely uses the plural in the 
sense of "men." 



No. 33 (CBS 16019) 

anai K^ma in vw m a^nn (3) xin ^3 xinin lujn xiny (2) kj'pb'i wot xma 
nrraa n'KT Katsbi sn'^li'i (5) icjcDi Sim Jctc pn^^ !'V Ki'nnDT im'I'j; (4) 
niDNnN JTons mtra ni'yi'T wnuriDT pn'i'y 2n3 mn (6) riDnjoDN na nanxiT 
tt-nan^N nnjnm kjv^u ij jo sjrljC'j] xae' mnx nins [n u j;: njinx (7) 
i<i]ni (9) Ktb* icB-nn -iDorT'X pjnai anikDi lon^N pjnai icnioi s<[y-ixi s'']aK' (8) 
[i'D fi]i'sn'Ni Nsnai' pa'^y i?'i'Di sol'V jd -12 [y ii:n]3i xacbi nttIj^i njLddi 
nanJoDN nn nrnxii nnu jn p3i?CK^ [s.dki] xmbanb x^'an t<^3'p (lO) 
NTCT p3'« onnoi D'nn[i tdki xTjanoia iirr'p'DB' nbn'»-i b)^ 121 (11) 
Njn nnnoi n^nn n^Ds mn nn «!' idivt x'tenp Ntj-jxi (12) una n^ N'oip 
nnu iDJD'ji D^nnno [n]S'D pns poN (13) sy .T'n"' n^'n' .TiTH' dib's xTanon 
poK sntii^i «n!'33o id nrjpi Mnjai fi:3 nnn^xi n3nJ3[D« in naixn X3]m 

This inscription is practically contained in No. 32, with a change in the 
name of the client, who is the same as the one in the Syriac No. 31 and 
Nos. 12, 16. 



(230) 



No. 34 (CBS 9012) 
K'DK viB""! i"n ^'R3 (2) '2«^ 12 ^t'o^lR in'CT nn'3 psinni' sdn3 Kjn fort: 
nt'onin -ir":t rinjai rijai nnnjsi nnui (3) r:n:iDij'2i mn -|idk NS'pn ■'Jdn ^^na 
1^:1 xiiK' I'S 12P1 fiiDi sa'!' Ktnt: t:nt I's (4) dtiri i^dn ^osa -i3 «npn'*3T 
Nj^'sbi nj;"iN^ Nnbx nascKT xnijo snna (5) D'nm I'dk cnm i^dn id'J jin^nn 
s'DC' 133 n^nm h^dk (6) nhsoii niid niDxa o^nni tdx p^^"'»'<^ pym 
i^K'^a (7) Dirn p2'P KJ1P1231 t'TDX Nnboai N^roi N2313 NinDi Ncotr wvnxi 
n^Ki KmB'13 nbia ND'nni ntds 'Jhkt xnsy i^xnsji X'i'no i'^-K^ani k^dx 
nj'jpi nT3i i<n:3i .1j3i nnn:s nnus (8) 'cso 13 it'oiin "iniai mja3 nisi 
poTin n3T (9) Tn 13 k3^»3 tit3''i'B'T nnpT'ysi ijt 13 iv-isn nnnn3 mn ^331 
pa'nm k3-i xanm Ka'pn xna dd3'13ni iib'S^ki NanR3 KJa^nm ^5aD^1 NDE^'y 
Kjn. Konm nsip la n:a i<3aS H'bd iiip'jn (10) ktc Ijsi nviki S'-dk' P3 
K11J (11) mDK3 nonx Kin toiB*! npan 5)31 iii"j/j »)> xi'vai snap Sjvi jn5;3x> 
nn'3 nnjn'31 C'nnrr'j nbo pax pax xvixi x^atj- xiB'ai' xaiy xn i^b"B'3i 
XD^m xni'33a n:a nr'ni ^axa 13 (12) it'amn nn^ai mjai nj^jpi ,l33i nnnjxi 
D-nnn'm xnu'SD'oi xaini xjioim xj^n xn^33ai xe'ini xitji xnci^i xb'u 
xcnni xiTJi xnDibi xk"3 xabni xn^33a ja (13) xnno n3 n3 inn3 iDjnTn 
n'? 3npn x^i r\bi^^\2^ hn^i xni'D3ai xrinarm KD^bb-, xnS'33a non'm xn3PDi 

pax xino n3 n3 ■'nR3 xnn3 ris nnn'n xi"! (14) 

Translation 
This bowl is designated for the sealing of the house of Mihr-hormizd 
bar Mami (2) by power of the virtue of Jesus the healer, by the virtue 
of my mighty relative. Charmed is the dwelling, and the abode (3) and 
the house and the wife and the sons and the daughters of Mihr-hormizd, who 
is surnamed b. M. ; charmed and sealed (4) even as Moses commanded 
the Red Sea and they (the waters) stood up like a wall on both sides. 
Charmed and sealed, charmed and sealed, (5) by this word which God 

(231) 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

laid upon the earth and the trees which . . . their tops ; charmed and sealed 
with the seal of the mountains and heights; (6) charmed and sealed (with 
the spell which is) in the heavens and the earth, the sun and the moon, 
the stars and (zodiacal) signs, and by the word they are charmed and 
remain in ward. In the name of (7) Michael the healer and Rofiel the 
reliever, and Gabriel the servant of the Lord. 

Charmed and sealed is all evil that is in the body of Mihr-hormizd b. 
M. (8) and in his house (and) his wife and his sons and his daughters 
and his cattle and his property and in all his dwelling, by the signet of 
Arion son of Zand and by the seal of King Solomon son of David, (9) by 
which were sealed the Oppressors and the Latbe. And we have sealed 
with the seal of El Saddai and Abraxas the mighty lord, and the great 
seal with which were sealed heaven and earth and all Demons (10) and 
foul Knots and Latbe, which contend against him. And a seal is this 
against Harm and Constraint (?), that they shall not at all enter in. And 
every Damkar and Salt and Sard are charmed by the spell of (11) fire and 
the enchainment of water until the dissolution of heaven and earth. Amen, 
Amen, Selah. Sealed and guarded be the house and wife and sons and 
property and body of Mihr-hormizd (12) b. M., and depart from him the 
Injurer and evil Dreams and the Curse and the Vow and Arts and the 
Tormentor and Damages and Losses and Failures and Poverty. 

And sealed and protected be Bahroi bath Bath-Sahde from the 
Tormentor and evil Dreams and the Curse and the Vow and Arts and 
Practices. And charmed be the Tormentor and Lilith and Ban-spirit, who 
thwarts her in her hand and foot, and may it not approach nor afflict this 
Bahroi b. B. 

Commentary 

The text is of the same order as those immediately preceding. At the 
end the charm is operated for a woman (with a Christian name), presum- 
ably the wife of the chief client of the text. 

I. I'Oinn: the reading is certain, and the word is parallel to Nnonn 
in the previous inscriptions, but the formation is unique, if it be not an 
error; 'Dinn would be a Pael inf. 

A Hormizd son of Mama(i) appears in No. 15. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 233 

IPDiin "im» is the same as Mitr-oharmazde, or Mihrhormuz, the name 
of the murderer of Chosroes II; see Justi, p. 216. 

2. X'DX: here applied to the sorcerer, but otherwise of God, e. g. 3 : i, 
or angels, e. g. Michael, 1. 7. See introduction to notes on No. 32. 

'Jnx (evidently so written) I take to be for ':'ns, "my cousin." The 
magical tradition was handed down in the sorcerer's family, of. 8: 11. 

snuacn = SJ3B'D. but of peculiar formation. 

4. strio: a point over N, also in the same name in 35: 6 — diacritical 
for e? 

The charm is the effective one used by Moses at the Red Sea, cf. £.i'. 
14: 22. See p. 64 for the magical use of such episodes. But the plural 
lOp is a reminiscence of ]osh. 3 : 16, and indicates conflation of the two 
narratives, p^'^ P'^'"i"'n P appears to be a confusion for pn'D^J 'l"in JD. 'nn 
is Palmyrene and Rabbinic, not Edessene, but is found in neo-Syriac, 
Noldeke, Mand. Gram., § 153. 

5. naacs: of laying a spell; the same verb for laying a ghost, 16: 11. 
The Afel is a hebraism. Compare Is. 9 : 7 : "a word Yahwe has sent in 
Jacob, and it has fallen in Israel" ; i. e. the magical word itself is potent. 

'31 KJ^'S: the reference of the noun is obscure as is also the meaning 
of the following verb. There may be a reference to some myth concerning 
ancient "big" trees; cf. Isaia's denunciation of "everything high and lifted 
up," 2: 5 ff., and especially his woe upon the cedars of Lebanon and the 
jcan 'Ji^K , v. 13. Then v. 14 is parallel to the Knsoii xiiD of 1. 5. The 
following relative clause is almost unintelligible. The root j?Ti is found 
only in Arabic, = "withhold, refuse." The next word I identify with the 
Biblical TOK, Is. 17: 6 (possibly, with some critics, also in Gen. 49: 21). 
The old tree-myth may have told how the trees flaunted their high tops 
against the gods. The obscurity of the passage may be due to corruption 
of the form of the legend. The ' of pnnos appears to be used as one of 
the Seydme points. 

6. pTDK : n. b. position of the points. 

KJipiB3 : a reference to the myth of the restraint of the celestial powers ; 
see the discussion on 4: 5, and cf. Is. 24: 21. 



234 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

7. Pi'^no: a unique epithet for Raphael. It is a pau'el formation from 
N?l, and, agreeably to the etymology of Raphael and parallel to the epithet 
applied to Gabriel, the participle is used in the sense "to relieve," sc. the 
sick. Cf. Baba Bathra x6 b, sn'Vp '^TS NOV '^TK; "when the day is high, 
the sick man is relieved." In the Syriac the Pael came to be used in the 
sense of "saving," see Payne-Smith, col. 903. 

'XT mnj? ^'NnaJ : Gabriel is especially the messenger of Deity ; cf. Luke 
I, and Rev. 19: 10, where the angel who calls himself owtSovAoc with the 
apocalyptist may be Gabriel. 

8 . mu : Mandaic form. Several phylacteries for cattle are given in 
Pradel's collection of Graeco-Italian charms; e. g. p. 18 and references, 
pp. 125, 127. An exorcism against the "seven accursed brothers" (the 
Babylonian Seven) who attack and devour the blood of the cattle, is given 
in Gollancz's Syriac charms, p. 87. According to the Babylonian magic the 
Seven Spirits "smite both oxen and sheep" (Thompson, Sem. Magic, i, 33). 
The mediaeval belief in the 'hexing' of cattle still flourishes among the 
Pennsylvania Germans. 

nJt "13 Jl'iN : this sorcerer's name appears also in No. 19: 13, 17, and 
the two passages help mutually to identify the words. 

9. KOCy: a new species of demons, "the oppressors," ppl. of a common 
Syriac root. 

10. Nlp^j? (or 'B ?) : "Knots," i. e. of magical power. The word cor- 
responds to the Arabic 'ukdat. 

K'OD: ' has usurped the radical «; cf. Noldeke, Syr. Gram., § 33 b. 

fryriD: Etpa. of xrv, probably metaplastic for ny. 

insjas : for the prosthetic vowel see Noldeke, Syr. Gram., § 51, Mand. 
Gram., § 24 (n. b. the equivalence of ON^and 'p b]l , as in Mandaic). The 
word may mean ugliness or some more specific malady. Cf. the charms 
in the Greek magical papyri for obtaining good looks. 

The parallel xnop must also mean some kind of malady, and may be 
identified with the Assyrian kamtu, "misery" ( Muss-Arnolt, Diet. 366), 
which is to be connected with the Hebrew and Aramaic root tiOp, 
"compress" (with dissimilation of the dental) ; probably some form of 
contortion. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 235 

]^b^')li K^yn : the first word is evidently an absolute infinitive from hbv, 
plus a (= me"ela = me' la, cf. the noun ma'la). For this formation w^ith 
final a, Noldeke offers a Mandaic instance, Hand. Gram., 250, last line, 
NOp'D. In the form pWj (if ' is to be read) doubling of the second radical 
appears ; cf. the Mandaic form p3'^'n, cited by Noldeke, ibid., 249, ad infra. 

Kitn O'Cl ipm ^31 : all three words are obscure. The second may be 
the D'Cof the ICre to Is. 28: 15, = t3iB', "scourge." The third may be the 
Rabbinic VTiV, "prince, demon" ; or the Hebrew serah (also Aramaic) 
"chain, necklace," cf. the magical snpjy. But diseases are apparently in- 
tended (cf. jnwx above), and we may identify tS'C with the Syriac Saitd, 
"eye-tumor" (Payne-Smith, col. 4094), and NIC with the Syriac N"'"iB' 
{ib., 4316), "diarrhoea." "ipDT may then be understood aas a formation 
from "ip3, "pierce," of taf'al form, — tankar =ztamkar (cf. Delitzsch, Ass. 
Gram., § 59), = damkar. With the root meaning of perforation, cancer 
or the like may be referred to. The absolute forms are used, as proper 
names. 

11. K'n jbc^EJ'ni Kni3 iidn: fire and water are potent over demons. J^tT'e' 
is a collective form in -an. Cf. the catenis igneis in Wiinsch, Ant. 
Fluchtafeln, no. 7. 

'Ji KiB'D? KDlj;: the demons are to be bound till the end of the present 
aeon; then will begin a new order, which will include the final destruction 
of their power; cf. 2 Pet. 3: 12: ovpami wfjohfievoi \v9iiaovTai; also Enoch. 

12. srt : "loss"; see Jastrow, p. 393, Payne-Smith, col. 11 18. For the 
personification of all kinds of losses, see p. 94. 

'lina : hypocoristicon of Bahram? See Noldeke, Pers. Stud., 387 flf,, 
Justi, 361 if. 

icnno na: "Daughter-of-the-Martyrs," a Christian name, cf. Bar-S., in 
Asseman, Bibl. Or., ii, 403 (Payne-Smith, col. 2536), a bishop of Nineve. 
Cf. the proper names, "Son-of-Carpenters," "Son-of-Ironsmiths," ib. 591, 
596. 

13. 'Ji ^nnoCD: epithets of the Lilith, who is also the Witch, who can 
"bind" the limbs of her victim ; see No. 42 and p. 78. Superior points for 
the feminine suffix are used here as also in No. 35. 

14. "iDn'n : switchings by demons are a common theme of magic, see 
1:10; compare the Christian hagiological legends. 



No. 35 (CBS 16097) 

na (3) nan^soT rnjsii nrjpm njaii nn^ai (2) smt3Ji sncnni' kdk3 »:n i>3tD 
kStj toi ^<^la^«:^1 sd'didi (4) kjcdi t<in[i] ^<c:a6^' xt'c is itijnTn '•nDia 
^'Knui b'tiyrs '"indi mx mx 'triK (5) dibo «k'Js ijan Nno^cKi xnnpi 
iijnDj: pjsi xnunLJiob kk^d cv Tipsri'K ju'^i (6) !'''N'nnni !"Nnt2Joi b''8<''t2^tyi 
siTJi xnDii" iis ini Si^mo nte^i x'jd i<in i'S ic ^uoia (7) na nsn'No tnnb 
DW2 ani . . p «'?f ]i^}y»^ . . 3 . . i N-onsii Xtr^hi (8) Nj-ian xb'jk 'jaT 
IN IK.N'KJ N'DpjHsnn ns^D N3 . . e . . (9) is^snn S^xnon n'pN.e-p noE^ai 
nsn'NQ Nnni> njionnji (10) runtDjj pjNT xninxi Hax^o !^^n own tck ton 
■inan na nsn'NO iDjn'ni o'Dnrrn idn obvLb] xobv^ B'''m Sa p 'i^on na 
NnnoB'Di sni^^i NniiDao iDnTii nitji nddi^i nb"2 Ho^ni Nnj>33»: (11) jo 
nnn:Ni nrra najn^m 'inon nn (12) non'Ns^ n^ niipn xbi ni^Jini riTxa Nn^tinoi 
poN Nmji Nntaii'i Sr'n Nobni Nni'Dno ts TDmJSD'N la 'um nj'j'pi fijai 

Translation 
Appointed is this bowl for the seaHng and guarding (2) of 
the house and sons and property and body of Maidiicht (3) bath 
Kumboi, that she may be guarded from Demons, Plagues and Devils 
and Satans (4) and Seducers and Diaboli, and from any Vows 
and Invocations and Rites of mankind; in the name of (5) arsi, 
ardi and mart; Michael and Nuriel and Saltiel and Mantariel and 
Hithmiel. (6) And they were commissioned along with Moses to 
wardship, and they will guard this Maidiicht b. (7) K. from all 
hostile Devils and affrighting Demons, and from every Curse and Vow of 
mankind, of men (8) and of women, and of Idol-spirits who (are known) 
and who are not (known) by name. And in the name of ..., Hamariel 

and Sariel (9) of Yah-Adon-ICamya ; naya, 0,6! Commanded, 

commanded is it in the name of these angels and letters which will guard 
(10) and seal this Maiducht b. K. from everything evil, for the ages 

(236) 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 237 

forever, Amen. Sealed and guarded is Maiducht b. K. from (ii) the 
Tormentor and evil Dreams and the Curse and the Vow; and charmed 
the Tormentor and Lilith and Ban-spirit who thwarts her in her hand and 
foot; and may it not approach Maidiicht (12) b. K. 

And guarded be the house and wife and son and property of Dinoi 
son of Ispandarmed from the Tormentor and evil Dreams and the Curse 
and the Vow. Amen. 

Commentary 

Largely a replica of No. 34. It is made out for the wife of the client 
of No. 33, who is himself given a little space at the end. 

1. smt33(b) : noun of intensive formation; cf. the charm elc tj>povptioiv, 
Reitzenstein, Point. 292. 

2. nan'XD: for the the first element Mai see Justi, p. 187. The name 
also appears in the unpublished No. 16093. 

3. '13013 : cf. KuHJiaioc, Kd,3o(, Ko/i/3a0(c, Justi, p. 165. 

4. Nta'BiD: (a plural-point is not visible) a peculiar formation, evidently 
to be connected with the theme t3iD, Xt3D, "go astray" — hence "seducing 
spirits," corresponding to the words before and after. The form may be 
explained as a Pi'lel participle, with rejection of prefix. Cf. 2 Ki, 22: 

19 ff.j and the nveif^aaiv TT^.dvin^ Kai fhdafXKa?.iai^ f^ar/iiovtciv of I i%fH, 4* !■ 

Nbl3N'T: some of the characters are uncertain, but the word is suf- 
ficiently clear. It appears in Syriac only (in the singular in -6s) in the 
Arabic lexicons; see Payne-Smith, col. 868. 

snnp: evidently the same as the common «nnp. Notice the distinction 
made here between diabolic arts and human machinations. 

5. For the assonance, see p. 61. Letters and angels are practically 
the same; see p. 99. Of these angels, Nuriel is one of the archangels (also 
Uriel), Mantariel and Hithmiel are unique, Saltiel is listed by Schwab as 
a form of Saltiel. These were Moses' guardian angels, and so can be 
effective for the present client. 



No. 36 (CBS 2933) 

Nni)it3p ma Kn!>iDp im (2) ni . . TianriK ri . . . [xd]k3 ssn pm . . . 

'KJJ 'JIPE ^3 'JTIB' K3['D] ^inb^ -[bv V'Q^ (3) K>1D . . . ''OIP tO 'On P12 PIS 

3nn i'vi snK"3 xnn i'V n^s? ^'ist tth^n -'b nn^ (4) ;n'ji nraa . . .m '5> noK 
tin''n2Ki «n'jn»;a unpnoi jinnncsi KJnn (5) Spo-n s^tspT xnipun n^ ^-tpi 
kp'p-i Kni?'! i'lnnno'K!? Hj3 fvnii (6) nds^d j'l^m pn'Oip to pis kji^ib 
[K3N*borbn] (7) lonp ic piD xntm Knn '3pbn nm 'ij nn^ KotyT 'j"'n''n3N!) 

inr 1 'Knc'iK Knipj fix . . . iJiSKi i<!)ibn nia!' i'nKi sa^oj Nonn Kjn to 'jEn 

niJD t'OK I'o[n] (8) n.anoi 

Translation 

. . . designated is this bowl . . . turned away ... (2) of that Murderess, 

daughter of Murderess. Go away, go away, and depart from before . . . 

The lord (3) Sames (the Sun) has charged me against thee. Sin (the 

Moon) has sent me, Bel has commanded me, Nannai has said to me, and 

and Nirig (Nergal) (4) has given me power to go against the evil 

spirit, against Dodib, whom they call the Strangler, who kills the young 
(5) in the womb of their mothers, and they are called "Slayer," and their 
fathers "Destroyer." Go from the presence of these holy angels (6) that 
sons may come to birth to their mothers and little children to their fathers. 
Because he has given me a name by which I shall drive thee forth. Evil 
Spirit. Go from the presence of (7) [these angels] and depart from this 
engraved seal, and go to the bridal chamber and eat. . . ; moreover drink 
a libation and [depart from . . . daughter of . . . ]-izduch and her .... (8) 
Amen, Amen, Selah. 

Commentary 
This inscription has a twofold interest. Its magic purpose is the 
insurance of a bride against the goblin which would destroy her powers of 
motherhood ; the evil spirit is invited to go to the bridal chamber and there 

(238) 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TBXTS. 339 

partake of a certain food and drink, which it is to be presumed, would in 
some way incapacitate his powers; the text is badly obscured, but enough 
survives to recall the book of Tobit and the charm Raphael performed 
against the demon which haunted the chamber of Tobias's bride. Magic is 
full of this liHth witch who destroys love; for an early instance, cf. the 

Maklu-series, iii, i flF. : "The witch who robs the love of the 

enamored man, ... of the enamored maid. Looking at her he feels her 
lascivious charm. She looks on the man and takes away his love ; she looks 
on the maid and takes away her love." Cf. Nos. 13, 28. 

The other feature of interest is that the charm is given as though from 
the old pagan deities, the lord Sames, Sin, Bel, Nannai, and Nirig, the an- 
cient Nergal. All these except Nannai survived as evil spirits, — the spirits 
of the seven planets — in the Mandaic religion (see Norberg, Onom., s. vv.), 
but the present charm confesses their benevolent power and is also without 
any Mandaic trace. (This more antique aspect of these deities appears in 
the early Mandaic amulet published by Lidzbarski, in the de Vogiie volume, 
where, 1. 247 ff., "Samis, Bel, Nirig and Kewan have strengthened him.") 
It is a relic of the religion which survived to a comparatively late date in 
Harran. The charm is given in the form of an oracle from these deities 
according to ancient magical use ; see p. 100. For these Syrian deities see 
the hst given by Jacob of Sarug, edited by Martin, ZDMG, xxix, 110-131, 
and in general for the material Chwolson, d. Ssabier u. d. Ssabismus (1856). 
For the use made by the Harranian pagans of "magic, conjurations, knots, 
figures, amulets," etc., see Chwolson's extract from the Fihrist, ibid., ii, 
21 ; for their use of oracles, p. 19. 

1. Tannx: n for n, see § 6. 

2. For the demon's artificial names, see p. 77. 

2 f. tf-'DE' K'-io: in the Mandaic '3ns is the epithet of the Sun, e. g. Ginza 
T., p. 23, 1. 15, ed. Peterman; for tJ'-DtJ', cf. Mandaic '^'DNB'. 

K3'D: 3 is more likely than 1, and we obtain, a form of Sin in the Syriac. 
The Mandaic has both fD and NTD. 

'3: a dialectic form of b'3 (Mandaic). For analogies in neo- Punic 
names ('a, 'ya, V3), see Lidzbarski, Handbuch, 289; CIS, Inscr. phoen., 
no. 869; and in Syriac the deity Beducht (Bel's or Beltis's, daughter), see 



240 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

discussion in G. Hoffmann, Aiissiige aus syrischen Akten persischer 
Martyrer (Leipzig, 1880), 151 ff. 

'SJ3 : the ancient Babylonian goddess Nanna (see Jastrow, Religion 
Babyloniens u. Assyriens i, 76 ff., 252, 266), daughter of Sin. See at length 
for the later character of this deity G. Hoffmann, Ausziige, 130 ff., 151 ff. 
(for later literature, Roscher's Lexicon, s. v. "Nana"). She combined both 
Venus- and Diana-like characteristics, and thus appears on coins with a 
crescent on her head (ibid., 152). This lunar characteristic doubtless ex- 
plains the gender of the deity in our text, where as the verb shows, he is 
masculine. In his history the moon god has vacillated between the two 
genders, and while in later religion the moon's character has generally been 
defined as female, nevertheless in the Harranian religion the moon was 
androgynous; see the excursus by Chwolson in his Ssabier, i, 399 ff. 
(Hence the Latin writers express this Mesopotamian deity by Lunus.) It 
may be noticed that in the reference to Antiochos Epiphanes' raid upon the 
temple of Noramc in 2 Mac. i : 13, 15, there is found in the Alexandrine 
Codex the masculine variant Namfov. 

4. ami: the name is obscure, probably equivalent to SJ'ano, 37: 10, 
q. V. 

Nn'i5iJn: the normal feminine .of this formation, as against xn^lDp. The 
same evil spirit, Nnpun XDN, "Strangling Mother" (of babes) appears twice 
in Gollancz's Syriac charms, pp. 81, 83 (in Actes of the nth Congr. of 
Orientalists, sect. 4). And the like epithet is found in the Greek amulet 
published by Reitzenstein, Poimandres, 298, for Baskania, the Lilith-witch, 
who is charged with the same murderous functions : ApKiCu at, 'ZTpayyakia no- 

2.vfiop(pe, ij cTrepxof^tv^ e:rl rd fitxpa naiiia, i/rt^ ^xsi^ X^'^P^ adjjpav Koi avpetg rd TratSia Koi 

.Ainre/f avrd koX TtT^vruaiv. And there f oUow immediately "the names of the holy 
angels," just a* these are referred to in 1. 5. See notes on No. 42. With 
^Tpayya?.ia cf. the "^ demoniac maladies nmyaMuv and naiioizvUTpw. cited by 
Roscher, Bphialtes, 55, 39. 

NpDiT = KpTiT 37: 10, {ip-i'\ 18: 6, with assimilation of the dental to p. 

'i^ xnpnoi : Mandaic form of the fern. pi. The best interpretation of the 
line is that the mischief wrought to the embryo was charged to the parents 
who so gained the ill-fame of infanticides. Cf. Ginza ii, 98 (ed. Norberg) : 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 341 

"hence have arisen the abortive ones who make abortions and destroy the 
foetus." The epithets are in the singular, being used distributively. 

5. sasliD p^^: i- e. the deities mentioned above; see above pp. 97, 99. 

6. ivn:: "come to the birth." Cf. Rabbinic sn"ri, "midwife," and the 
Syriac Afel used of the function of midwives, e. g. Peshitto to Br. i : 16. 

an' Nocn: the antecedent is uncertain ; probably the charm has been ab- 
breviated. 

7. XS'DJ: for s<S'!?J? Cf. 11: 8. 

ii^i^n n'3^ ^vx : the -n '3 is the common Syriac term for the marriage 
chamber, or the nuptials in general. The imperative is apparently addressed 
like the preceding imperative to the demon who is bidden to go, if she dare, 
to the wedding, and there partake of the magic foods prepared against her. 

xnipj: the Syriac n'kdyd, "libation." 

'KnB"N: the spelling represents the Syriac fem. impr. 

'i^ inr . . . . : probably a Persian feminine name in -duch, the bride's 
name to be filled out here. The following word is obscure, the missing rad- 
ical may be b. 



No. 37 (CBS 2943) 

nn33[i nj3] nnnsK nnsiPD'Ki nnC'ai] (2) NjD-n[^i Nmolxb ndn3 kjh ic[ro] 
... (4) nn^3 D[']n[n] . . . [i]n ^nxt^ hIj pimi niriE'XT iJisi] (3) . . . [n]-i'3 
K3N \nn sn'3i Kts . . . (5) Nj;[iN ni] pap nC'Io ni n'oc n kh^kt nnb<o b^na-ntj^ 
Kijj iJia I'Vi snnansT (6) . . . [^vi Nn^3]3o i'yi xtjnn isy nan^Ki '?)^ by no^K 
KeKJn'D Kns'pn nn^bb i'la ^yi . . . (7) [k]TB' bn bjn KnSriD'K ^m Nnoin bv\ 
rnK NT:n Kaxijo 'vk-i si' ... (8) ... did nnx . ^apon K:Mno pa!' . . . n'n 
KVDB' NDJn'ST ni^y s'nx k . . . (9) n^ i^ijopi pb'p fiioip xanni ke'dii fiib'y 
Kin api-iih N.a. . . (10) . . . Di Kin Kpns'Di xnt;' i"a»:i ^'ax Nrraa a'H' 
. . . B'an iiauK ^ . . . xobtr Kipn^o k.ji Kin KT'a^. KniaK Nnprco KJ'anoi 
Kityai . . .a Kat kd^'B' kib'di Knap'j xmnD^K joi Knan xn^K jo ko^'J' . . . (11) 

Kiua Ki"3n 

Translation 
Designated is this bowl for the [salvation and] healing (2) of the house 
and threshold, the wife, [the sons and] daughters, the cattle, (3) [and all 
that] is his, and whatsoever shall belong to Zaroi son of . . . (4) . . . con- 
firmed by the virtue of the word of God, the Mystery of heaven and the 
Mystery of the assembled waters and the Mystery of earth, (5) ... of this 
house I will enjoin all that is in it, — Arts and the Tormentor ( ?) (6) . . . 
[and the Image-spirits] of idolatry, and all the Legions and the Amulet- 
spirits and the Ishtars and all the Demons . . . (7) . . . and all mighty Liliths. 
A word ... I declare unto you, which receiving . . . the mysteries of 
Angels in wrath coming against him and with sabres and sword standing 
before him and ready to kill him. (9) ... against the word heard (?). 
He sits in the house, eating and devouring, drinking and quaffing, . . . (10) 

[a slayer of ?] children is he, and Master named; is he, and Jinn ( ?) 

named. Peace . . . your father ... (11) ... Peace from the male Gods and 
from the female Ishtars. And victorious peace is set in . . ., and destruction 
is set in the fire ... 

(242) 



j. a. montgomery — aramaic incantation texts. 243 

Commentary 

A badly mutilated bowl with much of the inscription illegible. It is of 
pagan origin ; in the name of God the Mystery of heaven, water and earth, 
it concludes with a pax vobiscum from the gods. The expression "victorious 
peace," 1. ii, recalls the standing Mandaic doxology, "Life is victorious," and 
the threefold division of the universe may be from the same source. The 
charm is against a murderous house spirit and is in part parallel to No. 36; 
here the demon is masculine and is represented as carousing upon the blood 
of his victims. The quarterings of the circle or seal in the center contain 
letters of the Tetragrammaton — apparently n\ 

I. NJOIT: a Persian word noted by the native Syriac lexicographers, 
and neo-Syriac; also in Pognon B. See Noldeke, Syr. Gram., 127. 

3. 'nr : cf. Zaroes, name of a Magian, and Zaroi, in Firdausi;the 
present spelling substantiates Zar- against other readings ; see Justi, p. 383. 

4. Knt)N: name of the Light-King in the later Mandaic religion; see 
Brandt, Mand. Rel., 47. For his following epithet as the Mystery of heaven 
and earth, cf. "the Great Mystery," who is the helper of Hibil-Ziwa in his 
descent to hell, Ginza r., p. 140, ed. Petermann ; see Brandt, Mand. Schr., 143. 
For the r^P K'O cf. Gen. i : 10. Other "gods" are named below. 

7. 01 Nosari'B: resumes "ics, 1. 5. 

8. SON^O 'TKi: either in appositional sense, KtK"i used like KiD'N, see p. 
p. 86, or '1 refers to the magical rites conjuring the angels who are called 
upon against the evil spirit. 

Mlb'V • the Rabbinic-Mandaic preposition of plur. form, 'elawe, but 
with suffix attached as to a singular form; cf. n:3, "his sons." 

9. syOE' : for xyDtr: the incantation heard? The following ppls. repre- 
sent the carousing of the demon over the flesh and blood of his victims. 
These realistic descriptions were in themselves regarded as prophylactic. 
b'SD appears to be denominative verb from a noun in 'D, formed to rhyme 
with ^'3K. 

10. KJ'ano = ywi, a perversion, in 36: 4. The word corresponds to 
the actual Syriac KJano tabescere faciens, Payne-Smith, col. 831. 

KJ.J: probably N3'3, jinn, see p. 80. 
ti3i3K : Mandaic "your father." 



No. 38 (CBS 2941) 

insijvm (3) nns:ni n:3i hjk'jui nb^m mn (2) nnu TNnrni tnt tdj? 
nwK nn'oy nnsjai r;:2", nisn xikici 'sin riE (4) Kirnrnn nn'an snsjxi 
nnS'J'DD KriKDiiB' (6) iti'K'I Konlrn TnnsniB' pn^i3i nxjx siri"!' 'sjn' (5) 
N"n N'niiNT (7) iinpKEi trsTK-ia Kssl'!: (erasure sri''!"^) 'Njnsn nrnpai 
c":j; ban ndkI^d 'snivan (8) x^nnai sncpni Nntny xnin^xT x^nT Koicn 
NnsinDvi (9) Nnainsi s';[nE^] smajn H'-bs nni>i3 sn'Dj? n^xi'o i'V ikinJ' 
nrra |[oi] (i/c) sn^iiTn loi srrnrn n:3 s'tj'.sni K'n^n xaisoT ivxija ;» 
K23KDai srnDi KTDV nn«''jvn i':i nnKjajoi p'Nntoi iT[sist] (10) iDino-is pi 
nSp''a6j'T KHKaiiB' iijt'B'i Ka[n^ni] (11) . . . irsnt . . -int KTim NinDj; sb'm 

N'mnsi KDMirn 12 s3tnot .-nri? s^nin sjnsoi xs'di nb»231 sb'Jii ntdj/ (12) 
ns Kn''n:''m mrb N'mriKi (13) . . tjn'nrnn n:2 x^wNpni xmsn niyh 
tVKiKti'i Ii'«i3si' ni"inn xmoji Nnsanni Kntnsn smox x-rxt s"m \snn 
[b]v pPEs:^i pi^xi'i irxriNa n''*j'xj[x5'i (14) nn]K''jrn5'i i[inKJ]ni'i p'SJ^i'', 
nnx:3^i ivxDy 'xnn [ns xnl^nj'-S'i xn^nj-'n nj3 x'UisnTi x^nxt-ti xdx-.xs 

Exterior 

n" B-np (15) 

Translation 

Charmed, armed and equipped are the house, (2) the dwelHng and 
mansion and barn, and the sons and daughters, (3) and the cattle and house- 
hold vessels of Hinduitha (4) bath Dodai and (of) Marada, even her 
husband and her sons and daughters. 

Charmed art thou, (5) Lilith Yannai, and all thy Broods, even the three 
hundred and sixty (6) Broods, by the word and command of the angel 
Negoznai, by the mysteries and ordinance (7) of the living God, in the name 

(244) 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — AR.\MAIC INCANTATION TfiXTS. 245 

of the virtue of strong and mighty Deity, and by the seal (8) of the angel 
Be'odai, whose word none transgresses. 

Charmed are all the Gods and Temple-spirits and Shrine-spirits and 
Idol-spirits (9) and Ishtars from the body of Marabba and Zadoye and 
Dazaunoye sons of Hinduitha, and from Hinduitha and from her house and 
her bed and from (10) their [wives] and their sons and their daughters 
and their cattle. 

Charmed and confined and restrained and hobbled is the mighty Istar 

(11) and the three hundred and sixty Broods, which I have dismissed 

from her one after the other. 

Charmed are all the Amulet-spirits that dwell in the houses of men and 
waste them; (12) charmed and hobbled and suppressed and covered and 
squeezed under the foot of Marabba bar Hinduitha and under the foot of 
Zadoye and Dazaunoye sons of Hinduitha, (13) and under the foot of 
Hinduitha b. D. And life, abundance, health and arming and sealing and 
protection be to their body, and their wives and their sons and their daugh- 
ters and their cattle (14) and the people of their houses, both those entering 
and departing with Marabba and Zadoye and Dazaunoye sons of Hinduitha, 
and with Hinduitha b. D. their mother, and her daughters. 

Exterior 

(i5)Holy(?) 

Commentary 

For the language and script of this and the following Mandaic bowls, 
see § 7. 

A charm executed in behalf of a certain woman and her husband. The 
sons with their families are included by name. The charm is particularly 
addressed against a specified lilith, with whom "the mighty Istar" who is 
named later, may be identical. 

I . "House, dwelling," etc. : these four terms occur in Lidzb. 4 and 5. 
The b^'n (which is found in the Mandaic literature in the original meaning) 
is here reduced from the sense of "temple, palace," as in Babylonian, to that 
of a private mansion. The word also appears in Hyvernat, 1. 15. In 40: 4, 
KJX'ra is the cattle-barn ; in general perhaps "outbuilding." 



246 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

2. mz for the plur. w. suffix, see Noldeke, Hand. Gram., § 144. 

3. NriN'Jvn : "cattle"; it occurs in the sense of "wild beast," in 39: 6; 
singular NDvn. 

NHNiN: the singular would be the equivalent of the Assyrian anu, 
"vessel," = Heb. 'JX and Arabic ma"". The word is otherwise unknown in 
Aramaic, having been replaced by the derivative man. In the Talmud vessels 
are favorite abodes of the demons. One is tempted to regard the word as 
a plural of KJy, "sheep," but for the following "of the house." 

Nrcnrn: i. e. "Indian woman"; of. njn, ni'n, 24: i; 40: 16. 

4. ''Nnn=nn, Nos. 15, 21. — xnNiD= mar, "lord" + Adda; a form of 
Hadad ; or the first element may be the deity Mar, Bir, etc. ( see Clay, 
Amurni, 95), so that the name is equivalent to the ancient Damascene name 
lima (as in Pognon's Zakar inscription), the Biblical Benhadad. With 
inexact construction, M. is the husband. For i . . . 1 = "both, and," cf. 
1. 14. 

6. 'SsnJJ : so the probable reading. Notice from the erasure that 
"lilith" and "angel" are interchangeable titles for this being. Cf. the Lilith 
'KJTn , 40: 17. 

JinpNS: of same root as smps, with assimilation of l with n; see 
Noldeke, p. 44. The original formation is that of the Syriac noun pakadta. 

8. 'Kiiya: a corruption of bsnuy? — For Knny and K'Dns see p. 72 f. 
The second word is supplied from 40 : 4. 

9. K31ND: 1. i4S3Nnso, in 1. 12 with the second N caretted; an old theo- 
phorous name = DN + -i» (or xm + 10 ?) 

N'nNt : Persian Zadoe, see Justi, p. 378, quoting a name of the fifth 
century. 

S'Ulxn : Persian name of a Syrian monk of the seventh century, ibid. 
82. 

10. NDHD: original root DDD (see Noldeke, § 45) ; the verb is found in 
the bowls of Pognon and Lidzbarski, and defines the word as used in the 
Mandaic literature, thus relieving Noldeke's doubt. Cf. a like series of 
passive ppls. at end of Lidzb. 4. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 247 

KOJXDD: the reading is almost certain, but I cannot identify the root; 
probably an error for SDiXDD, as in 40: 21. 

N^'JT: a denominative from bji, = Rabbinic SiJ"i . cf. the Arabic 
ragala, "strike, tie (a sheep) on the foot." The word occurs in Lidzb. 4. 

1 1 . nbp''2ir : the passage is identical with 40 : 22, except for the latter's 
reading, nrp^aE', "which I have dismissed from him" ; the present text is to 
be so interpreted. For the form see Noldeke, § 170. 

pn^saino = 40: 23. For the fern. pi. in N, see ibid., 162. 

12. NS'D = sa^no, cf. ibid. 63; the Pael in 7: 17. 

KJDSO : I can suggest only the root [cy, found in the Rabbinic pt2V, 
"olive-press"; but according to Noldeke, § 45, V is persistent in Mandaic. 
K'UIKnni : error by dittography for 'PI . 

13. K'TXt: the Assyrian cacu, abundance", Muss-Arnolt, Ass. Hwb. 
i, 277, and identical with the Targumic NtKT, "foliage," Targum Job 14: 9. 
An archangel Zaziel appears in a papyrus published by Wessely, xlii, 65, 
1.42. 

NnNonn : for sn»3xnn . 

14. X'nsn : with change of construction from the preposition hv ; cf. 
Noldeke, § 222. — For omission of relative after n:3 see p. 39. 

15. (Exterior) ip is sure, perhaps EJ'lp. 



\ 



No. 39 (CBS 9005) 

ni'ij/i'i (3) nn»''K'''Ji [n]n32i . . .si ni'^nn (2) xmoji Kn>:nn[i s<]nnKn kjiidk 

KnK''^'S' KToy n^fi£3 xnon Nnno xn^oy (4) ^nsn n[B nolyn xD-inaT n:DK3i 

KnK^5"5> »'<'?'<'? [t<n]'Dyi s^e'Cxnin] xnan xmh Knioy xijont Knxi'B'itj'a (5) 

(7) K'JND KiJKrm K^E^n rib'Js [K'trnjn xn^cy snxtj'K-nn shkhpu (6) 

ini (8) N'TipT KnK73i NMm K'aini K''0[''3]Nn k'jn3-i -ixtm s'^'a x'txii 

vn'''?'''? Kn^DV Knsn ns k-dth [n]Dv[-i Kjon-iaT njosai nbiy jo x'ni 

IKTDj; nnxnK na sn^nT Ji.n n^K'nuTon sn'^"!) stdj; Nnii^.on (9) niix'oxTDT 

N'Dsn K'JKunDi K'^'i) H''abn2 t6»'[.'Dn]iai bin »r\»y»D (10) xriNim pnJ'iD 

Nmos Din . . . [Na]^D 'm'? jCidI'^b't (11) NnEpfjM K'o'nni xn'oy kdkd'kt 

na [K'Di^n n]Dyn (12) [nd-iIidt n!'Niioi>i njoxni' nb'inn xn»nni xnnsn 

[sn]NT 
Translation 

Health and arming and sealing and protection (2) be for . . . and the 
body and soul (3) and the unborn child and womb of Bardesa whose 
mother is the daughter of Dade. (4) Charmed are the Sorcery-spirits in 
stocks of iron; charmed the Lilith (5) in chains of lead; charmed the 
empoisoning male Devils and charmed the empoisoning female Liliths; 
(6) charmed [the arts of?] evil men and hostile Beasts, (7) and evil 
Mysteries and the (magic) Circle of malignant Masters and Sages and 
Doctors, and the melting of Wax figures (8) of him who is alive: from the 
unborn child and womb of Bardesa whose mother is Terme b. D. 

Charmed the Lilith that appears to her (9) in . . . ; charmed the Lilith 
that appears to her in [shape?] of Tata her sister's daughter; charmed all 
the defiling Ghosts (10) that have entered, which appear to her in Dreams 
of night and in Visions of day; charmed and sealed with the seal of (11) 
King Solomon. 

Again: Health and arming and sealing be for the womb and the 
parturition of Bardesa (12) whose mother is Terme b. D. 

(248) 



j. a. montgomery aramaic incantation texts. 249 

Commentary 

A charm for a pregnant woman. I may compare the mortuary incan- 
tation published by me in JAOS, 1911, 27-2, no. i, which includes prayers 
for the unborn child, nblj?, of the petitioner. From 1. 4 the present charm 
is very similar to that in Pognon A. 

2. ^5nN^: so in Pognon B, in Lidzb. 5, V""*!; a feminine form in -e, cf. 
K'DTn, 1. 8 (the mother's name, overlooked here). Cf. msi, 12: 2. 

4. NnriD: also Pognon A. In the Mandaic appear the sinsD, "sorcer- 
ers," Norberg, Onom., no. For the meaning cf. Ass. sdhiru; in this sense 
the root is not otherwise found in Rabbinic and Syriac. 

'B KnsD: Pognon's text, xniKD (to be cited to Noldeke, § 89, la), 

5. S1N3K: the Syriac S13K was used for "lead" and "tin," according to 
the Syriac lexicographers, who postulate a distinction between abard and 
abrd, or abard and ebdrd but dispute which word is applied to which metal 
(Payne-Smith, col. 19). Both lead and tin were used in magic, the former 
especially in the KaTdSeafioi, like the love-charm from Hadrumetum, the 
Cypriote defixiones {SPBA, xiii, 160, etc.), and cf. Index to Wessely, xlii, 
ftdh^ov, et seq.; tin was equally used, like all the metals, ibid., KaaaiTe/jivdv, 
and a case in the Testament of Solomon where tin is atropaic, JQR, ix, 584. 
Hence we cannot positively decide whether our abdr is lead or tin; but the 
weight of the former metal may better suit the symbolism of the language. 
— As to the meaning of the Assyrian abar Assyriologists are at variance. 
Lenormant, in TSBA, vi, 337 f., 346, Argues correctly from the alloy 
mentioned in iv R no. 2, rev. 17, that abar =: lead and anaku = tin. How- 
ever Sayce, Archaeology of the Cuneiform Inscriptions, p. 60, denies that 
the Sumerian or Assyrian word for tin is known. Lyon, in his Keilschrift- 
texte Sargons, 53, 82, makes anaku =: lead (eft. Heb. 13K) and leaves abar 
untranslated. Hilprecht and Haupt, on basis of chemical analysis, find 
that abar is used of magnesite, Hilprecht, Assyriaca, 80 flf., 83. msv, 
the Hebrew equivalent of the Aramaic Kn3X, is "lead." The Syriac 'dn^ka 
is "tin," whereas its Hebrew equivalent 13K, "plummet" rather suggests 
the heavier metal lead. The Hebrew for "tin" is ^na, which however 
in Zech. 4 : 10 may rather be "lead." This confusion between lead and tin 
in the same word is paralleled by the ambiguous use of plumbum in Latin; 



250 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

p. nigrum is lead, and p. candidum tin; see Pliny H. N., xxxiv, 47 (ed. 
Weise, 1841) ; so also in Arabic. The dififerent vocalizations 'abra and, 
mssy vs. 'abdra, and Heb. 'andk vs. Syr. 'dn'ka, appear to be attempts at 
differentiation, mav, apparently "lead," appears in W. T. Ellis's bowl-text, 
which I have edited in JAOS, 1912, 434. 

5. S'E'Niin : amendment after Pognon's parallel, but with the form 
found in 1. 6. 

'^ N'^'b: an inadvertent repetition. 

6. NriKK'Kiin for the adjectival formation, see Noldeke, Mand. Gram., 
§ 105. 

K'jsrn : possibly absolute pi. (-a from -an) ; or a masc. plural form, cf. 
Nnoin, 38: II. 

7. nxtn: (n. b. construct) for iSTn, as in xna't, see Noldeke, ibid., 
§ 46. I interpret the word of the magic circle, part of the dreaded arts of 
the necromancer; see p. 88. 

01 S'JKDi : sorcerers are by tradition "Doctors." 

sn-pT K'-itro: 'D may be inf. Peal of sic, or better, in agreement with 
the context, Pael ppl. plur; i. e. "dissolution," or "dissolvers." 'P is "wax" 
in Rabbinic, "pitch" in Syriac and Mandaic, at least according to the refer- 
ences in Payne-Smith and Norberg. "Pitch" might be the translation here, 
but comparing the plural with the Greek Kriimi and the Latin ccrai, I have 
related the word to the well-known use of wax in Hellenistic magic. Any 
plastic substance might be used for these simulacra of the enemy in 
Babylonian sorcery. Tallquist enumerates clay, pitch, honey, tallow, dough 
(Maklii, 19, and see his note to ZAL. LU, p. 119) ; so also Fossey, Magie 
ass., 80. Wax does not seem to be identified among those substances, 
though Jastrow and Thompson speak of wax as used. Assyrian khu or 
kiru (see Muss-Arnolt, p. 432) = pitch. Is the Latin-Greek word from 
the same origin, the term having undergone extensive modification in 
meaning? Its etymology is uncertain, see A. Walde, Lateinisches etymolo- 
gisches Worterbuch', 1910, j. v. cera. For the use of wax in western magic, 
see the ample notes and bibliography in Abt, Die Apologie d. Apuleius, 82. 

s^m in : cf . the isolated instance given by Noldeke, p. 344. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TE;}^TS. 251 

8. S'DTn: the first letter is conjectured from a mere remnant; possibly 

Oep/iia 7 

g. In this line a definite family ghost appears. NDIDT is used in like 
sense in earlier bowls, e. g. 7: 14. The word before xriNn is unintelligible. 

Knxn : cf. the feminine name Tata in Strassmeier, Inschriften von 
Darius, no. 25, 12 ; also Tatta-dannu, Strassmeier, Inschriften von Nabon- 
idus, no. 343, 8, and Tatti, etc. in Johns, Assyrian Deeds, 450, Clay, BB, x. 
Glossary; 'ONQ 25: i. 

10. snsj'KD : I connect this, as a participle, with the root pD, Arabic 
Sana, which does not appear as a verb in Syriac ; from it comes the Syriac 
s^yana, "dirt," and with the same is to be connected the Hebrew JIND, 
"shoe." The same word, masc. and fem., occurs in Pognon A, p. 40, which 
he would derive from k:d "hate," but without explanation of the form. 
It might, if a singular instance, be an error for xns'JSD. However n. b. 
that in Sachau's Elephantine papyri occurs the metathesis t^D for K3D, 
Pap. 57 : 2, 58 : 16. 

bv. 3d fem. pi. of bhy . 

X'ON': a mistake, corrected by the next word. The same note is to be 
made upon ^0^ in 1. 11. 

11. Din : doubtless = 3in, "again," so often found on our bowls. Thus 
Noldeke's explanation of Din in the Mandaic literature (Mand. Grant., 204) 
is confirmed. — n^KliD for the form, see ibid., § 67. 



No. 40 (CBS 2971) 

nnK:3i iC'']:i-'i (3) hjdi nixn n-usij nb^mn Knrin (2) uniDXi s^ni ivksieo 
Ktjyi Klin snin sion Kns'':«vnn kjs'':''3[i] (4) nbym mm nr'K2i snxapii 
K"n K^s (6) nD"'bKroiDi ii3'K^K JT'SE'K s"n 10 b'ukLrs] -lanNoasiCS) mnn 

na x-rniD la Knsi^'i' . . . nixni siaa n^KRo "la nsoa nasaa iiaj^mam (12) 
, , . NniDJi D Knanm Nnnn snioKi N"n to b'ijkro ~a (13) nxoa nn'saa 
K-iin N-ioni i<;K'j'ai nba^n mm (14) nn^xai xnsapu nnsjai snan [nja] 
mjs!' 15) n[l'''i]nn sniosi x^n la [B'OKnc la nsDasT k'J'R smtn xmi 

nba'ni mm nn^xai N[nKapij] nnxjai wnan nja^ 

Exterior 

xnan njai niKti iiNoa mjsi ni'iinn khidki s'-'n id nj^n ns ^khsidt (16) 
na nKDaxT (17) nnK^Jsrm nJN'J'ai nb^m [mm nn^sai sriKapu nnxjai] 
twn Non^ni ... [snsnriDV] pniaiai xn'!''!' 'KJtia nsJN nn^oy K>'n jd njxna 
Kinn ... [vsmpsai K"n n^n ivxi^Kia Naxi^o 'XJna nns ns nnlijoa (18) Nnsa-iiE' 
N'TDV ni'«i'D iiy -isaK? c'jy ^lai sas^n smi sonna ss^^n (19) 'sjna nsi^ 
tai mxt lei mjs id sns-inD'y[i] (20) x^ansi xmayi . . . [n'o^k pn^ia] 
na nND3^5^ nj[K'ra lai] n^a^n toi mi]n pi nn['Ka id]i nnwa jdi n;a 
pn'Ei Konirii . . . [inlDy xb'[J]ni smooi KD[nDi N]-i'Dy E'lJxns (21) 
K'-ixcT Knmn pnl'ia [sn^oy nsnjs nsriNa . . .: n^'p'acLi] (22) KriKanity 
...Kninoi NJSDD KS'Di ...[KjB-nai [K^'j-n N]TD[y] ii^«a-ino[i] (23) ii'sri'Kaa 
ai nn^Ka (25) s[ns]apij nnsjai snan n:ai . . . nin siajn (24) ma [a id] 
N'^n IB njsnD na [nND3s]i nnK'j[KV]n (sic) n:s'3'ai nba['ni n]ini 

IN'asr K"m (26) 
Translation 
In the name of Life! — that health (2) and armament be to the body 
and wife and male sons (3) and female daughters, and the house and 

(252) 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 253 

abode, the mansion (4) and the barn of the cattle, the ass, bull and goat, 
the property of (5) Xaro bar Mehanos, from L,ife. 
I swear and adjure you (6) by Life. 

'(12) and I have broken you in the gate of Xaro b. M., the man and his 
wife. [Health and protection, etc., from] the Liliths, when they appear in 
the house of Xaro (13) b. M., from Life. And health and armament and 
healing and guarding [be to ] the male sons and female daughters and the 
house (14) and dwelling and mansion and the barn of the ass, bull and 
goat, the live (?) property of [Xaro b. M.], from Life. And health and 
armament (15) be to the body and the male sons and female daughters and 
the house and dwelling and mansion of (16) Merathe daughter of Hindu, 
from Life. And health be to the body of Xaro . . . and the wife and male 
sons [and female daughters and the house and dwelling] and mansion and 
building and cattle (17) of Xaro b. M., from Life. 

Charmed art thou, Lilith Buznai, and all the goddesses . . . and the 
three hundred and sixty Tribes, (18) by the word of the granddaughter 
of the angel Buznai, by the adjuration ( ?) of Life, and by the command 
of . . . who is (?) with the mighty Buznai, (19) by the seal of the angel 
Darwa (?), whose word none transgresses. Charmed are a[ll the gods 
. . . and] temple-spirits and shrine-spirits (20) and goddesses from the 
body and the wife and sons and daughters and the house and dwelling and 
mansion and barn of Xaro b. (21) M. Charmed, shut up and confined and 
hobbled is the Ish[tar] . . ., and the three hundred and sixty Tribes, (22) 
which I have dismissed from him . . . one after [the other. Charmed] are 
all Amulet-spirits which lodge in their houses (23) and devastate them. 
Charmed [and hobbled] and suppressed and covered is the Satan ( ?) and 
the Plague . . . [from] the body (24) of the man and his wife . . . and the 
male sons and the female daughters, (25) the house and dwelling and 
mansion and the barn for cattle, of Xaro b. M., from Life. (26) And Life 
is victorious ! 

Commentary 
A long and repetitious charm for a certain man and his family and 
property, including the several kinds of live-stock. About half of the 
inscription is found on the exterior. 



254 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

I . With the same invocation begin the sections of the Ginza, also some 
of Pognon's bowls. 

NDiDKi : for 1 of purpose, see the like phrase in Pognon, e. g. no. 14, 
and Noldeke, Mand. Gram., § 293. 

4. KJN'J'3: as the regimen shows, the barn. 

X^D^ : i. e. hemra, also cited by Syriac lexicographers, see Payne-Smith, 
ad loc, and used as a collective plural, Noldeke, Syr. Gram., 91. The follow- 
ing word was written Knin, n was then caretted above, and finally the word 
rewritten. 

NTJjJ : to be added to Noldeke's instances, Mand. Gram., § 68, and now 
found in Sachau's recently published papyri from Elephantine. tJj? is found 
in names of certain goat-species, Payne-Smith, col. 2934. 

Nitrn: for 'Vn, cf. Noldeke, ibid., § 47. The word is used like the 
Talmudic ^>■^, "private property," see Jastrow, Diet., s. v. In 1. 14 it is 
supplemented apparently by N'TI, = "livestock." 

5. nKD3 : evidently an old Persian name in Koseform; cf. Ajseri, 
Xsayarsa, ArtaA-sathra, Justi, pp. 12, 173, 34. The K in OKi, here and again 
below, represents the vowel of the prefix, before the vowelless first radical. 

n:xno = Meh = Mithra, plus Anos, a Persian genius, Justi, pp. 208, 
17- 

S"n JO : the long period which this phrase concludes is paralleled below. 

IWxSs : this ancient and full form of the preposition appears in Pognon 
B, but not in Noldeke, under § 159. 

6. J<"n x^N: cf. 1. 18, N^n sbsiVK^xna. 'N = the preposition just noted, 
and is used uniquely with a verb of swearing, where in the Semitic 3 
is found. Cf . the Greek iiri , representing, as in the English "swear on the 
Bible," the primitive action of laying the hand on the sacred object. 

16. "nsno ? — 17. 'Kina : cf. 'kjiuj, 38: 6. 

18. This antagonism of Buznai's granddaughter to herself is evidently 
a case of casting out devils by Beelzebub. The sorcerer affects that he has 
received from one of her brood the proper charms by which to bind her. 
Observe interchange of N3Kbo with Sfl'T?. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TBXTS. 255 

01 p'xbxna : "by that which is upon," i. e. "by the adjuration of" Life. 
For the redoubled preposition, see Noldeke, § 231 b. For the phrase, see 
to 1. 6. 

IVNmps: for the sing, with p'S — , see ibid., § 146. 

23 . S3NDD : but a feminine is demanded. 

Nmno : in agreement with the Syriac ; cf . Nnno, 16 : 6 ; in the Ginza, 

26. IK'3KT K"n: the same doxological formula in Pognon, B, no. 22, 
and Lidzb. 5. 



APPENDIX 

No. 41 (CBS 179) 

This text is unique,' being inscribed on the top of a human skull. 
Enough is legible to indicate that it is a magical inscription, doubtless of 
the same order as those on the bowls. The skull is remarkably well pre- 
served, and though badly shattered, almost all the pieces have been recov- 
ered. But the text is sadly worn and obscured through the shaling of the sur- 
face, and only a few detached words are legible. There are two inscriptions, 
one running across the length of the left-hand side of the top, from front to 
back and also filling up some space in the forward part of the right-hand 
side. The other, shorter, inscription is at the back of the right-hand side, 
at right angles to the central suture. 

In the first line of the longer text are visible the words, tirhb, P'^1"'; 
in the second nn nJX , indicating an address to the evil spirit. The fol- 
lowing names are visible: ins, cf. 5: i; (?) bn^ p 'anio, also spelt '10, 
"Mordecai ben Saul"; and a woman's name (evidently the wife of the 
first-named man — nhv2 can be read in one place), 'SDJ, so the almost certain 
reading. I take the name to be a feminine hypocoristic in -ai to be connected 
with Gathaspar, in the B.vcerpta barbara to Eusebius (ed. Schoene, i, app. 
228), one of the three Wise Men, the later Caspar (Caspar, Jaspar), con- 
nected by philologists with the Old-Persian Windafarna ; Justi, p. 368. 

The use of a skull for recording a magical inscription opens up an 
interesting line of magical practice. The skull has become part of the stock 
apparatus of the necromancer, and its use in that connection is typical of 
his power over the dead, while the presence of the gruesome object adds 
to the awe in which he is held. But all through magic runs the morbid 
theme of the use of mortuary remains. In the Creek tove charms, the 
texts are buried in the graveyard; in the magic brews for compelling love, 

' This statement must now be qualified, as I learn through Professor Ranke that 
two similar skulls are in the Berlin Museum. 

(256) 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 257 

human bones are used, and in a late Arabic charm a broom from a cemetery 
has efficacy in bringing the beloved to the lover's side (see to No. 28). 
Cf. the burial of Pognon's bowls in a cemetery. Primitive animistic beliefs 
have survived, which connect the skeleton with the world of spirits ; it is 
a material point d'appni, and the skull is especially preferred as the most 
striking and perhaps most durable part of the anatomy. It may be noticed 
that in Arabic the word for skull is also used of the soul (Wellh. Skizzen, 
3, p. 161, 164)," There is a reference in the Talmud to the necromantic 
use of a skull; Sank. 65b: "there are two kinds of necromancy (31N 7V3)> 
the one where the dead is raised by naming him, the other where he is 
asked by means of a skull ( rhibil ^XCJn )." Joel {Aherglaube, i, 44) 
thinks this refers to some artificial skull-shaped object; but our actual 
skull illustrates the practice noticed in the Talmud. The use of skulls 
(caharia) in classical magic is also vouched for in the Apology of Apuleius; 
see Abt, p. 141. For this practice of "speaking skulls," we may note its 
special vogue among the Sabians; see Chwolson, Die Ssahicr, ii, 150, and 
Dozy and de Goeje, Actes of the Leyden (6th) Congress of Orientalists, ii, 
365 f., cf. 293. 

But the skull was also efficacious as a prophylactic object. James of 
Edessa notes that a dried human head was used by the heathen Syrians 
as an amulet (quoted by Robertson Smith, Religion of the Semites, 362, 
referring to Kayser's edition of the Canones, p. 142). Especially as part of 
the skeleton was it efficacious against the evil eye; see Seligmann, Dcr hose 
Blick, ii, 141, who notes the use in Italy of a tiny skull-charm against the 
Jettatura, and also the use among the ancient Taurians and the tribes of 
Caucasus of the heads of enemies stuck on poles as a prophylactic; also 
Elworthy, The Evil Eye, 340, notes the use of skeleton-like figures as 
talismans in Italy ; he finds the same talisman in classic times, comparing 
King. Gnostics and their Remains, 213 (ed. 2, 180). The skull therefore 
falls into the general category of frightful or obscene objects, which had 
the power of repelling the evil eye in particular and evil spirits in general. 

' Dr. Speck, of the Museum, informs me that the North American Indians 
carefully preserve the skulls of the animals they hunt, as a means of the reincarna- 
tion of the beasts, and I understand like customs are found over the world. 



No. 42 

Towards the close of my work on this volume, Professor Richard 
Gottheil, who had several years ago thought of publishing the bowls, 
kindly forwarded me some notes and transcriptions which he had made in 
his preliminary essays. Among the papers was the copy of a text which 
is not now found in the Museum. It differed so radically from the other 
inscriptions that I inquired of Prof. Gottheil if it was taken from a bowl. 
He replied that he knew of no other source whence the text could have 
come into his set of papers. Accordingly on the hypothesis that the original 
text was once in the Museum, I venture to publish Prof. Gottheil's copy, 
and do so the more readily because of its interesting character and the illus- 
tration it affords to several points in the texts above. It contains a form 
of the Lilith legend, widespread in folklore, and a bowl would have been 
a perfectly proper place for a text of this prophylactic character. I have 
not however included the text in my Glossaries. 

rnbvr, nu^ nsijin '3:k in'i's 'jnx "ib noxni ivm • csi'in ckoo ipn na 
nvo!' nl) n^un mi" ns nniji'i men nrc r^b nnb njn na htk't c't mxpTD 
[nDial' 113?] V't wa^n in'i'K n^ iokm ntj'a ns nnn^i rniovy mo nsc^i ion 
ivei' li) ncsm tvm • n^n nen psoi n^nn mivy inani Drn nso cina 
Dnmn nnvl' i'siB''' 'Hi's "i orn ni' V2U'ni n-i2K ■'2JK'! mnn ic •'DTrin i'" 
nnornB' tci ^3i P'tni' I3K' ^3r:i ni) niji^n n^'-.ci mstr (sic) nni'r nra i^k 
tn li'Ki p-itn^i y-in!' n3 •'1'it n3 i'3i ■'^ n^n'' sij D''3in3 'm'zv nx nxn 'JK in 
: li^'x : i-i'23'x : diik K'pn laniox : np'3K . -id'3N : ri'!'''!' : inior 
in'^s n^ 3''B'ni : riK-tin : nn^n : >bi> : nnnDtr : nDpiJ3N : ntsnoa 

(258) 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 259 

tnpn nvni d-ijeik a''sn»' n-itj-j; db'2i nrnpn inrDB" n.B'm aipyi pnv nm3»« 
nx punlj "li^T nac k!)! ds nb lairi si'tj' n"2 mxnvn ^nba n33i min 'ied mm 
Kill rmcvv ns nsa^ »b icn nx ninr!' si) -b lisun mM n« ik nxtn mS'n 
lOD tn'p-iyi tn'Tj n"Dr3 tsiJi innas :"n3 s^ ens yrb kS ntra n« onn^ 
isKnon ptj' yip otya d'h io dn tr^ain^ k!'i D'OB'n '3313 nx ^1BD^ ni'i3' nrNB* 

Accompanying the text are given some inscribed designs and phrases. 
A rough figure of a hand (prophylactic against the evil eye) contains the 
Aramaic legend: 

NE"3 N3K' n'S NtS^r t6) Kmti (= NH ?) tip =lDin *yitD N3N : 

"I am the seed-producer (?) of Joseph; when I come, an evil year cannot 
prevail over him," — a play of thought between Joseph as controller of the 
fertility of Egypt and the fertility of the family, and as a good omen for 
the expectant mother. 

A "David's Shield" contains in the center "run ns', a fanciful form of 
Adonai, on the left hand JCE', "Satan," in another division 33S and nearby 
Vn''(?),i. e. fri'SSK, to be found in Schwab, Vocab. Another species of the 
shield more roughly designed contains niri" in the center, flanked with n", etc. 
and 'JTX, with piLiOO and tlS^TiD on either side. The changes are rung on 
the possible mutations of pb\ and the scripture Dt. 28: 10 is cited. Similar 
charms against the Lilith are to be found at the end of Sefer Raziel and in 
Buxtorf's Lexicon, s. v. 

Translation 

Shaddai 

Sanui Sansanui Semniglaph Adam YHVVH Kadmon Life Lilith 

In the name of Y" the God of Israel who besits the cherubs, whose 
name is living and enduring forever. Elija the prophet was walking in 
the road and he met the wicked Lilith and all her band. He said to her, 
Where art thou going. Foul one and Spirit of foulness, with all thy foul 
band walking along? And she answered and said to him: My lord Elija, I 



260 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

am going to the house of the woman in childbirth who is in pangs (?), of 
So-and-so daughter of Such-a-one, to give her the sleep of death and to 
take the child she is bearing, to suck his blood and to suck the marrow of 

his bones and to devour his flesh. And said Elija the prophet blessed 

his name ! — With a ban from the Name — bless it ! — shalt thou be restrained 
and like a stone shalt thou be ! And she answered and said to him : For 
the sake of Y" postpone the ban and I will flee, and will swear to thee in 
the name of Y" God of Israel that I will let go this business in the case 
of this woman in childbirth and the child to be born to her and every 
inmate so as do no injury. And every time that they repeat or I see my 
names written, it will not be in the power of me or of all my band to do 
evil or harm. And these are my names: Lilith, Abitar (Abito?). Abikar 
(Abiko?), Amorpho, Hakas, Odam, Kephido, Ailo, Matrota, Abnukta. 
Satriha, Kali, Batzeh, Taltui, Kitsa. And Elija answered and said to 
her: Lo, I adjure thee and all thy band, in the name of Y" God of Israel, 
by gematria 613, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and in the name of his holy 
Shekina. and in the name of the ten holy Seraphs, the Wheels and the holy 
Beasts and the Ten Books of the Law, and by the might of the God of 
Hosts, blessed is he ! — that thou come not. thou nor thy band to injure this 
woman or the child she is bearing, nor to drink his blood nor to suck the 
marrow of his bones nor to devour his flesh, nor to touch them neither in 
their 256 limbs nor in their 365 ligaments and veins, even as she is ( = 
thou art?) not able to count the number of the stars of heaven nor to dry 
up the water of the sea. In the name of : 'Hasdiel Samriel has rent Satan.' 

Commentary 

Only a few detailed notes are necessary. Of the terms at the beginning, 
'13DJD '13D and fl^JJDD are common in childbirth charms (see Schwab. 
Vocab., s. vz:). The second is erroneously explained by Schwab; it is '3 DC, 
the inscribed Name, cf . the DE' . . . ^I'^J in 11:9. 'IJD and its reduplication 
'i:d:d probably mean "divorced." 

N. B. the order of Adam, Yhwh, Kadmon. 

(NIKpT)on Klspi'D is obscure to me. The root is probably used in 
the Syriac sense of mourning, hence supplicating; or cf. Heb. t''n, "writhe," 
as well as "dance." 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 261 

m^f ns NTS' I would read as njn n3 m'X, the first as the indefinite 
pronoun fern, quaequac, the last as representing the Greek ieiva, which i.--' 
commonly used in the papyri, the actual name being inserted upon use. 

nnn = t^n, cf. Arabic DDp. 

Of the names of the Lilith the second ^ Abatur the Mandaic genius 
(see Glossary A) ; but the possible reading of the copy, Abito, may be 
preferable, in view of the Greek parallels ; see below ; the third is the Greek 

aiiopifio^. 

613 : the figure is the gematriac sum of 'the Lord God of Israel,' as also 
the number of positive and negative commandments of the Law. As Mr. 
A. Simon, Harrison Fellow of the University, has suggested to me, the 
preceding abbreviation stands for K'lOO'J. 

The "256 limbs" are 248 in Jewish lore. . For the 365 ligaments, cf . 
the identical expression in a charm given by Reitzenstein, Poimandres, 295. 

The 10 Books of the Law are the double of the Pentateuch ; cf. the 
Eighth Book of Moses in the Leyden MS. which Dieterich has published 
at the end of his Abraxas. 

The very ancient use of epical narrative as an efficient magical charm 
was described above p. 62 ; thus the mere narrative of a demon's power 
as in the case of Dibbarra, is potent, or, a fortiori, the relation of a triumph 
over the evil spirit from some sacred legend. In the present case we have 
the added virtue of the revelation of the demon's names, and she swears 
that whenever they confront her, she will retire; the knowledge of hei 
names binds her (cf. p. 56). 

Dr. M. Gaster has published in Folk-lore xi (whole number xlvi), 129, 
an interesting paper entitled 'Two Thousand Years of a Charm Against 
the Child-Stealing Witch." The latter uncanny spirit has already met us 
in several of our preceding texts (Nos. 11, 18, 36, etc.). Dr. Gaster surveys 
a wide material of European and Semitic forms of this magical narrative, 
all of which have evidently the same root. He draws on Slavonic, Rouman- 
ian and modern Greek legends, and cites one of Gollancz's Syrian charms, 
a collection to which I have had frequent occasion to refer,' and also quotes 

' In Actes of the 8th International Congress of Orientalists, Sect. 4, p. 77. Most 
of these charms are in the narrative style. Cf. also a similar Syriac charm given 
by Hazard, JAOS, xv, 286 f. 



263 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

in translation a Jewisli charm of the same order from the Mystery of the 
Lord (in the Hebrew "'' iiD, a book I have not been able to obtain). 

This Jewish legend is almost identical with ours. It is considerably 
shorter, concluding with the names of the Lilith and a direction to hang 
up the names in the room of the woman concerned. The names are almost 
identical with those in our text ; they are : Satrina, Lilith, Abito, Amizo. 
Izorpo, Koko, Odam, Ita, Podo, Eilo, Patrota, Abiko, Kea, Kali, Batna, 
Talto, Partasah. My form Amorpho is probably older; Koko =KaKofmay be 
preferable to my Kas. 

In both these Jewish forms Elija and the Lilith are the actors. In the 
Syriac legend quoted by Gaster from Gollancz, it is a saint Mar Ebedishu 
and the Evil Spirit in the likeness of an ugly woman who are the characters ; 
the latter has for one of her names that of "the Strangling-mother of 
children" (cf. above to 36: 4). In the European Christian legends, the 
benevolent actor is the Virgin, Michael, or a certain saint bearing the name 
Sisoe, or Sisynios. These names are derived from the Jewisli '1JD3D 'ijd, 
as Gaster suggests. In the Greek legend the spirit is Gylo, the earlier rt/Xu, 
which appears also in the magical papyri.'' In all children are the object 
of the fiend's ravages, in one case the charm is for a boy afflicted with 
cataract. 

There are some other simpler forms of this legend contained in Greek 
manuscript amulets which were not accessible to Dr. Gaster. In his 
Pobnandres, p. 298, Reitzenstein publishes a text which is the earlier 
prototype of the Roumanian folk-legend published by Gaster, p. 132. It 
reads : "When the archangel Michael came down from heaven, there met 
him the impure spirit with her hair down her back and her eyes inflamed. 
And the archangel Michael said to her: Whence comest and whither goest 
thou ? The impure one answered and said to him : I go to enter the house 
as a serpent, dragon, reptile, I change into a quadruped, I go to make the 
plagues of women, to humble their heart, to dry up the milk, to raise the 
hair of the master of the house .... and then I kill them. For my name 
is called Paxarea. For when the Holy Mary bore the Word of Truth 

' Wessely, Vienna Denkschriften, xlii, 66, also Tv%ov, Reitzenstein, Poimandres, 
298. For Gello = the Assyrian Gallu, see Frank, ZA, xxiv, 161. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 263 

I went to deceive her and ..?..' And the archangel Michael seized her 
by the locks on the right hand and said to her : Tell me thy twelve names.* 
And she said: I am called first Gelou, second Morphous, (third, etc. i 
Karanichos, Amixous, Amidazou, Marmalat, Karane, Selenous, Abiza, 
Ariane, Maran. Wherever are found my twelve names and thy name, 
archangel Michael, and thy name Sisinios and Sinodoros, I will not enter 
into the house of such a one." Compare also the amulet given on the 
preceding page in Reitzenstein (p. 297), lacking the reference to the \'irgin, 
the demon enumerating her plagues. 

A similar legend, in large part identical with both these just named. 
is given in the Greek-Italian charms published by Pradel." In this Michael 
descending from Sinai meets the hag Abuzou' and the demons cast out of 
heaven. He inquires where she is going; she answers she crawls into 
houses like a serpent, dragon, etc., to bring all evils on men, to dry up the 
mother's milk, to wake the children and kill them. Then, evidently a 
Christian accretion, she causes faction in the church, sends floods, destroys 
ships. Michael asks her her name, which is Pataxaro. He asks for hei 
many names. She swears by the throne of God and the eye (= eyes) 
of the Beasts (cf. the oath in our text) that she will tell the truth. She 
then gives forty names, the first two of which are Gilou, Morphou. 

The legend sometimes ran out into the line of particular diseases, e. g. 
cataract, as in one of the Roumanian forms ; or Beelzebub and other demons 
are named, as in an amulet in V^assiliev, Anecdote byzantina, i, 336. But 
the story of the wife-hating, child-murdering hag is the original element, 
as Gaster points out. 

We thus possess forms of the legend in Hebrew and Syriac, in Greek 
texts of eastern and western Europe, and in modern Roumanian and 
Slavonic folklore, while the heroes of the epic include Elijah, Michael, 
Christ and various saints known or obscure. The persistency of the form 
appears also in the charm names. To compare the lists in the two Hebrew 
texts and in the two of Wendlarid and Pradel respectively and in Gollancz 

* Cf. the early Christian myth of the devil's wiles, Rev. 12. 

* The same number is found in the Hekate-Isis legend. 
' Griechische u. slid.- italienische Cebete, 23. 

' The Avezuba and Avestitza in Caster's Roumanian legends. 



264 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN* SECTION. . • 

(Syriac), we find that the initial Hebrew Lilith = Greek Gelou.or Gilou' 
:= Syriac Gees, doubtless r= Gelos. The second in the" Hebrew, Abito 
(Abitar?) = Apiton the ninth in the Syriac; the third, Abiko (Abikar?) 
= Abiza or Abuzou in the Greek texts, and as we observed above Avezuba 
in the Roumanian. The fourth Amorpho (in our text) = Morphous or 
Morphou having third place in the Greek texts, and Martlos, 4th in the 
Syriac. Amorpho is doubtless the Greek afiop<t>oc: , "shapeless," and our Jewish 
text alone has preserved the correct form. Eilo and its obscure predecessor 
in the Hebrew may be found in Pradel's Morpheilaton, and the latter's 
Phlegumon may translate the Hebrew '?p. 

It is impossible to place our phylactery genealogically in such a mass 
of interrelated material. The Jewish text doubtless depends upon Greek 
tradition with its magical name Amorpho and its transliteration of Seiva, 
while the later Greek forms have borrowed from the Hebrew in St. Sisynios. 
But the source of the legend is the common property of mankind, with 
roots as ancient as the Babylonian Labartu and Gallu. A child-killing demon 
which sucks babes' blood, etc., is found in Africa; see Budge, Osiris and 
the Egyptian Resurrection, i, 285, a reference pointed out to me by Pro- 
fessor Jastrow. In the Hellenistic magic a classical form of such legend 
was established out of all the elements that were brought together in that 
age, and this spread again assuming its variant forms among the peoples 
and faiths. If our text actually came from Nippur, it is of interest as the 
earliest form of the Jewish legend and as one which can be dated with 
approximate accuracy. 



Corrections and Additions 

P. 20, line 4: read "Berlin" for "British." 

P.20: add to the list of published Mandaic bowls the two photographic plates 

of bowls (platesi, 2) in J. de Morgan, Etudes linguistiques, vol. v, part 

2, of his Mission scientifique en Perse. 
P. 105, line 20: the Koran gives to the Mandaeans the same privileges as the 

Jews and the Christians (see 2 : 59; 5 : 73 ; 22: 17). 



GLOSSARIES 



GLOSSARY A 

Personal Names and Epithets of Deities, Angels, Demons, etc. 



GLOSSARY B 
Proper Names of Men and Women 



GLOSSARY C 
GeneriVl Glossary 



•1 (^r 



Prefatory Note 



Glossary C is arranged according to roots, the other two consonant- 
ally. The former indexes only the common nouns. 

The citations of other authorities can be understood from § 2. The 
two publications of Pognon's are cited as "A" and "B", and Pognon's 
full glossaries will serve to locate all words of his texts. Where lines of 
texts are given, the reference is to the spiral line if facsimile is given, 
otherwise to the lines of the printed text. I have not thought it necessary 
to give the line citation for proper names even in my own texts, as they 
can be easily identified. 

Under Glossary B, the following abbreviations are used : d. ^= daugh- 
ter of, f. = father, h. = husband, m. = mother, s. = son, w. = wife. 

Where a word appears in my text the first citation may be referred 
to for any treatment by the editor; references are also added to further 
discussions in the Introduction. Notes are occasionally added to words 
found in texts of other editors. 

In Glossaries A and B all the occurrences are given with the exception 
of a few common divine names like nin'; in Glossary C only typical cita- 
tions and peculiar forms; also it has been the aim to give citations from 
the three dialects. 



(267) 



GLOSSARY A 



PERSONAL NAMES AND EPITHETS OF DEITIES, ANGELS. 

DEMONS, ETC. 



SJJOJiax evil deity: Pogn B. 
k:si3us evil deity: Lidz 4, 5 (for 
these two names, 
see to II : 5). 
K13K Destroyer 3. 
max divine name?: 7; Myhr. 
•\)a2» Abatur. Mandaic genius: 

Ellis I (N-iio •») ; Wohls 2417 

(nitSUK) ; see p. 96. 
bwn deity (Apollo? Aeon?) : 19. 
n'Sa'X feminine to above : ib. 
T3N epithet of God: 8. 
D3naN, D"DD-a«, D'3i3« Abrasax: 

7 (= Myhr), 19. 34 (see pp. 

57, 99)- 
^nJX mystic name : Schw F. 
bsnrJK deity or angel : 19. 
D'anJS "the holy Agrabis" : 14. 
bx'Jxnx angel : Schw I. 
'inx Adonai : 34 ; Pogn B. 
'NITS angel: Pogn B; Lidz i. 
^S'TTN angel: 19. 
KStx deity?: 19. 

K-in'N na ninx ghost: Wohls 2417. 
xbx God: 18. 
^xbx divine name: 13. 
I'OJa^x, I'ayaSx mystical name?: 

Wohls 2422. 
01 nuni^x mystical name : 5. 



Nn^x, "X God: 7, 16, etc. 

D'n^x Elohim : Ellis i ; Hyv. 

^S'l^'X angel: 10. 

IID^'X Ellis I (but see to 11:4). 

D'3B ba El Panim: 8. 

DDsbx name of Gabriel : Wohls 

2422. 
nc bti El Shaddai: 8, 34, etc. 
NDN demon (bath Imnia) : Wohls 
2426. 

'D'N name of demon: Wohls 2416 
= Stiibe (see p. 77). 

xoynxDX a genius: Lidz 5 ("ana- 
thema"?). 

DnJJX deity: 19. 

nJX deity : 19. 

msJX demon: Schw F (see p. 25). 

NJXnDX Satan : Montg. 

xvnoTJBDX Cpenta-dewa, name of 
Solomon's Jinn (see Griin- 
baum, Zts. f. Keils.-forsch., ii, 
224, Noldeke. ib. 297). 

X1D1X epithet of angel ("charm- 
er") : Schw, PSBA, xii, 298. 

xpioBX Wohls 2422 (=-iiuax?). 

bs^sx angel : Wohls 2416. 

Dirpix Okeanos ( ?) : 19. 

flpiJ 1p3 eipx series of mystical 
names : Schw F. 



(269) 



270 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 



N3Dn-iN deity: 19. 

jns deity: 19. 

ijKns angel: 19; Schw I. 

bsniK angel: Stiibe (Wohls 1. 

bsTin). 
pnK deity?: 19; 34. 
D'DTS, SDD1N, D'onn Hermes, see to 

2: 2. 
DTK a deity (Eros, Ares?) : 19. 
eilpnipne'S infernal genius: Pogn 

B (cf. Glossary C, eipc ; but 

cf. Aristikifa, in Dillmann's 

text to Enoch 6: 7). 
n^K ghost: Schw 2417. 

-3 = Bel : 36. 

^X'nK'3 (?) angel: Schw G. 

NJ-IJ3, XJKIJS deity : 11, 18, 19, 

Montg. 
"NJTin lilith: 40. 
oa^na lilith: 18 (cf. Dabn). 
'XTiya angel: 38. 
iisma angel : Schw N. 
S'J?313 angel : Pogn B. 
b^'pia angel : Wohls 2416. 

bxnaJ, is'naj, Wi3J Gabriel: 7; 34; 

etc. (see p. 96 f.). 
^smj angel : 14. 

N'DT epithet of Hermes : 2. 
p»2l angel: Pogn B (cf. psno). 
a'ln demon : 36. 
na'h Dlibat = Dilbat, goddess of 

love : 28. 
non mother of demon: Schw G. 
bx'on angel : Wohls 2416. 



t:"n:n demon: 19. 
b"JT angel: Schw N. 
Nnn'Dio'jn ghost: Schw 2417. 
Km deity or angel: 40. 
^K'D^D-n angel: Schw I. 
IjK'pil angel: Schw I. 
Weti angel: Pogn B. 

^Kmn angel: Stiibe (Wohls ^KnTJ). 
^K'3B.T angel: Wohls 2416. 

D>»nn s. KDD1K.- 

n:T father of pnK: 19, 34. 
KTW Zeus: 19. 
bK'p'T angel: Wohls 2416. 
'J-iT, 'K:-isr granddam of a lilith: 
II and parallels. 

irann epithet of "KJilK: Pogn B. 

^K'an angel: 13. 

^Kntion angel: Schw PSBA, xii, 

298. 
K"'n, K^n Life, Mand. supreme 

deity: 40; Pogn A, B; 

Lidz 5. 
nvn the Living Creatures : 8. 
ca ^'n Evil Potency : 30. 
Da^n, Dol^an, cvrhn lilith: 11 and 

parallels. 
^K'OKn angel: Schwab,/, c. 
^K-n'oin angel: Stiibe = Wohls 

^K-n-run. 
ri'ViDn demon : Schw G. 
^Knon angel: 35. 
bK^rjn angel: 13; Stiibe. 
^Knon angel: Schw N. 
itnn ghost : Schw 2417. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 



271 



bx^nn angel: Wohls 2416 (for 

Stiibe's, bxniN). 
S'S-onn angel: 35. 

P30, PN3N0 (cf. psm) angel: Pogn 

B. 
'3l3D^t2 deity: 19. 
K11B see "ilonK. 

TT, Tnv ghosts: Wohls 2417. 
nin' Yahwe passim. 
rnr\ W angel: Pogn B; Lidz i. 
tmtN' angel: Pogn B. 
N'nm' angel: ib. 
t'N'm angel, or divine name: 25. 
"KJN' lilith: 38. 

pN'SV angel, or divine name: 25. 
inp' angel: Lidz i; Pogn B. 
N3nr Mandaic divine name : Pogn 
B. 

Nan' angel, with "eleven names" 
following: Schw G. 

Waa angel: Pogn B. 

ND'a the "heat" demon: 30: 2. 

7NnD3 angel: Hyv (in NiD')? o 
'NlE-an; cf. Kasdeya angel 
of evil arts, Enoch 69: 
12). 

tn^b Leviathan: 2. 

NO'ano demon : ;^y. 

bx'SBno angel: Wohls 2416. 

^'Vrno angel : Pogn B. 

N?3no the Destroyer: 9. 

^'njDD angel: Schw G. 

jntiO'D Metatron : 25 ; Wohls 2416. 



ijNa'O, ^'Na^o Michael : 34, etc. (see 

p. 96 f.). 
I'trs'i^D Signs of Zodiac : 4. 
tibhiD, t6'bG, sb^DO the Word: 27, 

19, 2 (see to 2: 2). 
nrOD deity?: 11. 
[D, k:xo Mandaic genius: 19; 

Wohls 2422. 
pjnjn deity: 19. 
^'NnojD angel: 35. 
CJTio deity: 19. 
nsiVD name of God: 29. 
"ID demon: Wohls 2416 (see p. 81). 
xi^j-iD epithet of a deity: 19. 
mo ghost: Wohls 2417. 

DNaJ Mandaic genius: Pogn. B. 

'NJtu: angel : 38. 

^NnTj angel: Wohls 2416. 

bsnnj angel: 14. 

bsncj angel: Schw PSBA, xii, 

298. 
'XJ3 god Nannai : 36. • 
Dmp3 deity: 19. 
^X-mj angel: 35; Wohls 2416 (see 

p. 96). 
J't: god Nirig; 36; I'TJ : Ellis i. 

miD name of God: Ellis 3. 
mno, Nin'D, ktd (Manti) Moon: 

34, Wohls 2416; Pogn B. 
TVOno, etc. angel: Lidz i; Pogn 

B. 
sra Sin: 36; Montg. 
1icni:nD deity: 19. 

NJtiD Satan: 2, etc.; KJKt3D, 19; cf. 
KJKnDN. 



272 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 



^X'ajDD angel: Wohls 2416. 

ID, K-iD "the Prince": 5, 7 (see p. 

97 f-). 
bs'ilD angel: 15; Schvv I. 
^K'ODTD angel: 14. 
ijX'sno angel: 14, 19. 
Ssmo angel: 15. 

^Nniv angel: 8. 

baa^V genius or angel : Schw F. 

Ss*:v angel: Wohls 2416 (see 

Wohls p. 27, and Bousset, 

Arch. f. Rel.-zviss., iv, 

268). 
baov, ^^?'D3;: angel: 7; Myhr. 
"inov Istar, Mand. evil deity: Pogn 

B (a she-angel, nos. 14, 

15); = name of lilith?: 

38, 40. 
bii'''^PV angel: 8. 
Kmpj; "Barrenness": 11. 
^JK^aiJ? angel : Wohls 2416. 
^J'NSnij? form of Raphael : Lidz i ; 

Pogn B. 

Diranas deity: 19. 

j!?a idem. 

onbsi, Tirhs father and mother of 

demons : 8 (variants in 

17). 
"•yibsi deity: 19. 
SD'bB aobzi genius: 8. 
^N^JS angel. 
D'VnsD for Piriawis, Mand. genius: 

Pogn B. 
b^VtS, Wns form of Raphael: 

Lidz I ; Pogn B. 
^K'piE angel: Wohls 2416. 



niX3V, 'V niT : 8; xiu 'v, 8. 
b''\^'''\-S angel : Schw N. 
n-aiis epithet of Adonai: Pogn B. 
nis epithet of God: 8. 
^N'-iis angel: 14; Schw I. 
T^J "I'V deity: Lidz 5 (but see to 
No. II). 

bx'papap angel : 8. 

K31 imp "the great Kedron" : 

Wohls 2422 (cf. Mand. 

"the great Jordan"). 
sni^iBp name of demon : 36. 
D'lsnasp angel: Lidz 5. 
NDip divine name?: 19. 
NQp idem. 
noavp name of angel of death: 

Schw F. 

b'lXT angel: Schw N. 

Wm, ^vrm angel: Pogn B. 

^K"XT angel : Schw L 

jNna D^?■1 a male genius : Lidz 4. 

rrns DX1 a female genius: ibid. 

fP'i angel: Pogn B. 

^K'B'Si angel: Schw L 

b'm angel : Schw N. 

NDan a genius?: Schw F. 

Np3"i, 'n mother of demons. 

n Mystery: 37. 

bx'om angel: 13, 28. 

^N'Vm angel: Schw L 

bust, b'K'En, ^'VNsn, b'j?sn, b'nssn 

(cf. ^'SSiiv, b'yis ) Raphael: 

passim, see p. 96 f. 

bx^'^c angel: 10. 

^"NP3E', ^'K'SPSC angel: Pogn B. 



J. A. MONTGOMBRY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 273 

"If Shaddai : 8 ; Myhr ; bn KlB' , 7- E^Ot^', B"ONC Sun : 36, 30 ; Pogn B ; 

bxmc angel: Schw N. ^^^^ > Montg. 

^'N'Dbc angel: 35. '^^'"^ a"&el- ^S- 

Tv^ , /r> r t:- bxnB', b'Nnc, Ij-^B', b"N*''KiB' angel: 

KrnDE' deity: Montg. (Prof. F. n r, 

. 14. 35 ; Pogn B. 

Perles calls my attention . , t-. t, 

y^Xpnc angel : Pogn B. 
to the midrashic occur- , „ , _ 

'inB' demon : Schw F. 
rence of 'tnor; see Griin- 

baum, ZDMG, xxxi, 225 bx"n'n angel: Schw F. 

f. = Gesammclte Aiif- bw 'NJn(n) genius: j'Z'jc?. 

sdtse,td. Perles, 1901, p. ^^-^n angel: Ellis i (= Lidz 

59 f.). See p. 198. D'1^51■lDXp). 

Also eleven names of angel in Ellis 3: sbaDD, nno, nasa, naana, nnTD, 
nnTn, n'atSJ, nsjpna, namx (= kdoik ?), Dap-is, — ; cf. the "eleven" 
games in Schw G : sanDD, iTK-itr, K333, niTDl, ■'JTO. P'nV, xspin?:, njnDi, msB, 
D'J3. In Schw M a list of mystical angel names: \h'i,bh^,bb'0, etc. 
A Hst of evil spirits in Schw G: "isj, n»no rhii, 'IODD, id-ddd. Names 
of ghosts, some cited above, Wohls 2417. For a lilith's names, see 
No. 42. 

Some Kabbalistic forms of nin< etc. (see p. 60 f.) : 

nr in\ Schw Q; VV, Schw O;!"!, ib.; mm, Hyv; 1111, Ellis 4, 
Hyv; in' in' in' Stiibe, 1. 16; lDt5' n', i^;. 1. 28; n'3n\ 7: 8, Stiibe, 1. 15, 
cf. 13: 7; nn nn, 7: 12; in'nx' 31: 6; pin\ 14: 2. 

n'nK -is?s n'ns , Stiibe, 1. 29; nynx, 5, center; NXN Schw I; KSSN 
Stiibe, 1. 35, KKKKKK, 20: 2, 5. 

|*KfK, Stiibe, 1. 15; p'm p'H' j^o fD, eiD 5)0, 1 5 : 2 ; 1*0 J'K' {"p etc. 29: 
!c I'BVO (Atbash), Stiibe, 1. 66. Cf. also i: 13, 24: 4f, 3: 6, etc. 



GLOSSARY B 



PROPER NAMES OF MEN AND WOMEN 



K3K Abba s. Komesh: 17; s. Bar- 

kita: Stube. 
KTK Ibba s. Zawithai: 2. 
in3K Abbahu (a sorcerer?) : 7, 

Myhr. 
in32K Abanduch d. Pusbi: 5. 
Kins Abuna s. Geribta: 2. 
Dmas Abraham (the patriarch) : 

8, Schw O; s. Dadbeh: 

12, 16. 

nbJK Aglath d. Mahlath: Schw P. 
n^K Idi, m. Asmin : Wohls 2417. 
DIN Adam; nsDip 'K : 10; mx '33: 

13, Pogn A. 

piti Adak s. Hathoi: 6. 

"injnr "inx Aduryazdandur ; Pogn 
B (for first component 
see Justi, pp. 5. 5i; the 
second error for Yazdan- 
dad? — see ib. 146). 

'n'N (?) Ihi f. Ephra: 18. 

injnr'N Izdanduch m. Yezidad: 7, 
27. 

KMK Azia m. Maria: Lidz 3. 

^mnx Ahdabui s. Ahathbu: 
Wohls 2422. 

nns, Mand. riKHKAhath d. Parkoi: 
3 ; d. Hathoi : 6 ; m. Do- 
dai: 21, 22, 23; d, Doda: 
25 ; d. Nebazach : 28 ; 
m. Churrenik: Lidz 2; d. 
Dade : Lidz 5. 



I3nns Ahathbu m. Ahdabui: 

Wohls 2422. 
nsnxnnx, n3KnNnnK Ahathadbah d. 

Imma: Wohls 2426, 2414. 
tl3BKnnK (w. prep, 'n^b) Ahathat- 

bon, d. Nanai : Pogn B, 

no. 18 (not in glossary). 
ttnT\ DKnK: Ahath-rabta m. Far- 

ruchiro: Pogn B. 
KDynns Ahathema m. Dade: 

Pogn B. 
'031N Ukkamai f. Zutra: Schw F. 
HON, NDK Imma m. Hisdai Schw E; 

m. Osera: Schw G. 
nitSDK Amtur d. Solomon : Schw L 
mo -noDin ':ik (?). Oni Har- 

masdar Tardi m. Tardi : 

20. 
T.iWK Anur..d s. Parkoi: 28. 
B'liK Anos m. Zadanos : Pogn B. 
'KKnJK Anosai d. Mehinducht: 

ibid. 
S'B":s Anise (error for previous 

name?) ibid. 
KnnOK Anosta, ibid. 
K''n ni:K Anuth-haye d. Sebre-le- 

Yesho: ibid, ("vessel of 

life"?). 
K3nt2DS Astroba: 29. 
I'BDK Asmin d. Idi: Wohls 2417. 

nsnjtSDK, l-Asmanducht m. Dad- 
beh: 12, 16, 31, 33. 



(274) 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 



275 



MBDK Aspenaz m. (?) Gaye: 

Myhr (see to 7: 4). 
K1D1K Osera s. Osera and Imma: 

Schw G (see p. 83). 
TTNSS Aphadoi s. Dawiwi: Pogn 

B. 
mSK, Knsx Ephra s. Saborduch: i, 

13; s. Ihi: 18. 

K'lTlBK Aphridoe d. Kusizag: 

Lidz 4 (cf. Justi, p. 6). 
'nJBV'K Ispandoi w. Ephra: 18. 

Tmijsrx, 26: 5, 'D'K (32, 35), 
"D'K (30) Ispandarmed 
m. Yandundisnat : 30; m. 
Dinoi: 32, 35; m. Beh- 
dar: Ellis i. 

■•mN Ardoi s. Hormizduch: 3; s. 
Gayye: Myhr. 

NniN Arha f. (m.) Ispiza: 30. 

tl'iK Arion s. Zand: 19; 34 (sor- 
cerer or deity?). 

nncmx Artasria s. Komes: 17. 

Kt'SE^S Ispiza s. Arha: 30. 

-lETK, TtyK Aser f. Bosmath ; Schw 
F; H. 

naixriK Athadba d. Immi : Wohls 
2426 (cf. lannx ff.). 

NJl-iriK Ethroga m. Kukai : Pogn 
B ("citron"). 

'ajo Babai s. Bedin: Wohls 2417 
(cf. Syriac. '33, see 
Nold. Pers. St. 395, 414). 

n333, BnJ3«3, BiJKSS Babanos s. 
Kayyomta: 9; s. Me- 
hanos: Pogn B. 

pT3, better pT3 Be (h) din f. 
Babai : Wohls 2417 (see 
Justi, p. 347 b). 



injons, n3-Bahmanduch(t)d. 

Sama: i, 13; m. Geyam- 
buch : Pogn B. 

inn3 Bahrad: Ellis i (see G. Hoff- 
mann, Ausz. aus syr. 
A'cten, 128). 

3NTjnn3 Bahrezag d. Kawaranos: 
Pogn B. 

'nn3 Bahroi d. Bath-sahde: 34. 

nnjnn3 Bahranduch d. Newan- 
duch: ElHs i (see Nold., 
Z. f. K. F. ii, 296). 

'k:N3 Banai m. Merduch: 7, 27. 

nir'N •\2 ? perh. "son of praise" 
(artificial name of sorcer- 
er?) Schw G. 

N''3X313 Barbabe m. Yazid: Pogn 

B. 
^!>3")3 Bar-gelal s. Dodai: 15. 
KDTI3 ( ?) Bardesa d. Terme : 39. 
"Kn n3 Bar-haye : Rodw = Hal = 

Schw C (so Chwol CIH, 

112; cf. Talmudic name 

K"n ) . 

xnK in3 Baruk-aria (Farruch?) 
s. Reshinduch: Schw M. 

iTan^ana Berikyahbeh s. Mamai: 
26 (artificial form). 

Kn'3"i3 Barkita m. Abba: Stiibe. 

.TDiCD n3 ( ?) Bar-mesosia: Hal, 
Schw C. (cf. my note on 
Schwab E, § 3; a master 
magician, with artificial 
name?). 

!>'«<-, i'KDB'O 13, Bar-mistael: 7, 
Myhr (see to 7: 13). 

'33^65' -13 Bar-sibebi s. Tshehrazad: 
15- 

T\»c^2 Bosmath d. Aser: Schw F 
(biblical). 



276 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 



ikiryo na Bath-sahde m. Bahroi : 34. 
N'DN n'3, riN3 Beth-asia d. Mehan- 
osh: Pogn B. 3, 29. 

^^3D^«''J Geyambuch(?)d. Bahman- 
ducht: Pogn B. 

"J Gaye s. Aspenaz : Myhr. 

'XJVJ Geyonai s. Mamai : 8. 

N'l^VJ Geloia (Geloie) m. Dur- 
duch : Pogn B ; the same 
probably ^th^i : no. 16094, 
unpub. (= ye^oia^ "laugh- 
ter"?). 

b'bKii Gamaliel: Schwab O. 

NTJJ Geniba s. Dodai : Montg. 

'SDJ Gaspai w.(?) Farruch: 41. 

'mJ Guroi s. Tati: 25. 

['K]jnJ Gusnai d. Beth-asia Pogn 
B, no. 3 (of. below, njantN' 

mNl Dada f. Sarkoi: 12, 15. 

WIKT Dade m. Terme: 39; m. 
Mahlaphta: Pogn B; d. 
Ahath: ib. (also written 
n'nuT); d. Ahath: Lidz 5 

(yiKi). 

nn, 'Nnn, snn Doda(i) d. Mar- 
tha: 15; d. Ahath: 21, 22, 
23 ; m. Ahath : 25 ; m. 
Hinduitha : 38. 

naiT, nmxT Dadbeh s. Asmanduch: 
12, 16, 21, 35. 

Tn, Ti«T David (the king) : 14, 
34; Hyv; Lidz 5. 

»nKT Dawiwi(?) f. (?) Aphridoe: 
Pogn B. 



X'lJlxn Dazaunoye s. 'Adwitha : 

38. 
najxnan Duchtanbeh d. Kumai : 

Pogn A (p. 18). 
njjtnan, tn^nan Duchtanos d. 

Hawwa : Pogn B ; m. Far- 

ruchusraw : Lidz 4 (cf. 

Justi, p. 86). 
'IJ'T Dinoi s. Ispandarmed : 35. 
sntJi, Nmxn, Nnnjn Denar(i)tad. 

Misa: Pogn B (cf. masc. 

name Dinar, "penny," 

Payne-Smith, col. 887). 
nnri, injyT Denduch d. Chosri- 

duch : ibid. 
imn Durduch d. Geloia: Pogn B 

( Noldeke, for Adhur- 

duch). 
"tm Darsi "the foreigner" : 29. 

snonn, 'N- Hadista d. Miria: Schw 
M (biblical Hadassa). 

njn, inyn (njn ?) Hindu d. Mah- 
laphta: 24; m. Marathai: 
40 ; m. Mehperoz : Ellis 3 
(see above, § 3). 

s«n'n:\-i Hinduitha d. Dodai: 38. 

iTJin Honik s. Dadbeh: 12, 16; s. 
Komes: 17; s. Ahath: 
16020 (unpub.). 

K-in..nn H. r.. dora m. Ispand- 
armed : 26. 

renin Hormiz s. Mama: 15; s. 

Mahlaphta: Lidz 5. 
^^^0■I1^ Hormizduch m. Ardoi: 

3 ; d.- Mehduch : 14. 

nansT Zadbeh s. Denarta : Pogn B 
( Noldeke, from Azadh- 
beh). 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 



277 



■•nt, nt Zadoi s. Newanduch: lo; 

K'nsr s. 'Adwitha: 38. 
ins jxnt Zadanfarruch s. Kaki: 

Hyv (cf. Justi, p. 377). 
EnjNnst Zadanos d. Anos : Pogn B. 
'sn'it Zawithai m. Ibba: 2. 

K1D1T Zutra s. Ukmai: Schw F 
(w. title Mar). 

m Zand f. Arion : 19, 34 (sorcer- 
er or deity?). 

nsNT Zapeh s. ?: Pogn B. 

1"iT Zaroi s. ? : 37. 

C3nr Zarinkas d. Mahlaphta: 24. 

a'3n Habib: no. 2924 (unpub.). 

Kin Hawwa (Eve) wife of Adam: 

13; m. Sisin: Pogn B. 
'SS'^n Halifai s. Sisin: 29. 

'KC . . non Hmri . . sai d. Emme : 

Pogn B (no. 19). 
(ni3n)-ii3nN Enoch the patriarch: 4. 
pjn Hanun, the house of : 19. 
no'n Hisdai s. Ama: Schw E. 
KO<nn Hathima m. ? : Pogn B. 

'DKC Tati m. Guroi : 25. 

n-KriKD'ts Timatheoz s. Mamai: 

Lidz 2 ("Timotheos," Lidz). 
mt3 Tardi d. Oni: 20. 
nrK-in'Cta Tsherazad m. Bar-sibebi: 

15- 

ytnn', jne"' Joshua, Jesus, s. 
Perahia, traditional socerer : 
8; 9; 17; 32; 33; 34 (see to 
32). 

nnr (?) Yazdid s. Komes: 17. 



Tr, TIN' Yazid s. Sisin: Pogn B; 
s. Barbabe: ibid. (Aramaic 
rather than Arabic, against 
Pognon B, pp. 103, 14). 

nxTr Yezidad s. Izdanduch: 7, 27. 

n'nr. Yazdoe d. Rasnoi: Pogn B 
(the same name, Justi, p. 
149). 

'SJCnJ nJEnsTK' Yazadpanah Gus- 
nai : Pogn B ( for the second 
word cf. above; the first a 
Persian name, see Justi, p. 
149, Payne-Smith, col. 1585). 

1331' Yokebed d. ?: no. 2924 (un- 
pub.). 

tSitrnJinr Yandundisnat s. Ispan- 
darmed : 30. 

}'DD' Yasmin d. Dadbeh : 12. 

3pr Jacob the patriarch: 8, Schw 
O. 

pr\T Isaac the patriarch: ibid. 

t'lJX "1K13 Chewaranos m. Behre- 
zag: Pogn B (cf. Noldeke's 
review, p. 144). 

JWX13 Chewasizag(?) m. Mehr- 
kai : Pogn A ; d. Papa : Lidz 4 
(see Pogn, p. 18; Justi, p. 
182; Andreas to Lidz, propos- 
ing chush'Zak). 

nK'3NT3 Kezabiath m. Adur- 
yazdandar: Pogn B, no. 23. 

'nnri3, 'mnrn, ^nnyri3 Chuze- 
huroi(?) s. Beth-asia: Pogn 
B. 

Kn553 Kalletha d. Mahlaphta: 17. 
'^5013 Komai m. Duchtanbeh: Pogn 
A. 

'UOIS Kumboi m. Meducht: 35. 



278 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 



B"ni3 Komes d. MaWaphta: 17. 
nSD3 Xaro s. Mehanos : 40. 
innoa Chosriduch m. Denduch: 

Pogn B. 
13D3 Kaphni f. Newanduch: 10; 

II ; h. Newanduch 10. 

•>n'B13, 'K-. s- Kufithai m. Pabalc: 

2, 4; d. Dadbeh: 12, 16. 
'ST13 Kurai m. Mesorta: Pogn B. 
p'r-113 Churrenik d. Ahath: Lidz 2 

(cf. Andreas, ad loc). 
{KDN-in Churasan w. Chuzehuroi: 

Pogn B (cf. Justi, p. 78, but 

see Noldeke to Pognon, p. 

144). 
Kn2tn3, Kn^vcna Kusenta m. Su- 

maka: Pogn B (from Pers. 

Waresna, or derivative? — see 

Justi, p. 354)- 
KD'ns Kethima m. Nana : Schw L. 

CUSHD, BiJno Mehanos m. Xaro: 
40; m. Babanos, Pogn B; m. 
Beth-asia: ibid. 

nnna Mehduch d. Dadbeh: 12, 
16; m. Hormizduch: 14; d. 
Mahl(aphta) : 9007 (unpub.). 

'inn Mehoi s. Dodai: 15. 

msHD Mehperoz s. Hindu: Ellis 
3 (= Mihrperoz, Justi, p. 
206; cf. above, § 3). 

nsnrno Mehinducht: m. Anosai: 
Pogn B (= maheng, Justi, p. 
186?). 

pine Mehraban s. Yazdoie: Pogn 
B (Pogn thinks error for fol- 
lowing; but cf. Meribanes = 
Mihrwan, etc., Justi, p. 208). 



pnnn Mehrodan: Pogn B (cf. 
VoSavric = Wardan, Justi, p. 

351)- 
nrmin nn'O Mihr-hormizd s. 

Mamai : 34. 
'Kpnnjro, n- Mehrikai s. Kusizag: 
Pogn A (from Mithrakana, s. 
Justi, p. 214). 
DBDSJKniD Mazdanaspas s. Kusi- 
zag: Lidz 4 (see Andreas ad 
loc). 
SJiabna Mahlephona s. Dade : Pogn 

B (but Noldeke, sneSno). 
snB^no Mahlaphta m. Komes: 17; 
m. Mesarsia: 19; m. Hindu, 
etc.: 24; m. Pathsapta: Pogn 
B; m. Hormiz: Lidz 5. 
n^no Mahlath m. Aglath: Schw P 

(biblical). 
KHBinD Mehuphta m. Rakdata: 
Pogn B (but Noldeke, snB^nn) . 
n3n'0, naiTSO Maiducht d. Kumboi : 

35, no. 16093. 
KJobn Malkona s. Maksath: Schw 

P. 
''»^5D, 'SDSC, kod: Mamai, Mama: 
m. Geyonai: 8; m. Hormiz: 
15; m. Berikyahbeh: 26; m. 
Mihr-hormizd: 34; m. Tim- 
atheoz: Lidz 2. 
npDD Maskath m. Malkona: Schw 

P ("olive-gleaner"). 
smiDD Mesorta m. Kurai : Pogn B. 
KaiKD, X3S-INO Marabba s. 'Ad- 

witha: 38. 
NlN-iD Marada h. Hinduitha: 38. 
13-no, '10 Mordecai s. Saul: 41. 
IHTO Merduch d. Banai: 7, 27. 
snND Maria d. Azia: Lidz 3. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 



279 



K'TO Miria m. Hadista : Pogn M 
(^ Miriam?). 

D'no Mariam: Schw Q. 

nuKe-io Mersabor f. Kayyoma: 

Pogn B (= frequent Syriac 

name, Justi, p. 206). 

niKO Marath m. Rasnoi : 8 (= fol- 
lowing name). 
Kmo Martha m. Dodai: 15. • 
'snxiKO Marathai d. Hindu: 40. 
ntno Moses (the lawgiver) : 34, 35. 

. . . KB"D Misa... m. Denarta: 

Pogn B. 
•■IDC^ Muskoi d. Simoi: Myhr. 
N'CiEns Mesarsia s. Mahlaphta: 19; 

s. Porath : Schw G. 
B"JNno Methanis d. Resan: 29. 

^T^<33 Nebazach m. Ahath: 28. 
nnJVJ Newanduch d. Pushbi: 5; 

d. Kaphni : 10, 1 1 ; m. Behdan- 

duch : Ellis i. 
nj Noah (patriarch) : 10. 
'XJW, s:K3 Nana d. Kethima: 

Schw L; Nanai m. Ahathat- 

bon: Pogn B. 

Itryb S'laVD Sebre-leyeshu f . Anuth- 
haye: Pogn B (w. Pognon = 
"his (my?) hope is in Jesus"). 

KOD, 'NDD Sama(i) m. Behman- 
duch: I, 13. 

'IB'D Simoi m. Muskoi: Myhr. 

13D1D Simkoi m. ? : 30. 

KpoiD, xpHDiD Sumaka s. Kusanta : 

Pogn B. 
nomo Saradust d. Serin: 9. 



KD'ny 'Adwitha m. Marabba, etc. : 

38. 
N'DV Emme m. Hamri..shai: Pogn 

B. 

Kvnaiy (?) s. Rabbi, a sorcerer: 
Hyv (see Noldeke, Z. f. Keils.- 
forsch., iii, 297). 

P3XS3 Pabak s. Kufithai : 2, 4. 

'US Pannoi d. Dadbeh: 16. 

SSSB Papa f. Chusizag: Lidz 4. 

n'nsB Paproe d. Kukai: Pogn B 
(= Arabic Babroe, Noldeke, 
Pers. Stud., 400). 

n'ms, x'n-iB, s'nna Perahia f. 
Joshua (Jesus) : 8; 9; 17; 32; 
33; 34 (see to 32). 

ins Farruch s. Pusbi: 5; s. ?: 41. 

'131B Parkoi m. Ahath: 3; m. 
Anur — : 28. 

tssiiB Farruchan s. Sahduch : Lidz 
I. 

xnDDi-13 (also NiNiDsns) Farru- 

chosraw s. Duchtanos: Lidz 

4- 
n'3i"iB Farruchiro s. Ahath-rabta : 

Pogn B (cf. Farruchrui, Justi, 

p. 96). 

PJJIB Pharnagin s. Pharnagin (a 
traditional conjurer) : 7, 
Myhr. 

'miB Porathai m. Mesarsia: Schw 
G (cf. KmiB, Esth. 9:8). 

ncriB Pusbi m. Farruch: 5. 

NHBtJ' ns Path-sapta d. Mahlaphta : 
Pogn A (with Pognon = n3 
8<n3B', "Sabbath-daughter"). 



280 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 



'pup ICaki d. Mahlaphta: 24; m. 
Zadanf arruch : Hyv. 

•'Hp^p Kukai m. Paproe : Pogn B (cf. 

KOt/KOff, JUSti, p. 166). 

KDVP Kayoma s. Mersabor: Pogn 
B (a Syriac name, Payne- 
Smith, col. 3538; cf. the fol- 
lowing). 

NHDVp !Kayomta m. Babanos : 9. 

'31 Rabbi father of a sorcerer: 

Hyv (artificial name?). 
■■span Rubkai: Pogn B (= Heb. 

np2-i ?). 
DlKDDii Rustaum s. Churai : Pogn 

B. 
snsnp-i Rakdatha d. Mehuphta: 

Pogn B ("dancer"). 
}Bn Resan m. Methanes : 29. 
inj'JCNT Rasnenduch d. Aphridoe: 

Lidz 4. 
nnrr'T Resinduch m. Baruk-aria: 

Schw M. 
'Uen, ri'iJCi Rasnoi d. Marath : 8 ; 

m. Yazdoe: Pogn B. 



imac Saborduch m. Ephra: i, 

13- 
nnnxE' Sahduch m. Farruchan: 

Lidz I. 
W Saul (?) f. Mordecai: 41. 
'^C Sili s. Sarkoi: 12, 16. 
KO^E' Solomon (the king) : Schw 

I, Q (nc^D), Hyv; f. Amtur: 

Schwab I. 
ficl^C Solomon (the king) : 34, 39. 

Ellis I ; Lidz 5. 
p'tr Sirin m. Saradust : 9. 

•'ip-iC Sarkoi m. Kaphni : 10; d. 

Dada: 12, 16. 
«'B«B' Sise d. Beth-asia: Pogn B 

(compare the following). 
ftT'E' Sisin m. Haliphai: 29; m. 

Yazid: Pogn B; d. Hawwa: 

ibid.; undetermined ibid. (:= 

60?). 
nc Seth (the patriarch) : 10. 

K'tSTTi Terme d. Dade: 39. 
Nnxn Tata niece of Bardesa : 39. 



GLOSSARY C 



GENERAL GLOSSARY 



tos father : pi. lin'nas 36 : 5. 
•T3N perish : 9 : 7. 

KJnain destroyer : 36 : 5. 
KJ3X stone : sict 'Jas Hyv. 
Kn3K, NnK3K lead (tin?): 19: 10, 

39: 5. Kiaj?: Montg. 
nJK hire: ntjs Pogn B, stjv Lidz 

2. 
NnrK roof: 6: 7. 
KmJ'K letter, of divorce writ : 8 : 

13- 
KJns ear : Lidz 4, 'niK Schw L 

KJm'K alcove: 12: 13. 

IK, Mand. IV or: 8: 17, Lidz 2; 
if : Pogn B ; repeated ^ 
if ... or : Pogn B. 

K31K a disease: 24: 2. 

pK squeeze: ^VK 1:11. 

niK ,nnK letter of alphabet: nvniK 
9 : 5, xnins 35 : 9. 

ttn'TK sweating fever: 24: 2. 

^m go: KJ^TK 2: I, nytN 6: 6; 
impf: b'tx 36: 4, byrn, 
^Tn Pogn B; impv: ibfN 
Ellis I, ib't'N Schw F, 
^ry ,b'W Pogn B. 
KHK brother : pi. w. suff. 'ins 4 : 3. 
Knsns sister : 39: 9. 
KJnK relative: 34: 2. 
IHK take hold of: 11: 4. 



inx be behind, tarry: Af. Wohls 
2417. 

inS behind: pa'Sinj? Pogn B. 

■iins do. : 8: 3, mnx Stiibe 58. 
"K oh: Hal. 
TK oh(?): Schwab F. 
P'K as: 32: 9. 
i»b'« tree: 34: 5. 

pS nought: UNC which is not 
Schw M. 

rrx there is: nbn'S 37: 3;n3nv are 
in him, Pogn B. 
Kav = Talm. iO''N = sa IT'S, 

Lidz 4. 
n'b is not: Pogn B. 
naiK error for following npis ?: 

Schw G. 
^as eat: 36: 7; nsban, whoever 
(f) eats, Pogn B. 
K^3K food: 18: 6. 
ba unto, DijiV ^K 1 : 15 (see bv). 
sn^Sgod: 7:4; «n^'« i4;"'nbs, pi. 
16: 5 (also Glossary A). 

Knn^S goddess: Wohls 2417: 
5, xn^N ("K) Wohls 2422, 
2426 (or, curse?). 

Knini)S deity: 38: 7. 

ci^N Af . teach : ssbo Hal ; s-'EJlSs^ 
Pogn B; nss'^i, ib. (Pogn 
as from «\1?). 



(281) 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 



DK, D'S if: 2: 3; repeated, whether 

... or, EUis I. 
KD«, K^:'S mother : fD'CK 8 : 4,lVKDjf, 
38: 14; plur. pnnnD'N, 36: 
5- 
nmooiN? parallel to cattle, posses- 
sions, Schw M. 
px be true : Hof . pjoinn , Schw M. 
[ON Amen: e. g. IDK fDK, 14: 
8; j'Dl ]']!, Pogn B (see p. 
63)- 
Knuo'n faith: 29: 12. 
JOK denominative of sjdix 
artisan (?) in S'lJOKT ]H12 
JUKWON, whoever has 
worked for you, Pogn E. 
1DN say, command : 2 : 3 ; Etpe. 
-len'N 30: 7, -ions 37: 5. 
IDKO word: Schw M, lO'O 13: 
2. 
K10S tree-top?: 34: 5. 
jN if : in p , Lidz 4 : 9. 
pK yea: poi pv Pogn B (see IDS). 
NriNJK vessels: 38: 3. 

- N3ND vessel n'T^ \iiK>, Schw F. 
'BJS face: 13: 5, ]M^S32 in your 
presence, Pogn B, no. 31. 
IK anger: Schw F. 
■"DN over? ji3'DS paiy Schw R. 
Kma, ''K i'nds and 'i»i) man: i 
12, etc. ; constr. t;o''K 7 
13- B"JV 38: 8; pi. 'CJ'K 7 
15, KL"JK 32: 10, KTKJN 
38: II. 
E^S man: nt^Ni 'K, Ellis 5. 
NnnJN woman, wife: 31: 9, 32: i; 
Nnnrsg: 4; snn''S3: 3, 7: 
15, etc.; nnws Schw M; 
anna 3:3; Knni?, Lidz 2; 



pi. 'CJ 1 : 12, Styj 35: 8. 
NDN heal:TD\ w. suf. i: 15; Etp. 

'Dri' Wohls 2422 ; ppls. 

N'DN, K'DKD, Lidz IC. 
IDS, KDiDS healing, etc. : i : 3, 

13: 8; pi. 3: I, etc. (see 

p. 129). 
nos, SDK myrtle : 13 : 3, Pogn B. 
NT^SD'N hall: 12: 13. 
NnsipD''t<, OD'K, ODj? threshold: 6: 

4, 9: II, Lidz 5. 
tnpDK? Wohls 2422 (see Frankcl 

ad loc). 
"IDS bind, charm, of magic: 4: i, 

etc.; non^J 19: 14; Af. 

ppl. linnDD Pogn B. ; n'3 

N'TDV, prison, ib. (see p. 

52). 
snos, "N, "v bond, spell, angel: 

4: 3. etc. 
NiiD'S ditto. 4: 3, etc. 
KTDN binding: Lidz 5. 
N1D10 spell: 3:1. 
KmnD'K goddess: 2: 7, etc. (see p. 

71); 
Nmo'X ditto? Ellis 3, Wohls 

2422 (but see Frankel; 

is the form a confusion 

with or feminine of 

N-1D''S?). 

ava wood: 38: 2. 

flN moreover: 3: 11, etc.; «11K, 

Schw I. 
lax turn away: Pogn B, Lidz la. 
'TSK darkness : Schw F. 
'P^sa epithet of pJlD 7: 11. 
DiBisx fraeparatum? : 13: 12. 
NH'^px keys : Pogn B. 
NJniN trap : Wohls 2417. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 



283 



NmiK way: Hal 3. 

K"NmK Aramaean (so read in 

Pogn B, 27, ext). 
nynN earth: 2: 2; spis, Myhr) 

Pogn B. 
CN fire : 8 : 14. 

Knc'K ditto: 14: 7; NHNB^, 

Pogn B. 
xn'CK fever : 24 : 2 ; sntrs Schw G. 
NO'B'K guilt : Schw PSBA xii, 299 ; 

B"3 DVCS, Schw M (see p. 

86). 
^B'X enchant : 2 : 3. 

XS!J"K enchantment, ibid. 
KnCK rump: TitJT, Pogn B. 
ns sign of accus. : Schw M (Heb.). 
Nnx come: 8:9; Af. 'DTr'N, 9: 7. 
jriK = |D5? press?: 38: 12. 
tnnx place: 9: 8; inN nnxa one 

after the other, 38: 11; 

Kina afterwards, Schw 

F; nna in place of, after, 

1 : 12, 28: 2. 



3, '3 in: passim; '"lanQU, 2:7; '3 
KDcp, 2: 3;»«n3, in that, 
Schw I (?). 

'3133 a class of deities: 19: 6 (cf. 
Glossary A). 

J33 an interjectional call for divine 
help, in K3-i XDIE' p3, 
Pogn B (cf. the Syriac 
root ; Pognon, "maledic- 
diction"). 

rin3 be ashamed : impv. pi. niiT'a, 
Pogn B. 

K13 come in: l'K3 Schw G. 

Nf'3 plunder ( ?) : 5 : 3. 



Kta cleave: N'm^T vhitb:, Pogn B 

(see him, p. 50). 
10X3 = insB some form of evil : 

Schw L. 
?t:3 cease, abandon: impv. 7: 15, 
pass. part. 17: 13, act. 
(?) N'^t2S3 Pogn B; Pa. 
undo: 17: 13, 7: 13 k!'D3 
inf.; Etpa. Schw I. 
^It3'3 because of: 11: 8 (cf. ^iti'D). 
KJt3K3 womb: 39: 3. 
"11213? 32: 10, 33: 12. 
p define, specify ( ?) : S3'3, Schw F. 
p3, ■'3, ''3''3 : between: p ... 
r3 , whether. .. or, 3: 5; 
b... '3, between... and, 
29: II ; N''3''3, 'y3, Pogn 
B. 
arz midst: 6: 11. 
nu within :S3''^ n''3 30: 4. 
Knv3 egg: Pogn B. 
B'U evil: 8: 16, etc. 

NniC"3 malady: 34: 7. 
Nnint?'3 ditto ( ?) : Schw L. 

s<ri''3 house, family: prrri'S 12: 2, 
]in'n3 6: 6; Mand. with 
suffix, nri's, 38: I, nn^xs 
Lidz 4; plur. trsn3 38: 
II. Of a sorcerer's 
school 8: II, 19: 17. 

(^3) rb3D, xnb30 class of de- 
mons: 2: 7, 7: 17, 10: 4. 
etc. (see p. 79). 

073 muzzle: 2: 11, Lidz 4. 

ybz swallow up, destroy, Etp. 3 : 7, 

9:6. 
NJ'JU building: 38: 3; of cattle 

barn, 40: 4; construction 

(abstract) 16: 6. 



S84 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 



KnKD'a pillow : Lidz 5. 

xnoiDa in '21... snnbs, a goddess of 

censing, embalming (?), 

Wohls 2417. 

»V2 ask: 4: 6; S"S3, act. ppl. 
f., Pogn B. 

K^j?3 husband: 8: 13, etc. 

tomb^va class of demons (see 
p. 80) : 2 : 3 ; in Pogn B, 

NTV3, Syr. XT3 cattle: Wohls 2422, 
34: 8, 37: 2. 

N-IP3 herd: Pogn B, no. 27 (so 
understand). 

"13, p son, passim; Heb. 13, 41 ; 
plur. e. g. N113 "33, i: 9; 
plur. w. suffix n33 ,11: y, 
29: 6, 38: 4. 
Nm3 daughter : Ellis i ; const. 
n3 passim, m3 36: 2, 
Mand. ns 38:4, nss 
Pogn B (nN3, ri'S compon- 
ent of name Pogn B, ?) ; 
plur. 133 3: 3, nnn33 3: 
5. nhpn^ voice, 16: 10. 
s-131 ^5n33, demons, 29: 7. 

"13 apart in fD 13 19: 15, Pogn B. 
^«■13 the open country: 17: 3, 

29: 7. 
t<"i3 Pa. put outside : Pogn B. 
"K13 foreigner: 29: 8. 
1113 bright, of angels: Schw 
I. 

N13 create: 2: 2, Myhr. 

N113 hail': 14: 3. 

ni3 flee : Ellis i : 8. 

113 bless : 25 : 3 ; Pa. S313 Pogn B 
(= '30?). 

pia flash (lightning) : 12:8. 



Xpi3 lightning: 12: 8. 
snSn3 virgin: 13: i. 

X8J D'N-yj proud: Schw M. 
3J, 3U bend: «33"'3, 2:4; inf. 3S30, 
Etpe., Etpa., Pogn B., Pa. 
reply : 2 : 4. 
S33 hack : 8 : 3. 
K3U lintel : pn'n313 ,6:4. 
b2: knead: 12: 5 (of magical op- 
eration). 
133 be strong : Pa. p333D , 30 : 5. 
N133 man: 7: 17, 35: 7, 40: 

12. 
K133, S1313, Mand. N1K33, K1313 
Strong: 3: 2, 19: 13, 
Pogn A, B. 
Nnii33 might: Schw F. 
bn3 great: 5: 3, b^lin ion Schw F. 
Kn''blT3 woven headdress : Lidz 
2. 
113 wall up (against demons) : 17: 

8. 
13 midst: 133 34: 6, 13^ 13: lO, 13 p 

32: 6. 
113 tie, bind (of a spell) : 29: 10. 
s<ni3 eruption, noise: '3 bsp Pogn 

B. 
K313 color, form: I''3r3 7: 15 = 
I''313 Myhr. 

NB13 body: Hal, Schw Q; nBl3, 
term for a man's inamor- 
ata, 13: 12. 
^13 rob: Pogn B. 
113 inhibit, ban: 7: 13, Pogn B. 
KnTT3 ban: 7: 13. 
t<3niT3 magical condemnation: 
Montg. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 



285 



XD'J (magic) divorce: 8: 7 (q. v.). 
t<"X3iJ Gukaean: Pogn B. 
no-: great: Schw F. 

side: pi. JDU 34: 4; familiar 

spirit: 6:2, 12: 9. 

b: b'hi circuit: oby ':. 25: 7. 

itbabl rock (?): Pogn B (so 
Pognon; or of the magic 
circle?). 

nSjIjJ circuit se'OB' '^J^J Stiibe 

58, Pogn B. 
t<rh:bi spheres : f7:b:^ niu 8:13. 
N^JiJ ditto : O'SS? ifbl-\: Pogn B. 
N^J'J ditto: K'Dt' '^rj, 6:11. 
Knijj, NHK^jy, = x^JsbJ: Pogn B 

(from b:v?). 
ab:, aiD'bi, = to so'b, Lidz 4. 
'li'J engrave : f\''b: TS , 11:9. 

^OJ i^iaJK ? Wohls 2422 ("good 

works"?). 
103 engrave: 36: 7. 

I'OJ completion: pr n'D3 ij? Schw 
F. 

Nrj Jinn: Hyv, prob. 37: 10 (see 

p. 80). 
KnjJ, «ijij troop: 7: 17; species 

of demons 37: 6. 
NX'XJ, NnrvJ polished armor: 2: i, 

27: 3. 

K313 an itching disease: Wohls 

2422. 
K'anj, K'3T3 north: Pogn B. 
XD1J bone, body: 7: 17. 
-"piJ Pa., chain: Pogn A (root 

^i'J ?). 
Konj body: Stiibe. 



1, 1 relative particle, passim; with 
following half-vowel, n, 
e. g. 'JTl. In Mand. T 
for T, 38: 12, 14, Pogn 
A, p. 13. Used to resume 
a preposition, Pogn B, no. 
12, 1. 6 (For omission of 
the particle in genitive 
construction, see p. 39.). 

nn mine : nn^a , on my own 

part, 2:5; mn, his, 30: 

4- 

'bn ditto: 7: 12; n ^nn, in 

order that, 28: 4. 

N3T lurk, of demons : i : 6, 6 : 4, 

18: 6. 
P31 cling, haunt, of demons : 11:6, 

Pogn B. 
131 see 131. 

131, n3n bv on account of: 

25: 3- 
N"i3n pasture land: Ellis 3. 
N3K1310 chariot-driver : Pogn 
B. 
K-'J'T (angelic) cohorts: 8: 14. 
(tn) Kjn judgment, of the last 
day: 4: 4, 19: 8, Wohls 2417. 
in dwell: ;nn Ellis 5, piTn (?) 
Myhr. 

Kin dwelling-place and its 
precincts: 32: 11, 38: 2, 
Lidz 4 (xiKH). 
Nn-n ditto: 29: 8. 
Nmn ditto: 8: 4, 29: 6. 
K-no ditto: Schw E, Hal. 
cm tread down : impv. ptm Lidz 4. 
«-iNnn evil-doing: Lidz 4. 



286 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 



Km chase: Pogn B. 
^m fear: i: 12, Peal and Pael, 
nicm fearful, Schw F. 
wiime terrifying: 35: 7. 
H^iaxn rfm/3oXo(: 35: 4. 
Kin devil: i: 7, 39: 5, etc. (see p. 

74). 
K3T pure: 27: 4. 

Knan place: rnan (sic) Schw G. 

"I3T record: 14: 6, 29: 9. 

nan, Mand. "i3T, male: 6: 2, 

39: 5, Ellis 5. 
KJian name: 28: 5. 

K^T draw up: Pogn B, Etpa. 

K'bno reliever, epith. of Ra- 
phael: 34: 7. 

K7K7T place in Babylonia: Hal. 

m blood: Schw M. 

KDi, be like, appear in disguise, of 
spirits: K'on^ impf. Pogn 
B, Etpe. 1 : 12, etc. 
KDIDT likeness : im 1BT3 ,6:4; 
plur. KHKiDl, 39: 9 (see p. 
82). 

KOT sleep: Wohls 2417. 

"lOT be astounded: Stiibe 47. 

"ipOT a disease ( ?) : 34 : 10. 

(mn) KHJiDeast: Wohls 2422 (so 
Frankel), KJIO, Pc^^ B. 

N"i'2nDT ban-writ : 32 : 4, etc. 

(ppn) Kpm, fem.- Nnpi-n child: 
11:6, KpBnn36:4; 
Kpnn, KpiKT ditto: 18: 6, Lid: 

NJipTiT ditto. Pogn B. 
K3»m healing: 37: i, Pogn B. 
KDi-in south: Wohls 2422. 
nom true: 13: 8. 



KH see! here!: 7: 13, 18: 8 in 
nnesn, Lidz 5. 

KOnn limb (the 248 members) : 
Schw E, F, Stube 56. 

-\in return: 18: 9. 

Kin , Heb. n'r\ be : "in'n , 1 : 2, 4 ; 
ppl. = future, 37: 3; 
Mand. w. prep., ni)'inn, 
38: 13; 'H", Schw M. 

Ki5^^^ mansion: 38: 2, Hyv, Pogn 
A, B, Lidz 2; heavenly 
temple, 14: 3. 

Vl^n thus: 17: 10. 

ran ditto: 8: 8. 

n'-ihbn Halleluia, magical term: 7: 
17, etc.; misspelt, 20: 5, 
24: 4, 31: 8, 32: 12. 

li'n walk : i^KFi'D 3 : 3. 

isn turn: J'ssno, of the angels who 
revolve the planets, Stiibe 
8; Etp. ib. 1. 14, 36: i. 
nson, na'sn, n-sn, laan magical 
terms for reversing 
charms, Ellis 3, and astro- 
logical fate, Schw G (sun, 
earth, stars, constella- 
tions). 
KD'assn a disease: Wohls 2422 
(Frankel reads Kn'Bsn, see 
below). 

K'iKin mental conceptions: Pogn 
A. 

Knrn now: 3: 11, 4: i. 

1 and, passim: n. b. pa^ 3: 3, 
K^Tl 14: 6, ■'KiKO'l Pogn 
B no. 24, KnapjKi 30: 3, 
K'niDKi 38: 12. 

'1 woe ! : 1:9. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 



387 



■ini glaucoma : KnE"3 "i, Stube 44 = 
Wohls 2416 (see p. 93). 

ni, D' in ni3K tike, 37: 10; nib apud, 
3: 3 f\M n' }D from the 
body, Schw M ; nib'D 3:3; 
IT sign of accusative, w. 
noun 3 : 4 ; w. pron. 7:13; 
w. subject of passive ^yb^ 
ninn n^ Schw F ; resuming 
to, 5 : 3- 

"ant flies : Wohls 2422. 

K13T marriage-portion: Pogn B. 

pr buy, Pa. sell : Pogn B. 

"13T see Pogn B, p. 38: "an inde- 
pendent root = (i) turn, 
(2) cherish"; but the 
passages in his bowls can 
be explained by equation 
with "I3n, lead turn, order. 

K-ii3Dt wasp: Pogn B. 

(nr) nno on this side: 13: 7. 

inr Pa. put on guard, Etpa. be on 
guard: Pogn B. 

NJTit corner: 4: 2, Pogn B. 

3lt fly off : nnw I3ir Wohls 2414. 

(Jit) Kir. K1NT spouse: 38: 13, etc. 

(m) 'KT«T success : 38 : 13. 

nir, nnt depart: nrn, jinr Ellis 3 
(see p. 130); Pa. in'no, 
13:7; Etp. nmr 10 : 6, 
NntKnjj Pogn B. (cf. HTJ, 
V1T; see to 3: 2). 

»if, W, spr ditto : pjrt' , 7 : 5 ; 

ppls. yr, rrt 7: 12, = 

Kj?t, rvr, Myhr;ri»nr7: 5- 

p'' impious, of charms: 2: 7, 4: 

I, Pogn B. 

KDUTt impiety: 30: 5. 



NVT glory: 7: 5, Pogn B. 
NJ'KT weapon : Pogn B. 

KJ'T restraint, loss: 34: 12; 
'T ira , prison : Pogn B, 
Lidz 2. 
^I't honey: 12: 5. 

SOT victorious: 37: 11; past n^n, 
JS-'DNt 40: 25, Pogn B, 
Lidz 5. 
xniat victory, etc., parallel to 
sniDS Pogn A, B. 
^bt pour: 12: 5. 
Kno'T hair: Pogn A. 
DT resound: 6: 11. 

Noro resonance: 6: 11. 
lOr Pa. designate (of setting apart 
the magic bowls) : 3 : I, 
31, etc.; invite: Pogn B. 
("lOT) xmnt singing-girl = harlot: 
Pogn B, Lidz 2. 
"IIDTO psalm: 14: 3. 
SiOT a precious stone?: Hyv. 
sn^Jt harlot : Pogn B, Lidz 2. 
'B't hairs, used in magic?: 7: 13 

(see p. 153). 
last foul : Pogn A. 
Kp'r blast: 12: 8; plur. blast-de- 
mons 14: 5, 19: 3; 'pyt, 
Schw M (see p. 80). 
nt equip magically: 4: 6, 19: 13, 
31: 4, 38: 2, Pogn B. 
Nnnt, 'Kit magical equip- 
ment: 38: 13, 40: 2, 
Pogn B, Lidz 2. 
WIT seed: Schw I, Hyv. 
Nn'jnr posterity : 1:8. 

an Pa. love : 13:4. 
K3n love: '3n3, 13: 9. 



288 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 



Nan hide: Etp. Schw I. 

ban Pa. injure, destroy : i : lo. 

Nl^ana the destroyer 9:8; 

travail, of a woman, 13: 

II. 

N^an, 'in injury, destruction: 

Schw F, G, N. 
i6tiin ditto: 7: 16. 
N^'an ditto: 32: 8, 37: 11. 
xnban ditto: 16: 6. 
Nnibn ditto: 32: 8. 
pan embrace, cherish, of angels : 

13:4- 
"lan enchant: 6: 6. 
in one: xnn 4:1; "iB'jjnn n, Enis3. 

Ninn one another: 31 : 6, Pogn 
B. 
■nn Af. surround: 4: 6. 

Nixm (magic) circle: 39: 7. 
Nlirn precinct, property: 40: 
4, w. N"n, livestock, 
mn new: smn, N^nsn Pogn B; f. 
snmn 13: n. 

Kin Pa. show : 37 : 7, Pogn A, B. 

(am) NTn guilty: Schw F. 

N'ln serpent: plur. NnsiS'n, Pogn 
B. 

pn, pnb, without: Schw I. 
Nvno precinct: Schw P. 

Enn quick! magical interjection: 
14: 4 9. z'.; also n'cnns 
cnn', jT?.; nennx Stiibe 
14; tfn' Schw N (between 
angel-names), Pogn B, 
no. 5, end; cf. 'Dn. 

Nrr'ntn a skin-disase : Wohls 2422. 

wn see: 30: 4, Pogn B; Etpe. 
appear: jnn'n 6: 9, etc. 



Nitn apparition: pi. N'JNlin 31: 

10, Pogn A, Lidz 5. 
Krrn ditto: 30: 5. 
Ktan sin: i : 3, 4 (of demons). 

^5NDn sinner: D'yan (?) Schw 

M. 
xnstin sin : Schw PSBA, xii, 
299 (see p. 86). 
flt2n pluck away : Lidz 4. 

Nn'SDn a demon: 8: 2, 8, 12; 
Nnsi'Dn, 17: 4. 
ion switch, plague: 30: 14. 
N'n live: im' 16: 4, ]vn: 36: 6; 
Af. 'nsn of mother, 24: 5. 
N'n hving: 38: 7. 39: 8: pi. 
life: 30: I, 38: 13 (see 
Glossary A), 
xn'n animal: 7: 14. 
Nnrn ditto Hal ; pi. N'jsrn 39 : 
6, NnN'Jvn 38: 3, Pogn 
B. 
n'n^a healing: Schw H. 
b'n Pa. make strong: pb^no pass. 
31 : 5. ( N^^nno, n'b'nn", 
Schw F ?). 
vh'n power: 2: i, pi. srb'n 2: 
2; xnb'o b'na 37: 4. 
(Tn) nanan a skin-disease: so read 
in Wohls 2422 for 'n 
(Friinkel, Niian). 
KD'an sage, in sorcery : 39 : 7. 
(bn) ikb)br\ marriage chamber: 36: 

7- 
'?n sickness : Schw F. 
Na^n milk: Pogn B. 
N»bn, "n dream: 6: 10, 31: 4, 39: 

10, etc. (see p. 82). 
ybn arm: 19: 13. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 



289 



vbn weak: Pogn B. Lidz la. 

NOn father-in-law: Pogn B no. 29 

(but read 'Sion ?). 
Knnn mother-in-law: Ellis 3, 

Schw G (curse of). 
Kcn wrath : Schw F. 
^D^ name of a place : 5 : 4. 
Don do violence: 2: 10. 
1'Ds?n leaven: 13: 12. 
N-ion wine : Hyv, Pogn B. 
Ninn ass: 40: 4, 14. 
smoin pebble-charm : 19: 16, plur, 

I'TDin, N-imn. 4: i, 30: 3. 

38: II (see p. 87). 

po'DC'Dn five of you: 8: 31. 17: 4. 

snC'Dn fifth: 6: 8. 
N3n womb: 36: 5. 
Njn encamp : tvjn'j ? Schw I. 
Nson palate: Pogn B. 
pjn throttle, of a Hlith: 18: 6, Lidz 

5- 
Knxon, KDOn suflferings: Schw M, 

Q- 

'Dn quickly (see to enn) : 13: 9; 

13 'Dn out upon thee, 

Schw M. 
KiD'n grace: 13:6. 

KJiDSn contumelious : 30 : 4. 
bon cease: J'b'on Schw I. 
Don jealous : K'nODKn srs, Lidz 4 ; 

j'DDKn ? Schw L 

(ein)xn''SDn a skin-disease: Wohls 
2422, end. 

fan desire : Schw F. 

S'Vin name of a place : Hal, Schw 
E (Hal. identifies with an 
Arabic place-name; Schw 



with a place mentioned in 
Jer. Sheb. viii, 5). 
hpn twist: Pogn B. 
(snn) xn'jnns a pungent herb ?: 

28: 3. 
3in Pa. lay waste: 38: 11, Pogn B. 

N3"in sword: 37: 8. 
nin Pa. terrify: mi'n inf. 8: 7. 
Nmins a kind of spell : Stiibe 

25- 

Tin a pungent herb ?: 28: 3. 
Din ban: pass, ppl., 7: 17. Pogn 
B. 
DK"in curse: Montg. 
Konn anathema: Schw M. 
Nnmns ditto : 2 : 6 ; also snoin , 
read by Frankel in Wohls 
2426: 2. 
tlDTH Hermon : 2 : 6. 
K Din an eruptive disease: Wohls 
2422 ( read n for n ) . 
Dionn ditto: 29: 9. 
flin Pa. blaspheme: 8: 16. 

f|'"in sharp: 7: 17. 
cin Pa. enchant, poison: 7: 13 of 
water (see p. 84). 
ptnn black arts : 5 : 2, 33 : 8, 
etc., Pogn B (see p. 84). 
KB'in sorcerer (harrds) : Pogn 
B, n'cnn, Nnscnn, masc. 
and fem. 
snciin empoisonment : 39 : 6. 
Kaitrn darkness : 16: 6: pi. X'Sltfn 

Pogn B. 
Dnn seal (magically) : onnoi DTin 
passim; 31: 5, 39: 11, etc. 
KDnn, xDH'n seal: 7: 4, 19: 15, 
38: 7- 



290 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 



KDinn besealment: 9: 11. 
j''Dinn(?) ditto: 34: I. 
Nnnnn ditto: 3: i, 30: i, 38: 

13, Pogn A NnoKDn. 
Nnomn ditto: Pogn B. 

'3t3 gazelles: Wohls 2414. 
bt: dip: Schw F. 
p:D seal: Ellis i. 

nV3B a seal : ib. 
"inta Etpa. purified: 12: 7. 
(31t3) 20 good : 29 : 9. 
KTit3 mountain: 7: 12, etc. 
Dt:D ? Ellis I. 
K^'ts shade : K^D '33 n'C 29 : 9. 

'bt2'D covers (used of the 
bowls) : 4: I. 

I^7t30 herb in a magic recipe: 
28: 3. 
KOD unclean: 34: 10. 

'OiD defilements : 29 : 7. 
n^ta Pa. defile : Pogn A. 
Nniyo false deity: pi. Kmi?tD Wohls 

2422, snjro ifc. 2426. 
K3Blt3 the deluge: 10: 5. 
Tib Af. frighten away: 7: 17. 

tilMO disturbing: 't2 wtn 30: 
5- 
niB trouble: Schw I. 
«1"IB tear, pluck: 18: 6 ppl. of a 
lilith. 

sriB-iiB, ''B talon, toe: 19: 19; 

pi. N'B-iiB, Pogn A, B. 
xnaiiB agitation : Lidz 4. 
DaniB etc. some part of the heart: 

11:7 and parallels. 
EHB stop up, of the ears : Lidz 4. 



N' interjection: nn S' 14: 7, nn\ 

^■•\irinn 1. 4. 

^3" bring: nK^iK, Pogn B, no. 28. 

CD' dry up : Pogn B. 

T hand: 'niT 19: 14, htk 34: 13; 
'TK bv on side of, Schw 
E; T3 per, 8: 13; TT'nn 
"b^l "T 7: 12; KHT their 
hand ?, Schw E, Q. 

3n' give: 36: 4, Ellis i. 

«DV day: 4: 4 (of judgment). 

KDC day-time: 3: 3. etc.; 
NBNO'X 39: 10; XOKDV 
Pogn B. 

ni^' bear (children) : i : 8. 
Knb' child: 36: 6. 
sbsilB parturition: 39: 11. 

KD" sea: 7: 12, 8: 9, 14: 2, Pogn B. 

SO' adjure: SJvaB'Bi sroio 7: 16, cf. 
40: 5, etc. ;n'ci88: e.Ti'OiK 
17: 8; with bv 8: 12. So 
understand polO eiica, 
Schw I: 5 (not "water 
magic"!). 

snoio exorcism: i: 12; pi. 

TriNOiD Lidz 5. 
Kn-Dio ditto: Schw L 
WD' right-hand: 6: 10, Pogn A. 
N-DTi south: Pogn B (with 
s'aij ). 
-ID' = nos: 1 : 12. 

np\ np'K a disease : Wohls 2422, 
Schw G (who reads npIN 
— the preceding 'is'ss is 
misspelling for this, plus 
S, and). 

Tp' burning, of fire: 4: 7. 
Nip' glory = name : 8 : 6. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 



291 



TpK' glorious, of the Name: 

Lidz 5- 

ST throw: KilD, Lidz 4, pierced 

with a lance ?, but see 

Lidz, and cf. 11V. 

Knmx the Law : Hyv, Michael 

prince of the L. 
sn'mo javelin : 1 1 : 7 and par- 
allels. 
tCTW '-W Jordan (mystical river) : 

Pogn B. 
KnT month : 6 : 5, Pogn B. 
KpT greens: 18: 6. 
NnTT howler (class of demons) : 
15: 6, Myhr 2, Schw G 
(see p. 81.). 
En' inherit: nTicniD? ElHs 5. 
(jC")Knrc sleep: 6: 10. 
an' sit: 13: 7, etc.; impf. ist per. 

3'nv Pogn B. 
Kin' bowstring: 2: 5. 

3, '3 like: '3 12: 8, n Kin '3 32: 4; 
'3. ..'3, correlative, 13: 7; 
13 Pogn B, Lidz 5; N03 
Ellis I ; ni3K 37 : 10 ; K^'t<3 
as if ?, Schw F. 

3K3 Af . put in pain : s<3'30, jKaysSD 
Pogn B, Lidz 2. 
K3'3 pain, sickness: Wohls 
2422, Pogn B. 

133 prevail : bv 13=^ impf- Pogn B. 

^33 press down (technical phrase 
for the bowl magic): 4: 
I, 38: 12, impv. pcan 
Lidz 4; Etpe. 6: 9. 
^5E'^'3 term for the bowl: 6:1, 
etc.; Koby ''E'3'3 (?) 28: 
2 ; step of a throne 12 : 6. 



313 deceive: 32: 9, Pogn B. 

K3n3 so: 16: 8. 

snK3T3 'm!? 7:9? 
TI3 artificial parallel to nn ? : 

Lidz 5. 
NTn pitcher: Pogn B. 
K3313 star : 4 : 4 the 7 stars ; 34 : 6 ; 

Hal, Schw E. 
bl3 hold: ^3'D inf. 4: i. 
113 arrange: 'nr3 ist pers. 15: 5. 

S33D residence: Pogn B. 
'':V2 planets: Ellis 3 (see § 3). 

KB''3 stone, as charm: Ellis 3 (read 

KD13 ?). 

K33 tooth: Lidz 4. 
^3, bi3 all: 7: 6 (both forms), etc.; 
}Xobl3 , everyone, Lidz 2. 
sWs garland: 13: 11. 
snbs daughter-in-law: Ellis 3, 
Schw G. 
Kn''3^3 bitch: Schw L. 
"i»3 Etpa. return: Pogn B (see him 
p. 20). 
s<ioi3 priest: 19: 10. 
'■103 magic ?: Wohls 2426. 
snioSK magical practice : Stiibe 
2. 

['3 so : 3 : 11; I'sa therefore, 9 : 7, 

here, 25: i. 
(K33)Knsi:3 associates: 19: 9. 
8D33 wing: Pogn B. 
KnB":3 congregation: '3 n'3 'ID'S 

Wohls 2422 (see p. 79). 
D3 abridge, blame: Pogn B. 
KDD, «DK3, 013 (incantation) bowl: 

7: 13, 31: I, Pogn B 

(KD13), Lidz 5. 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 



ND3 Pa. cover: 13: 6, Pogn B. 
K'DS covering: Pogn B. 
KniD3 ditto: 13: 6. 
ND'S, N'D-iis, throne: 8: 14, 14: 3. 
(nya)^ tl-ij?3S ugliness, a disease ?: 

34: 10. 
NDE'a menstruation : 29 : 7. 
"IB3 disbelieve: Pogn B. 
^'3 ? in '3 "nn , Wohls 2422. 
KJmi3 sickness: 7: 11, Wohls 

2422. 
TI3 avert, reverse, Pe. Pa. Etp. : 

Pogn B, Lidz i a; Wohls 

2422 (?). 
N3n3 sphere, orbit (astrological 

term) : N'sns sassTT 'tnn 

NVinsD N''J»mi : Pogn B. 
K3n3 Wohls 2422, see N3n3n. 
''KlE'3 Chaldaeans : Hyv (see ^K'tDS, 

Gloss A). 
Nt3En3 honesty : Pogn B, Lidz 2. 
«1B'3 Pa. bewitch : Pogn B, Lidz i a 

'Dt:'30 for 'Btrso ? 

fllE"3 sorcery: Schw L 
■i'B'3 decent, of a good demon : 29 : 

7- 

3n3 write, of the charms: 9: 3 etc., 
Pogn B. 
san3, Nnans writing: Ellis I. 
Nn3''n3 written charm: Ellis 3. 
(ins) "113 Pa. remain, so under- 
stand NnNn3Ds«b Nmnsb, 
of the demons not return- 
ing or remaining, Lidz 5, 
and cf. Noldeke, Gr. § 45. 

b to and sign of accusative 
passim; with suff. ''3'^ 



fern. 7:9, 10; K3b = '3^, 
17: 10; a^b to me, Pogn 
B, etc. In composition, 
pn^n'3, i: 6, and passim 
in Mandaic with verb and 
pronominal suffix, e. g. 
r\b''P''2Z> I have divorced 
her, 32: 9; for bv , 19: 10; 
with verb to denote pur- 
pose, D'jbn^, Pogn B, no. 
23, 1. 45, 46 (cf. bv). 

iO not, passim; in Mand. com- 
pounded with following 
word, e. g. 38: 8, nasb. 

(ss<S)"'bs3 labor, asthma?: '3 nn 
16: 9. 

Nl'^, Nal^''^ heart: 28: 5, etc.; 
N3b'^ 11:7 and parallels, 
19: 18. 

ca^ be clad: 2: 2, 8: 3; Af. 13: 6, 
Pogn B. 
NCns^ garment: 2: 2, 13: 6. 

c:b see cpj. 

»^b be attached to: pncj? P^ of 
demons, 6: 3, K''l^no Pogn 
B. 
S'V^ company: Pogn B. 

C\b curse: Stiibe 4. Pogn B, Lidz 
2 S'losb. they cursed him. 

Nntilb a curse: 5: i, 31: 4, 

Pogn B; Ellis 3: Nnt3^; 

Schwab M pi. TQ^b (see 

p. 84). 
NDiLJN^ ditto: ^!nx''t^^t3^«b pi. 

Pogn B. 
NJcb species of demons: 20; 

3- 

Ci^i Pa. soil: tmb'tlsi^D, Pogn A. 
XDnb food : Schw F. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 



293 



fro enchant: 5:1. 

''^ob species of demons: 9: 7, 32: 

5. 7- 33: 5, 34: 9, 10; 
N3KD^ Montg. 

H'h'b, rt>b'b night: i: 13, etc.; H'bb 
Pogn B. 

"•yb male counterpart to lihth: 8: 

21, etc. 

NTl'^'b lihth; i: 8; pi. KiT'b'S 

and XHN'W ; n. b. nnVb, 

nb'^, 13: 3, 6 (see p. 75). 

ffpb impv. np, recipe, repeated term 

in magical formula : Hal. 
KJB"b tongue: 13: 2; tongue of 

curses, charms, etc., 4:1; 

Pogn B, Lidz 4 (see p. 

88). 

SO 100: stDnbn 38: 5: isa, priND, 

200, Schw E, F. 
vhio sickle, weapon of angels : 7 : 

17- 
Kin» rotten: Pogn B. 

t3lD remove: 't30, imp. fem., 17. 

II. 
po suck: 18: 6. 
niD die: "ni 'n'D ppl. VVohls 2417. 

KHiD death: 3: 6. 

in'D ditto: Wohls 2422. 

Kn'JnoD killer, fem.: 36: 5. 
(TD)Knr3» hair: pTK'tJD Pogn B. 
xnio brain, head : Schw F. 
Kno strike : ppl. pi. ino 6:4; pnoTi 
Etpe. 18: 7; Lidz 5. 

xnno stroke, plague: 16: 6. 

Knino ditto: 40: 8. 



KTrno ditto: snx'no Pogn B, 
KnN''n''D Lidz ic. 

KTinsD city: Pogn B (see N313). 

Kn'NtinKO of Mahoza : Pogn B. 

NCD chance on, reach : Pogn B ; Af. 
bring, 25 : 5. In Pogn B 

nroDJ (= nytDOJ), from 

KVO? 

NniCD in '03, I pray: Wohls 
2417. 

blCO, Mand. ^itJro, bltsros with T 
and verb, because that: 
4 : 3, Lidz 5 ; w. '? and 
inf., in order to : 2 : 6 (cf. 

^IDU ) . 

N'D, 'D, 'O'O, Heb. D'O water: »'12 
''K''3, a disease, Wohls 2422 
(see p. 93) ; KIT'S 'CO 18: 
6; 'CNnno "07: 13; 'K'nd 
my w., Pogn B ; D'O of the 
heavenly sea, 8 : 14. 

Ki'O kind, species : i : 8 ; species of 
magic, Ellis 5. 

730 eat (denominative) : 37: 9. 

70 Pa. speak : ppl. Schw G. 

Kni)D Mand. Kn^v^o; pi. r^o, 

Mand. N'^JO, word, espe- 
cially of incantations: 6: 
12, 12: 9, 34: 5, 38: 6, 
Pogn B. (see p. 85). 

Nn^bo ditto: 6: 9. 

K^So S^K^O ditto : 27: 5, 38: 8. 
abn be full: pK^on' 12: 7. 

K'!?"© flood: Pogn B. 

K3KbD angel, passim as title of evil 
spirits, 4: I, 37: 8, 38: 6, 
Wohls 2422 16; of dei- 
ties, 36: 5. 



294 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 



Knaxbo female angel = god- 
dess: Pogn B, no. 15 of 
Estera ; in his no. i4"it<nD5; 
'O N'aN^D, prob. fern, form 
(Pogn "queen"). 
XB'KiSd zodiac-.sign 19: 9(?), his 
constellation (cf. Glos- 
sary A). 
K3bo king : 34 : 8 of Solomon ; Hyv 
of Michael; ib. I^so of 
God (Arabism? — so 
Noldeke, p. 295) ; 11 : 5, 
18: 4, k. of demons. 
sna^D queen: 19: 6, q. of god- 
desses. 
Nfinl^O kingdom: Wohls 2417. 
p, gen. fo from, passim; 'DD (?, 
Schw F 'D Schw H ; w. 1 
assimilated 13: 6, 17: i, 
Vo 17: 5; 'i'^'O from me, 
Lidz 5, N'b'T I'D ditto, 
Pogn B. lOETD = -\r2v2, 
Wohls 2426, and his note 
p. 29. 
KJD Pa. ordain : Schw F, arrange 
'n'2D 15: 5. 
snxJD portion, in marriage : 
pi. sriNlJD Pogn B. 
NDD melt: 9: 6. 
noD denom. fr. -idx, bind: 32: 7, 

33: 8. 
N^'VO robe: XiD'n 'D 13: 6. 
S'VVD intermediate (of the middle 
of the three spatial re- 
gions) : K^SSO S'nsi'V Pogn 
B. 
■IXD bind : Pogn B, Lidz 2, S'pnyn 'O 
(so Pogn, and cf. Ass. 
masaru, but see Nold. 
Mand. Gram. 84, n. 2). 



(nD)nnn bitter: 2: 3, 4: 4, epithet 
of devils and charms. 

K-isno bitterness : Pogn B, and 

plur. snK'iK-in. 
(Kia)Kno lord: of deity 19: 5; as 

human title, snoiT id Schw 

E ; of the sorcerer Lidz 4 ; 

construct "lO , Hyv, gen. 

no, 18: I ; 'nnn his lord, 

12: 6; pi.. fn'SiKD Pogn 

B, jinmo 28: 5. 
smD ■'■=t'-e^s. la "v ^vn^ , our 

lady 19: 5; lady of dead 

and living Wohls 2417, 

Pogn B sriN-iKO. 

niD rebel: Schw F. 

mo rebel 11:9. 

Kntyo oil: Schw F. 

snn town: Ellis 3, opposed to «-i3 

nno stretch out: Pogn B, Etpa. 

V3J plague: 16: 4, VJ^K 29: 9. 
13 move, etc.: Stiibe 62. 
m: Pa. excommunicate, expel: Pu. 
ini:D , Hal — Schw E, 
s-iutD Schw M; see Lidz's 
note on KiiO = vr,\Q ? in 
Lidz 2. 
n'3 (?) excommunication?: 
Ellis 3. 
KiTJ vow, ban, in magic : 5 : 2, 7 : 
13, 32: 12, Lidz 4 Kmyj 
(see p. 84). 
sin'J he is ( ?) : Hal. 
-inj Af. make clear, name ( ?) : 7 '■ 

9- 
KTin: light: 16: 6, also Ninj 
Pogn B. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 



295 



ni3 tremble: Pogn B; p'SD , Pael 
pass, ppl., Halevy (see § 
3). 
N113 commotion : Pogn B. 
niJ rest: Etpe. nan'K, 2: 6. 
Nnnj rest: Pogn B. 
Kni3("3?) in 'Jinoin?. Schw 

R. 
Kn'J rest: 16: 7, Schw E. 
KniJ fire: 8: 13, 14: 3; charms of 
fire 15: 7, 34: II ; Gabriel 
prince of fire, Hyv; light, 
in '3 'n I : 9. 

K'nu pepper: 28: 3. 
nn depart: ntrn. 5:1. 

(^tJ) ^bm, K^tD constellations: 
34: 6, Ellis 3, Schw G. 

PpTJ class of evil spirits: 21: 
23: 2. 

PP'TD class of evil spirits : 7 : 
II, 14: 6, I'ptJD 23: 4 
(see p. 75). 
KETiJ bronze: 4: 6, 6: 11, 15 : 7. 
nnj come down : 8 : 7, 12:5; Af. 2 : 
6, 27: 9 (of angels, 
curses). 
it33 Pa. guard: 7: 9, 35: 6; Etpe. 
10: 3, 32: II. 
KiBJ, 'KJ guardian: Wohls 

2417, Pogn B. 
smn:, 'ndj guarding: 35: i, 

38: 13, Pogn A. 
Nmt3D ditto: 7: 13. 
KnmcJD wardship: 35: 6. 
ni3J before : Schw F. 
D33 Pa. butcher: Pogn B. 
K-^senaw stranger: Pogn B. 
tfaj bite: Schw L, Q 02:. 



DJ Af. afflict: pD'Dn, 17: 6. 

NDi Pa. prove, try: riK'DJ she has 

proved, Pogn B. 
sri'DSJ trial : Pogn B. 
no: take up: 4: 6, 28: 3, Pogn B; 

impv. f. pi. a'D 17: 9. 
ID'J Nisan: Wohls 2422 (see p. 

55)- 
nsJ blow with the breath: Schw F, 

of demons blowing on the 

brain. 
tS3 fall: impv. I^IS Wohls 2414, 

Pogn B. 
vhsi^3 ':'-\2 a disease: 29: 7. 
pSJ go out : pIB' 3:11; impv. piS 36 : 

2, 'pia 8: 10, ips, PS 

17: 6. 7; Af. Njp'SJno 

Myhr = sap'SD 7: 12; 

inf. upsitb 9: 8, w. suff. 

32:8. 
"IS3 Af. put to flight : msjK Schw 

F(?), see § 3. 
ttZ's: Hfe, person: 7: 13; 2: i, 

Pogn, OT of one's own. 
KV3 wrangle: Pogn B, Lidz la. 
nv3 be victorious : Hal, of a star ; 

SDC Dien '3, Schw I. 
Kjnv: viitorious: Schw I. 
(Npj) xnipj libation: 36: 7. 
(apj) 5lp3 Pa. perforate : Pogn B. 

Dp3 distinct 'onunciation : 'J 
D'npj lino 9: 6. 

Knapj woman, female: 30: 4, 
na(')p3 Ellis I. Schw M; 
unypz 30: 3, xnap': (most 
common form, sing, and 
plur.) 6: 3, 8: 2, 37: 10; 
Knap'J 8:8; Knapij , plur. 
KnsopiJ, Lidz 4, 39: 6, 



UNIVBRSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 



snsapj Pogn A. 
Knap'O curse ?: Schw I. 
tapa, Mand. Qib grasp: 4: 6, 7: 17, 

16: 8, Pogn B Pe. and 

Etpe. 
H2^: trap: Wohls 2414. 
NnnB"3 spirit, of man: Schw G, 

KnCB^J 39: 2. 
ItfJ blow, of windblasts : 12 : 8. 
1T]3 Hif. permit : Hof. pniD, Schw 

G. 

3KD Pa. make unclean : sasDD KTV3 

Wohls 2422. 
JND pass. ppl. soiled, foul : sriKrsD 

39: ID, K'rND , m. nl., 

Pogn A, xriKi'D Pogn B 

(cf. K3D). 
30 turn away: 8: 13. 
NJD Af. walk: 12: 6, Pogn B. 

'JD numerous: J'JD pi. Schw 

Q- 

NID stocks, for the feet : 39 : 4, 

Pogn A KmsD. 
K'JNTD, 'ND bases, of the world: 

Pogn (p. 77). 
DID, Dt3D close up: XDDNDDI KOHD 

38: 10, NDTDO 40: 21. 
DHD Sodom. 
Nno row: 2: 7, 27: II. 
KD'taiD seducing spirits : 35 : 4 (see 

p. 80). 
NODID mare : Wohls 2414. 
«11D in 'DT NOV Red Sea: 34: 4. 
KS1D end: Schw F, fO^j; «11D^. 
tiriD seize : Pogn B, Lidz la. 
f\nD put a cover on : pass. ppl. ns^d 

38: 12; Pa. 7: 17, Pogn 

B. 



Kino magic art: snnD 39: 4, Pogn 
A, B, possibly in Nnoa KTD 
= 'noa NTHD , Lidz 4. 
Xt2D go astray : i : 9. 
N^DD, N^iiDD Lat. situla ? : Schw F, 

bis. 
XJtOD a satan, Satan : 2 : 3, 5 : 4, 
etc.; KJNDD 19: 3, 40: 8; 
Plur. 35: 3. 
N1DD writ: 'aaiTn 'D 26: 6. 
Niti'D side: 6: 10. 
NB^D sword: 37: 8. 
N3D, NStf look at: Pogn A, of the 

demon's glance; Schw I. 
730 Af. commit offence: 4: 2, 5 
(inf. ''^30N) ; Etpa. be- 
come wise Stiibe 48. 
(t3D)Nnir3D''0 poverty: 34: 12, 
Lidz 4, as object of exor- 
cism ; 16: ID, genius of p. 
"130 close up: 13: i. Pa. Lidz 4. 
N130 astrological term = 
pole? Montg. 
nPO Selah, magic word, 5 : 7, 36 : 8, 
etc. ; nbso 20 : 5, 24 : 6 
(see p. 63). 
xn'^'D cage-work: 19: 10. 
pbo go up: p'^D 3d pers. 32: 8. 
D'p'bo ist pers. 9: 7. 
NnpNDD ascent: Pogn B. 
NOO (?) poison: Schw F. 
100 descend upon : Pogn B. 
NijNOO left hand : Pogn A ; s^oc, 6 : 

10. 
'poo a place in Babylonia {Yeb. 
I2ia, '0 ■'03N), home of a 
demon : Wohls 2417. 
XJD hate, in ppls. only : act. 'JO 
2:1 = '>N30 27: 6; pass. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 



297 



5: 2, 39: 6, Pogn B (cf. 

Knro hatred: Lidz 4. 
e|3D Pa. gird ? : Pogn B. 
N1VD hair: 8: 3. 
NriB'D lip: Lidz 4. 
'ID stench: 'ID nn, 16: 9. 
K31D species of demons: 7:11. 
Niri'D destruction: 16: 6. 

K"i<nD loosening: 16: 6. 
"ino hide, protect : Nifal 25 : 2. 

xmno pi. secret arts? Ellis 3. 

nav make: 12: 6; of a magical 
work 9 : 2, 32 : 3 ; Pa. use 
as a servant, Pogn B. 
Hliv servant : 34 : 7. 
xnav magical practice : Schw 
F (for this and following 
terms, see p. 51). 
N113V ditto : 32 : 3. 
Kl3iy ditto: 9:1, etc., Pogn B, 
Lidz 4 Nnsoij? ; of the 
Jewish cult 29: 12. 
Nnayo ditto: 34: 13, Ellis 3, Schw 

F, M, Stiibe 10. 
"iDJf pass over, transgress : 32 : 8 ; 
1 : 9. 7: 3. 6: II 12':. 
■13V, I3'y across : kd' -in'r JO 8 : 

9 = lavD 17: 10. 
«^U"'J? grain: Hyv. 
NmnosD passage: Pogn B. 
»h:v in 'V3, soon: Schw M. 
IV eternity, with obiy: 2: 15. 
XTV time: pi. K'Ty 26: 5. 
Njny ditto: 6: 6, Pogn B. 
HIV go away : 5 : i ; Af. 7 : 17. 



IV unto: 4:4 = KDlJ? 19: 19; 
with inf. 'b KDij; 34: 11 ; 
"\ "W as long as, Hal. 
Npnj? lock of hair : Pogn B, Lidz 2. 
■nj? Pa. help: Schw L 
tib)V embryo: 39: 3, Pogn B. 
NB1J? bird: 7: 14. 

plj? be in distress: ppl. pi. snxpK. 
Pogn B; Af. press, ''n''P''j;K 
13: 3- 
ppy so Hyv in 1. 4; read fP'T. 
t<npK distress : Lidz 4. 

"111? Pa. blind: pass. ppl. kiino 
Pogn B, perh. in NniD Lidz 
4- 

(rv)xriK strength: 6: 11. 

srty strong: fem., epithet of 
Dilbat 28: 5, of deity 38: 
7, of spirits and witches 
Pogn A, B. 

NMJJ sheep: 40: 4, 14. 

NtV Etpa. persist: 34: 10. 

snanj? in 'yn noin . Schw R. 

snpt'V seal-ring : of the sorcerer : 
17: 12, Ellis I, of Solo- 
mon 34: 8, of God 8: II, 
ring of fire 15 : 7. 

"ICIV ? 32: 10 = 33: 12. 

«rv eye, the evil eye : Knt5"3 'V 5 : 4, 
Lidz 4, njn 1"» , Ellis 5 ; 
various possessors of the 
evil eye 30: 3 (see p. 89). 

KinV temple: Pogn B; class of 
evil spirits, 38: 8, 40: 19, 
Pogn B, Lidz 4 (see p. 
72). 

bv enter: jibv'J 29: 20 = p^^yj 30: 
10; ppl. r^'N 38: 14. 



298 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 



b''bv w. "Thv, out upon thee: 
Pogn B. no. 28, 1. i, = 
Heb. bv r\b'bn (so better 
than w. Schwally, scn^T, 
fr. Ass. elelu lament, Or. 
Lit-Zeit. ii, 7 f.). 
{«bv) bv . Mand. bn unto, upon, to 
(freq. for ^. cf. pa-bv and 
rn^. 8 : 3, 9, and in gener- 
ally in Mand.), passim; 
"n abn. by Life! 40: 6, 
18, cf. 40: 5; w. suflF., 2d 
fern., sing, ■'ybv Schw F. 
I^V 36 : 3 ( urt^bv ? Schw 
F) ; 3d pers. in'i)v Schw 
F, 'ni^y Stiibe 32 ; 2d plur. 
pa'S^V Pogn B ; 3d, yabti, 
pn'sSs , Lidz la ; HKibv 
(upon him ? Schw G) 
until Pogn B, why Schw 
G ; alternating with 'ixSj? 
Pogn B, no. 28; insc^j?, 
how, why: Pogn B. 

b^)lb above: 19: 10. 

'iW against: myv , against 

him, 37: 8, pn^isSy, Pc^ 

B. 

K'K^J? superior, epithet of ce- 
lestial gods : Pogn B. 
iT^V height: 'JJT K'^Dis Hal. 
obv, D^IJ? eternity, in formulas : 
nW D^)V -iV i: 15, D^yb 
3: 5. pobv eiiob Schw F. 
X07J? a kind of injury: Schw G 

(see p. 93). 
DV, D'jr with: i: 13. 6: 3, 35: 6; 
'1 D'yi, and also (?) 1:3. 
soy people: n'Doy 13: i, of 
tribes of angels. 



nnjf stand: 8: 14. 

sprsiv depth : Pogn B. 

ii-\my Gomorrha : 2 : 6. 

NB'O'B' '33y a herb used in magic : 

28: 3. 
Knp:y, 'X necklace charm or spirit : 

7: II, 29: 7, Myhr 6; 

NDpJX. 16: 9, masc. plur. 

"pjn , 12: 9 (see p. 88). 
snss; dust: sisxa. Wohls 2417; = 

Heb. may, Montg. 
xnp'j; magical knots, as class of 

('emons: 34: 10 (see p. 

88). 
-ipj? uproot: p'pj?, Hal; Pa. 8: 15; 

Etpa. 9: 6. 
xmpv barrenness, spirit of: 

11:3. 
(aips?) X''3pix(i) scorpions: Pogn 

B. no. 27 (Noldeke). 
(315/) xmyo west: Wohls 2422, 

Pogn B. 
(2iv) any sweet: Ellis 5. 

NOny a kind of disease: Schw G 

(see p. 93). 
XD-iy, 'S bel: 7: 17. Lidz 5. 
s'l'Sny darkness : Pogn B ; plur. 

Montg. 
p-\y flee: pny 3: 7, pn-r 3: 11; 

impv. ipn'y Ellis i, P^'^\V 

Lidz 5 (cf. mp). 

ncy make: 9: i. Schw Q, Wohls 
2422 (of magical prac- 
tice). 

DCy oppress : ppl. kocy 34 : 9, of a 
class of demons. 

"IW ten : 'y in , Ellis 3. 

Xp'ny, 'n old : Pogn B. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 



299 



Siniy a Mand. genius : Pogn B, the 
3 Uthras. 

s and: 'taoB 17: 11 (see t2in), 

na'KB, see under np' (see 

p. 105). 
DJS Pa. mutilate : i : 10. 
yJB encounter 12:2. 

KV:a plague, class of evil 

spirits: 7: 14, 15: 6 (see 

p. 92). 
KnvJB, Nn'y:a fern, of above: 

Wohls 2426, 16: 10. 
"iJB Pa. break: i : 11. 

tnis body: 7:6, 19: 15, 38: 

9- 
"Its scatter: 8: 2, in a magical 

phrase. 

KiKns potter: Pogn B. 

KilB potter's vessel, of the 
bowl: 9: I, 32: 3, 33: 1. 

"it3B banish, divorce: 9: 9, 15:8, 
etc.; Af. Lidz 5 (see to 8: 
7). 
Kmt3S exemption: 17: 12. 
KniB'B divorce-writ: 8: 7, etc. 
las Pe. and Pa. bind : Pogn B. 
ibs divide inheritance : Pogn B. 

Nibs half: Pogn B. 
DIB, na mouth: 13: i, Lidz 4; 'B Sy 
nin' 5:5; 'KKK 'Ba 20 : 5. 

D'JB face: 'Jan, Schw F. 

K':a in 'B naiy; Wohls 2414. 
DB break : 7: 17. 

pDB cut : 28 : 5 ; Etp. spB-av Pogn B. 
^pB command: 36: 3; Af. Lidz 4; 
Etpe. 35 : 6. 



KmpB command: 38: 6, pnpKB 

(w. suff.) ib. 
NnpiB ward, imprisonment : 

34: 6. 
ypB burst open: spa'J 6: 11. 
^B Af. break, annul: inf. "iB'ts Stiibe 

I, 44, p'BO Ellis 3. 
TIB scatter, bewilder: 7: 16. 
K^na iron: 2: i, 15: 7, 38: 5, Schw 

L 
n-iB flee: Schw N, Hyv 14, Stiibe 

49 ; also prob. in pma ma 

I : ID. 
CIS determine, of a decree : Lidz .[. 
sa'iB shrine-spirit: 38: 8, 40: 19 

(see p. 72). 
DIB scatter: 28: 3, 4. 
KB1V1B person : Pogn A, of demons. 
P"iB separate: TPTB, 17: 13, ist per. 

plur? 

KJpiB deliverance: 4: 5. 

tna Af.-Hof. ppl. of the pronounc- 
ed Name: B'niBDn noc, 
Hal; BHiBD Dtr II : 9 = 
scnao HDW , Lidz 5 ; of 
angels rJDinoi j'BnBO Stiibe 
59; Af. in Schwab L 
warn? 

ma Euphrates : Schw G. 

ccra Pa. stretch : 2 : 5 = 27 : 7. 

"iCB break, annul (charms, etc) : 
pmCfBDl pm'tf'B Pogn B, 
of the magic divorce 1 1 : 
7- 
Kitra, smsE'B annulment : Pogn 
B. 

SDSJn'B word : 37 : 7. 
Nnn'B doorway: 6: 6. 



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UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 



'lana image-spirits : 5 : 2, '"i3»ns , 2 : 
7, 38: 8, Pogn B, Lidz 4, 
npriB Schw Q, pa-ns fem. 
pi. Ellis 3 (see p. 72). 
snnanB idolatry: 37: 6. 

(NKV)sn"'V filth: 'V ■'CD 18: 6. 
yas dip: Schw F (?). 

xyas'S finger: Schw F. 
eilV mutter: eillSD, JBXD Schw F. 
"ilV bind, with a spell : 6 : 6, 7 : 2, 

29: 5- 
"iiv draw, depict: 11: 9 ^ Ellis i. 

xmis figure, on a seal: 15: 7. 
niv obey: 'niv f. impv. 8: 10. 
tnv stink: Pogn A. 
«T)S ray of light: 7: 5 plur. 

n^VV glory: 12: 7. 
«1?V scourge : i : 10, Lidz 4. 
K31S''S north: Wohls 2422. 
"IBV morning: 26: 5. 

KiV cleave: snss cloven (hoofs), 

Pogn B; Etpe. 6: 11. 
K311V side: Schw G. 

Np emphatic part, in xpBN, 7: 14, 

17: 12. 
K3p collect: 37: 4. 

bap receive: 6: 11, 37: 7, Pogn B; 
impv. lb'3p Ellis I, ^J'as'p 
Lidz 5. 
K^aV counter-charm: 6: 2, 32: 
8 (see p. 86). 

n'?3lp7 against him : Schw E. 
sinp, Kiaip tomb: Wohls 2422, 
Pogn B. 

Ntiap ditto: Pogn B, no. 5. 



xnp in Lidz 5, but see mp. 

DTp, DNip, Dlip before, in sing, and 
plur.: mpjD, n'CKip, 'nionp 
3: 7, 9; Syr. nDnp34: 7. 
tin^Dip, 36: 5, nioip 37: 
8; Dtlp I» 25: 2, DSlip 
Pogn B. 

DP, 'Dp ditto : 'Dpb Ellis i, nop JD 
from him, 13 : 2. 

HKDlp pristine : 33 : 11; Adam Kad- 
mon 10: 3; of Mand. Life 
and Nebat, Pogn B. 

K'^^pnip ( ?) tresses : Pogn B. 
trmp holiness: Schw M. 

cmp holy, the Holy One: 

Schw L 7: 15- 
KCnp ditto, particularly epithet 
of demons: 4:1, Pogn A. 

Dip arise, stand : ppl. act. TD'p 2 : 7, 
D'p 13: 8; pn-'D'p Peil 
form, Wohls 2417 (of 
the resurrection) ; Pa. 29: 
10; Etpa. 16: 4, 8: 17, 
etc.; Af. pb'D'psD, Pogn 
B. 

KDip Stature, person: \vtimp 
Pogn B. 

NHDip ditto: 2: I, 19: 3, Pogn 
B. 

DipD place : Schw M. 
SDlp'D ditto: Hal (of cattle). 
Ijdp, bui kill, of demons : 3:2, 4, 36 : 
4, etc; sbaw Lidz 5 (cf. 
Glossary A). 
"iDp bind, of magic: Schw L 

S-IO'P spell: 7: 13, 28: 5, Hy/. 
NTp pi. wax figures : 39 : 7. 
(bp) »bbp curse : 5 : 3. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 



301 



vhp, K^Kp voice: 7. 11, of the client 
13 : 9, of the witches Lidz 
la; Nbpna the magical in- 
vocation, 16: ID (see p. 
84). 

synp amulet: 2: i, 10: 17, 29: 5, 
Ellis 5 (see p. 44). 

KnDip vault of heaven?: Pogn B 
(zodiac?, see Payne- 
Smith, col. 3650). 

Knop = SDOp ? contortion : 34 : 10. 

xrjp, '"p possessions: 2: 5. 34: 3 
(the Mandaic use for 
"cattle" not assured, in 
34: 8 'p may mean small 
cattle). 

'DJp person(?): 'DJp 'TDS Schvv I. 

(np)NT-ip cold: Pogn B. 

Nip call, name: 16: 5, 36: 4, )^p''b 
demons read the inscrip- 
tion, EHis 5 (see § 3) ; 
Etpe. 3 : 2, Pogn B snpn. 

snnp magical invocation : 7 : 
II, 16: 10, Pogn B, Lidz 
4 snnpx (see p. 84). 

Nnnp ditto: 35: 4. 

NJNnp ditto: Pogn B. 

N"ip chance upon: 18: 10, Ellis 3. 

np mishap, pollution: Schw 
G, 1. 8 (so possibly, see p. 
92). 

3ip approach: 6: 10, etc. 

aip, Tip near, neighbor: Ellis 
3. Hal, fem. snanp, Schw 
G. 

N3N-1P battle: Lidz la. 

mp, Nnp flee: 18: 9 = Nnp Lidz 5 
(metathesis of pij?). 



pp horn: Pogn B, Lidz 2.; of a 
magical figure 12: 5. 

Npnip link of a chain : Montg. 

Nnapip head: 2:1. 

(t5'p)E"E'p old: 19: 9. 

'B'p hard, painful: pi. ^■'Vp 7 : ir, 
Wohls 2422. 

NDE'p bow: 2: 4. 

NtrNi, NE^T, NtTNT head: 19: 19, 

Pogn B, 4: 5. 
rrCNT beginning : Lidz 5 ; creation 

11:9, 18: 12. 
21 great : 4 : 4, etc. ; fem. T\2'\ ,4:5 
'-I snVE' , 38 : 10, Wohls 
2417 '-I 'DN grandmother, 
NTisai Pogn B;3-i, '31 title 
8 : 8, etc. ; plur. fai Schw 
L xnxain Pogn B, 'aian 
masters 16: 8. so N'ain 
39: 7- 
Nnai usury : Lidz 2. 
NJian ( ? ) master : Hal. 
(j?3t) vaix four: 4: i, N'3-in Pogn 
B; pD'npa-is the four of 
you, 8: 13. 
PV31X forty: Schw E. 
sn'SJ'a-i fourth, fem. : 6 : 8. 
NHn wrath: 16: 3, 37: 8, 39: 7, 

Wohl 2422. 
t6:-\ foot: 19: 19. 

N-irb ditto: 38: 12. 
N^rj ditto: Schw L 
N-i3'J ditto: 12: 8. 

b'Jt hobbled: 38: 10, 40: 21, 
Lidz 4. 

son stone(?): Pogn B, D^n Lidz 
2. 



302 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 



^i-i shake ( ?) : Lidz 4. 

yi? 34: 5- 

nn, xnn spirit, of man: snn siJS 
NnDB":i Pogn B, plur. 
K'm-i Lidz la, Pogn A; 
gen. of evil spirits, 8: 16, 
etc., plur. ninn Schw F, 
'nn 16: 8, etc., as masc. 
30: 3, cf. Ellis 5 nyn nn 
napjiiat; ttrfb'b n 30: 3, 
••bus no '1 16: 9 (see p. 
74). 
xnn perfume : Pogn B. 

(on) DT. DN1 high: 14: 4, Pogn 
B. 
Nnon, NnoKi height: plur 9: 6. 

34: 5- 
KOOn ditto: Schw G. 

N01-1D ditto: 32: 8, KOiKnoPogn 
B. 

sn, STK1 mystery, of magical 
rites: 6: 11, 7: 13, 28: 3. 
37: 4, etc. (and see p. 
85). 
bxam name of a place or sanctu- 
ary : 19 : ID. 
Dm Pa. have compassion: 13: 4; 
D''3nn''n(?) Schw L; ppl. 
Dm loving Schw I. 
'om love of God: 3: i, 11: 2, 
Schw E. 

Nnom love: 'I 'n love rites, 
28: 3. 

DJm name of a place or sanctuary: 

19: II. 
pni be far : ppls. spm Schw G, p''m 

Hal; Pa. 14: 2 Lidz 4; 

Etpe. 8: 17, Lidz 4 

pKnx-iny. 



^5V'■| crop ?: Hyv. 
313-1 chariot: 8: 13. 

xnaano ditto: 14: 2, 25: 2, 

Pogn B. 
SD1 cast down: 9: i, )DT act. ppl. 

6: 4, 'cn pass. 7: 17; 

Etpe. lioin 14: 7. 

xron (the divine) beck: 19: 8. 

STNDT one endowed with the 
evil eye ?: Pogn B. 

DO"i trample : i : 10. 

XDOn reptiles : 7 : 14. 

TBI prick, bruise: 18: 6. 

NtTDl evening: 26: 5. 

Onnon name of a place or sanctu- 
ary: 19: 12. 

yi evil : Ellis 5. 

Nnijji will, pleasure : 12:6. 

"iB"i encamp: 2: 7 (but cf. 27: 11). 
X1B1D camp: 2: 7, 27: 11. 

VST lift, remove (Noldeke eft. 
Arab.) : rvs^n, Hyv (who 
supposes Nsn) . 

Kpn spn "le crachet a ete crache" ? : 

Pogn B. 
XTpi dance, of angels: 12: 8. 
srpi firmament: 8: 9, Stiibe 61; 

Mand. xn^pi, X'vpn, pi. the 

seven N'nvpi, Pogn B. 
xniEn authority: Stiibe 61; men in 

center of bowl No. 20. 
Dien signing, of a name : KDC '"i, 

Schw I. 

C Heb. relative: NV■'t^•e', UNtr, Schw 
M ; magical element, see 
p. 60. 

bxK' ask : n'b'«z> 4 : 6. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TBXTS. 



303 



ijINK* hell : blKC V^C seventh hell ? 6 : 

12. 

2r burn: 33nC'3 28: i. 

Ka^B* class of amulet-spirits: 15: 6 
(see p. 88). 

(nac) snann praise: 29: 12. 

Ktsac, KnaiK' plague, plur. class of 
demons: 12: 4, 10, 15: 6, 
35: 3. Hyv (see p. 92). 

K^-ar road : 5 : 4. 

paB' Af. adjure, in exorcism: ri'vaCK 
I«'by 1 : 8, 3 : 3 ; Mand. 
rraCK, I adjure, 40: 5, 
Pogn B (assigned wrong- 
ly by him to satf). 
vac, sya'c, nvac, nyac seven: 
6: 7, 19: 4, 4: 4, etc.; 
Mand. K'aKC, vaiC, Pogn 
B. 
fpac seventy: 7: 17 of angels, 
Hyv of spells. 

snjriaK' oath : Schw I. 
Nn'raEJ' seventh, fem. : 6 : 8. 
pac dismiss, divorce: np'aE' 17: 2, 
32: 9, 40: 22 nb'p'ac I 
have divorced her; Pa. 
Pogn B. 
pia'C divorcement: 8: 13, plur. 
9: 5- 
lac Pa. break: Schw G. 
Kiair "nid" ? : Schw F. 
nac cease : r^'ae' Schw E, }tn''n''aK' 
Wohls 2426. 
KnniaE' residence?: Schw I. 
■iJtS' Etpe. dissolve like water : 2 : 

II ; burn, 28: i. 
CJC Pa. disturb: i: 11. 

KE'JK', KCJIC commotion: Pogn 
B. 



nJC disturbing: 24: 4. 
STC plur. demons : 2 : 7, 7 : 14, 

Pogn B, etc.; rDTB-? 

(read pt^aic?) Schw G, 

etc. (see p. 73). 
sn'JTB' she-demon: 7: 14. 
Kltf throw down : Pogn B, so nB' in 

Stiibe 50? 
■nc Pa. send: 36: 3, Pogn B (also 

Peil forms). 
Kmic a form of magic (see p. 

86). 
KJmtJ'D sender: Pogn B. 
Xir be equal: in ppl. O niCK, like; 

Pa. set: 37: 11, Pogn B. 
nsmr lust: 28: 4. 
(Die) D'C eye-tumor: 34: 10. 
f\^v crawl, of witches : Pogn B ; 

rub(?) ib. 
lie leap forth: ppl. TCig: 14. 

S^Nl{^' leaper, ephialtes: Pogn 

A (see p. 82). 
Nilc wall : 4 : 6, 34 : 4. 
we Pa. overthrow : inf. K'EnSB', 

Pogn B. 
NiniB' bribe : Pogn B, Lidz 4. 
nine' worship: 8: 14. 
]rw burn, with love: inTiB"3 28: i. 
Knsinc consumption : Schw G (see 

P- 93)- 
a'pne* the ether: 29: 11. 
Nmntr slumber: 7: 16, 8: 11. 
xiiriB" black, of a kind of demons : 

Schw G (see p. 80). 
Tine' emancipate : demons who are 

not I'mncD Schw I ; ■nme'D 

Schw R. 
vrw song, charm : 32 : 9, 33 : 4. 



304 



UNIVBRSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 



23C lie: sexually of demons, i : 13, 
11:8; Af . set down 34 : 5. 
lay a ghost 16: 11; lay a 
spell 34: 5. 
K33e"0 (n»3) bedchamber •."]■.■]. 
8: 5, 19: 3. 

naty find: Etpe. 8: 7. 

NJa'C? haunter, species of demon, 
so Noldeke to Hyv, ZKP 
ii 296, perhaps better read 

NDrac Shekina: 14: 3, snxjac 

N'nai Pogn B. 
NJOCD abode, of demons : Ellis 

3 (Halevy, ntro). 

xn:nB'a dwelling: 34: 2. 

xn'blC' foetus: Pogn B, Lidz ib 

(Noldeke, exortion). 
Nnain^C flame: 14: 7. 
npET send, send away : 8 : 3, Hofal 
8: 13; Mand. \r\v , Etpe. 
N^ne'j;, ii^nnt'vJ , Af . n^CN 
inf. K'W: Pogn B. 
8<3S^L"0 sender: Pogn B. 
xhv rule : JiD^'CTi 6 : 10, Peil tin'O'^E" 
Stube 51. 
XCS'^C ruler : 11: 5. 19: 12, 17, 
Lidz 4. 
ibc send forth: Schw F. 
D^C Af . deliver : Lidz 4. 

vxh^ peace: 13: 12, 37: 10, 
lbs 'C Wohls 2417. 

KDDX'N 'K" initiatory rites, in 
magic: 12:9, 16: 10, 35: 
4, Hal, Schw E, M, Stiibe 
2; Nnobe' Pogn B (see p. 
85). 
^■Pfh^ ghost, or demon : 8 : 2. 8, 12, 
17:4. 



Die, Noes' name, passim : plur. niD'E' 
9: 6, iin'DC 14: 6, inot? 
Ellis 3. NnnoiE* NniDCNnsot? 
Schw G, Nnnoif 16: 8; 
Mand. NDic 38: 7. plur. 
IVXCC 40 : i; D)V2, in the 
name of (deity, angel, 
sorcerer, or the charm- 
words following, e. g. 6: 
7), passim; n. b-n'ocb 28: 
I, nOB'O 95; DIcbsT of 
whatever name i : 13. 
HKit' lay waste?: none" Schw L 
N'DB' heaven: 9:6, 11:2 (= God), 
etc. ; 'ODB- Schw L N'O'DB* 
Schw Q, N'DIB' Pogn B. 

PDB' hear : 8 : 10, \'3'bv VOC' 8:3: 
Mand. ITOIC I heard Lidz 
I a = 'NDitr Pogn B. 'NOic 
impv. ib., Etpe. lioncn, 
j'Z?., Pa. inf. tiD'yiD'C'!? 8: 7. 

IDE' guard, keep : 5 : 3. 

^m> Pa. serve: Stiibe 60. 

NfOC sun : 28 : 3.B"'OSB' 30 : 2 
(cf. Glossary A). 

nnc Pa. ban : Hal, Lidz 4. NnnOE'D 

epithet of lilith 34: 13, 

35 : II, Etpa. Wohls 2426. 

NnDf ban: 8: 6; plur. JsnOE' 

Schw I, KnriDtr Stiibe 12. 

NJC Pa. change one's place: 36: 2; 
bewilder, make mad : 7 : 
16. 

NriE'year: 6: 5, plur. 'JE' 6 : 6 
(see also NDE'n). 
(NVE')NnyE' hour: 4: 5 TUi 'E', 26: 
5- 

Nnii;B' mocking mischief of de- 
mons : Schw G, cf. Ii.TyB', 
EHis 3 (see § 3). 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 



305 



Tyc satyr, species of demons: 
D'Tyc 5:4 (see p. 80). 

Kmj/C a fever ( ?) : 11:3. 

j'CB'K' Hyv, read J'tsaiB'. 

N^ES't? abasement(?) : Schw F. 

ma'C excommunication Stiibe 12 
(see p. 53). 

'V'C destroy: inf. n'VB' 7: 17; come 
forth : S'VB' Schw M. 

Np'S? pi. the Arabic it^-demon: 15: 

5- 

Kpcto water: Pogn B, Etpe. 37: 9. 

ypc deposit, of the bowl-practice: 
srpB' 32: 3, 33: I. 

W take off: 11 : 8, Lidz 5. 

fipc strike . 11:6, Lidz 5. 

snDip'E' blow, affliction, a 
method or result of magi- 
cal practice : 12:9, Ellis 
5, Stiibe 2, Wohls 2426, 
2414 sniB'pc' Lidz 4 (see 
p. 86). 
Nnaipne"S ditto: 16: 10. 

NXp'E' vermin: 7: 14. 

nc Pa. bind, magically : ■nC'' Schw 
G, inf., nnt:' Schw F, ppl. 
31: 5, IT- 4- 
TIE' firm, of charms: 3: i, 13: 

8, Lidz 5. 
Kmitf, authority: Schw L 
nmr spell: Schw G, with Cl^. 
snUTienD? Schw L end. 
NIC prince: Schw L 

tnc loose, dwell: 12: 2, 34: 11, 
piB* impv. pi. Lidz ib, 
with suff. Lidz 2, ditto 
fem. 'KiC Pogn B, e. g. 
no. 15; Af. to lodge, 14: 



3 ; Etpe. be loosened, 19 : 

4, Hyv, Pogn B KiKC'D, 

SIC diarrhoea: 34: 10. 
KnailC tribe, of demoniac species: 
7: 17, 38: 6, 40: 17 the 
360 species (cf. p. 80). 
tntr Pa. uproot: N'triB' fem. pi. 
impv. ? (but see Lidz, p. 
93, n. 9, = root NIB'). 
NnN^tntr chains: 39: 5. 

NJ^B'^B' enchainment: 34: 11. 
NHB' drink: inf. nTiB^'O Schw F, 

impv. 'Nnt^N 36 : 7. 
(ntr) ncc six: 11:9. 

ITT'E', t'e^C 60, in enumeration 
of demons, etc. : 19 : 8, 38 : 

5, Lidz 4, Hyv. 

"lan break: 40: 12; Etpe. 40: 12, 
Lidz la; Pa. "laKn, Lidz 
2. 

nuTi (Noah's) ark: 10: 5. 

N3Kn crown: NVP WSn Pogn B. 

NOjn military division : plur. n'OOJn 
13: I, of demons. 

NOinn, SDin abyss, always in plur: 
Schw F, G, Pogn B N'»in 
N"nnn (Pogn as though 
= Nomn, black). 

3in, Din again : 2 : i, Ellis i ; mn 39: 

II, Lidz 5. 
Iin in lino, out of : 9: 5. 
Klin bull 40: 4. 

nnn.n'nn, etc. under :i'nnn Schw F, 
n'nn under the hand 7: 12 
= ninn 16:6; Mand. S'nin 
38: 12, isn^n Pogn B. 



3oe 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION 



'tcnnn inferior : Pogn B, see to 
NDinn. 
(nn)lOin loss, damage: 34: 7 (see 

p. 94). 
Kn^an abortion : 11:4. 
^n hang( ?) : nbbn'K Schw F. 
rhn three : nsbn Pogn B, Konbn 300 
38: 5; ;i3'nbn, 113'"''^" 17: 
4, 8: 3- 
sriTi'^n third, fem. : 6: 8. 
pn there: 14: 7, 19: 14. 
Din see 3in. 

K'JOn eight: 8 spirits, seals, 19: 4, 
Schw E, F, Pc^ B. 



'Jon 80: 19: 9, w. suff. ]S3son 

Lidz 4. 
Kr:n monster, of Leviathan: 2: 4, 

6. 
Ipn Pa. make fast: 19: 10, 29: 11. 
fl'pn mighty, epithet of magical 

arts : Hal, Hyv ; of deities, 

etc., 34: 9, 40: 19; of the 

sorcerer 34: 2. 
pn two: 4: 4, Pogn B; pn^nn 

two of them, 34: 4. 

Nni'^'n second : fem. : 6 : 8. 
Tin Pa. divorce: 17: 3. 

N3n'n divorcement: 26: 6. 
(Njr-in) NTn gate:'Pogn B. 



PRONOMINAL FORMS 



1st per. K3K: 2: i, 5, 4: 6, etc.; k:k: 

II : I, Pogn B; "JK : 14: i. 
1st pers. pi. NJnjs : i : 14. 
2d per. f. "nJK: 26: 3, 8: 8, 15 (or 

plur.? q. v.), ns3S 38: 4. 
2d pers. pi. m. and fem. JiniK : 19: 

13; mJK: Schw F; IinK:4:7; 

rnas: 8: 8; "nJS: 8: 8, 17: 

3(?)- 
3d pers. (also demonstrative) : sin 

8: 7, etc., 32: 4; in: 39: 8; as 

copula ^?1^ Kin; 9: i, 32: 3; 

Ninn Schw F; X'n: Ellis 3. 
3d pers. pi. prn: Pogn B; P'^^n: 32: 

7. 33: 7; ni'K. njs: 13:4. 35: 

6 ; rrn : Schw J, Pogn B ; in 
Schw Q. 
Demonstrative, masc. p : 8 : 16, 
10: I, Ellis 5, Hal; pn : 3: 5- 



7:16, Stiibe 43 (these forms in 
stereotyped phrases, cf. K3n(3) 
16: 8); pn: 3: 6, TKnn 28: 
4, pun: Pogn A; KJn (Syr.) 
31: I, 2; soKt : Schw F; 
KT (?): 18: 5. 
Demonstrative fem. sin : 1:4, 35 : 
6, STNn Lidz 5. 

Demonstrative pi. T^n : 6 : 7, xo : 3, 
31: 5. 35: 9, 36: 5. Pogn B; 

rb'N: Hal 2; n^'N, '^'N, ni)N: 
25: 2, 5. 
Indefinite (l)!^: 2: 2, ISO 27: > 
Pogn B ; NO, in soa, SD3, Sonj>, 
insD^V(see these prepositions). 
"'T'S those who( ?) : Wohls 2414. 
DifiJ'O: 5: 2, DyT0,2: 3, 12: 
10, 29 : 8, mo Ellis 5. 



■hoi 



GENERAL INDEX 



GENERAL INDEX 



Abraxas 57, 99, 151 

Abatur. 71, 96, 261 

Adam 166 

Aeon 198 

amulets as objects of exorcism 87 

angel of death 79 

angels 

= charm words 86 

evil 79 

= gods 79, 97, 99, 241 

invocation of 57 f. 

mystical names of 97, 197, 208 
Arabisms 24, 85, 102, 105 
Arabic magic and demonology 44. 

80, 187 
archangels, Michael, etc. 96. 
ardat lili 76 
armament, magical 137 
Armasa 99, 123 
ascent of the soul 227 f. 
assonance, magical 61, 185 f. 
Asshur 21 
Athbash 60, 184 
attestation to magical texts 48 

Babelon, E. 18 

Babylonian magic 42 f., 47, 55 f., 

58, 59, 62, 64, 69, 7T,> 82, 85. 

87, 91, 109 f., 152, 187 
Bagdana 171, 198 



barbarous words 59 

baskania 68, 78 

Bel 239 

beasts exorcised 44 f. 

Berlin Museum 19 f., 21 

heth-el 72 

Bibliotheque Nationale 18, 19, 21 

binding in magic 52, 85 

black arts 84 

blanket formulas 82, 120 

blast spirits 80 

Borsippa, 21 

bowls and bowl magic 

age of 14, 102 f., 116 

Arabic 14, 21, 44 

description of 13 f. 

forged 14 

origin 50, 57 f., 68, 100, 106 f., 
116 

praxis, 40 f., 51, S3, 162 

Mandaic 15, 20, 21, 30, 37 f. 
244 f. 

as objects of exorcism 88 

paleography of 27 f. 

provenance of 14, 16, 43 

Syriac 15, 16, 21, 32 f., 223 f. 
brass in magic 137, 187 
British Museum 13, 16, 17, 18, 21 



(309) 



310 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 



Casanowicz, I. M. 21 

cattle in magic 49 f., 234, 242, 246, 

253 f- 
Charles, B. B. 44 
charms, etc 86 f. 
children in magic, s. women 
Christian magic and demonolog)' 

67, 90 f., 99, 107, 115 (s. New 

Testament) 
Christian names 50 
Chwolson, M. 17, 18, 27 
circle in magic 42, 88, 152, 250 
Constantinople Museum 13, 15, 21 
constellations, zodiacal 135 f. 
countermagic 53, 83, 137 
cultns 51 
curses, magical 84 

dastabira (Persian) 228, 52 

date of bowls, s. bowls 

David 184 

Day of Judgment 135, 235 

demonology in New Testament 78, 

91 f. 
demons and demonology 

= she din 73 

= depotentized gods 70 

divorce of 158 f. 

= ghosts 75 

good 76, 151 

haunts of, s. haunts 

= idols 72 

insanity caused by 153 

king of 74 

legions of 80 

metamorphosis of 153 



murderous 238 f., 240, 261 

names of 68, yj, 81, 158, 171, 
262 

number of 71 

threatening of 131 
devils (dewin) 73 f. 
Dilbat 217 
diseases 

as objects of exorcism 89 f., 171, 
189, 205, 219, 234, 235 

female 94 

s. eye, fevers, skin 
divorce, magical 158 f., 172 
dreams 82, 206 
duplicate texts 42, 145 f., 167 f., 

203 f. 

eclectic magic 58, 64, 106 f., 115 
Egyptian magic 53 f., 55, 58, 59, 

62, 64, 91, 114 
ckurru 72 
El-shaddai 191 
Elija 259 f. 
Ellis, T. 16, 18, 23 f. 
Ellis, W. T. 21 
cmpusa 78 
enmity exorcised 87 
Enoch 124, 134 
cpesu 51 
ephialtes 80, 82 
epic in magic 62, 65 
evil eye 88, 89, 222, 257 
evil angels 79 
evil spirits 74 

excommunication in magic 53 
exorcism 51 f., 55, 68 f., 83 f., 89 f. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 



311 



(s. amulets, bowls, diseases, 

enmity, poverty, sin) 
exorcists 46 f., 233 
eye diseases 93 

facere 51 

familiar (spirit) 142 

fevers 93, 171, 205 

figures, use of in magic 53 f. 

fire in hell 131 

fire in magic 122, 187, 235 

formulas, 61, 85, 185 f., 199 

Fraenkel, S. 20 

Gabriel 96 f., 234 

gallu 262 

garment, magical 123 

gcllo 68, 78, 262 

gematria 61, 261 

ghosts 43, 72, 75, 82 f., 157, 201, 
207, 251 

ghul 81, 157 

Gnostic terms 151 

God, gods 56 f. 

gods depotentized 70 

Gottheil, R. 20, 258 

graveyard magic 43 f. 

Greek magic 43 f., 53, 55 f., 58, 59, 
61, 62, 64, 69, 82, 85, 87, 91, 
107, III, 113, 197, 214 

Greek names 50 

Griinbaum, M. 19 

Gula (goddess) 129 

gylo 262 

hair in magic 153 
Halleluia 63, 202 



Harran loi, 123, 239 
Halevy, J. 17, 18 
haunts of demons 76 f. 

in deserts 78 

in house 76, 143 

in shrines 71 
heart in magic 216 
Hecate 58 f. 
hell, 131, 144 
herbs, magical 182, 216 
Hermes 99, 113, 123 f., 150, 208 
Hermon 126 
Hillah 16, 17, 21 
Hilprecht, H. V. 41 
house magic 42 f., 49 f., 177 
hydromancy 40 f. 
Hyvernat, H. 19, 21, 41 

idols as demons 72 
incantations 51, 52, 56, 139 
inciibi and succubae 78, 82 
insanity caused by devils 153 
invocation 

of gods, angels, etc. 57, 95 f., 
197 

in black magic 84 
iron in magic 53, 122 
Ishtar 70, 245 
istarati 71 

Jackson, A. V. W. 22 

Jesus Christ 227 

Jewish magic 50. 106 f., 108, 112, 

149 
jinn 80, 105, 157 
Joshua (Jesus) b. Perahia 226 f., 

46, 159, 161, 225 



312 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYEONIAN SECTION. 



kabbalism 65, 114 

Khuabir 20 

king of demons 74 

King, L. W. 21 

kiru 250 

knots, magical 88 

labartu 68 

lamia 78, 81 

Layard, W. 16 

lead in magic 187, 249 

legions of demons 80, 179, 244 

letters, magical, 59, 163 

Leviathan 125 

Levy, M. A. 17, 27 

Lidzbarski, M. 20 

lilith 68, 75 f., no, 117 f., 156 f., 

158, 209 f., 235, 245, 259 f. (s. 

witch) 
Logos 123 f. 
losses exorcised 94 
love charms 178 f. 
love of God in magic 129 
love magic 44, 178 f., 213 f., 238 
Louvre 18, 19, 20, 21 
Lycklama museum 19, 21 

magic 

assonance and rhyme in 61, 

18s f. 
clients of 49 f. 
epic in 62 
figures in 53 f. 
fire in 122, 187, 235 
Great Name in 131 
invocation as form of 84 



rites of 52, 85, 216 

personality in 48, 66, 112 

praxis of 51 f. 

propitious days for 55 f. 

reciprocal 47 

and religion 57, 65, in 

Scripture quotations in 62 f. 

sealing in 53, 130, 191 

s. Arabic, Babylonian, Christian, 
Egyptian, Greek, Jewish, New 
Testament, Persian 
mam it 52, 84 
Mandaic religion 39, 71, 96, 239 

texts 20, 21, 37 f., 244 f. 
Manichean script 34 
Markaug, B. 19 
marriage charm, 238 f. 
Mazzikin 75 
Metatron 98, 113, 208 
Michael 96 f., 98 
Moon 222, 239 
Montgomery, J. A. 21 
Moses 47, 107, 233 
murderous demons, s. demons 
museums, s. Berlin, British, Con- 
stantinople, Lycklama, Penn- 
sylvania, Washington, Win- 
terthur 
mustalu 152 
Myhrman, D. 20, 145 
myrtle 181 

mystery rites in magic 52, 85, 243 
mystical words and meanings 59 f., 

176 
mythical and apocryphal allusions 
64 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 



313 



names 

personal 49 f. 

of demons 59, 261 

of gods, angels 56 f., 58 f. 

as charms 85 f., 11 1 
Nannai 240 

necklaces as charms 87 f., 186 f. 
New Testament magic 75, 78, 

91 f., 107 
Nippur 13, 16, 21, 103, 113, 129 
Nirig = Nergal 171, 239 
Noah 166 
Noldeke, T. 19, 20, no 

Okeanos 200 
orthoepy 61, 222 

Pahlavi 14, 20, 22 

Palestinian dialect 29, 131 

parakku, pairika, 73 

patkara 72 

Pennsylvania, University of 13 f., 

20 
Persian magic and demonology 55, 

70, 116 
personification in magic 58, 89 f., 

94 f., 99, III 
Peters, J. P. 13 
planets as evil spirits 71, 135 
Pognon, H. 20, 41 
poisoning exorcised 84, 153 
poverty exorcised 94 
praeparatum 182 
praxis of bowl magic, s. bowl 

magic 
punctuation 29, 32 



Rabbinic texts 27 f., 117 f. 
Randall-Mad ver, D. 13 
Ranke, H. 21 
Raphael 96 f., 234 
rhyme 61, 185 f. 
resurrection, charm for 160 
reversal of charm 63 
Rodwell, J. M. 17, 18, 24 
rubric for magical rite 175, 182 

Samhiza 198, 271 

sappu 88 

Satan, Satans 79 

satyrs 80, 140 

Schwab, M. 18, 24 f. 

Scripture quotations 62 f., 109 

sea, spell of 125 

sealing 53, 64, 130, 191 

Sebaoth 149, 151, 164 

sedu 73, no 

Selah 63 

Seth 166 

seven in magic 75, 79, 139 

Seven spirits 79 

Shema 62 f., 209 

sibilants in magic 60, 220 

si'lat 157 

simulacrum in magic 176, 216, 250 

sin exorcised 86, in 

sipHi 51, 109 

sixty as sacred number 71 

skin diseases 93 

skull in magic 21, 256 f. 

sleep exposed to magic 143, 153 

Solomon 53, 64, 80, 173 

sons of light 119 



314 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 



sorcerers, evil 83, 250 
spirits 

evil (ruhin) 74 f. 

familiar 142 

seducing 80 
Stube, R. 19 
Sulzberger, M. 44 
Sun 222, 239 
syllables, magical 60 
Syriac texts 16, 21, 32 f.. 223 f. 

tabi'u 142 

Talmud, magic and demonology in 
40 f., 43, 46, 49, 61-64, 71. 
77, 85 f., 108, 119 f., 139, 143, 
173, 189, 214, 219, 257 

threatening of demons 131 

three hundred and sixty 71 

tin in magic 249 

Tonks, O. S. 22 



umra 51 
utukki 54, 68, 73, 75, no 

vampire 81, 157 
vows, magical 84 

Washington National Mseuum 21 
water in magic 235 
wax in magic 250 
Winterthur Museum 19 
witches, witchcraft 78, 235, 261 f. 
W'ohlstein, J. 19, 25 
women and children, objects of 
charms 49, 77, 238, 240, 249, 

259 f- 
words, magical 51, 57 (s. incanta- 
tions) 

Yhvh 56, 60, 150, 210, 224 

zakiku 80 

Zeus 200 

Zimmern, H. no 

zodiacal constellations 135 f. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 



315 



GREEK WORDS 



oyyfAof 79, 91, 198 
aXKeTjtvia 63, 202 
ifitjv 63 
avd^efia 84 
PaatXeic 1 76 
Saiiwvtq, 6ai/i6viaaai 74 
ielva 261 
iid^oh>i 80 
elSuXov 72 
tif TO bvojia 215 
iKK^t/aia 79 
£7rt/cA7/CT(f 52, 84 
C7rwf5ai 62 
i^iaXxJic: 80, 82 

jtarodeii', defigere 52 

Karadea/io^, defixio 44, 53, 54, 85, III 
/coTe;|;(5/Z£VOf, )cdro;fof 79 



tw<"' 250 

^(iyoc iepof 51, 84 

bpKOi 84 

irapeSpo^ 1^2 

irara^pa 72 

vpayfia, npa^iq ej 

<Ta/la 63 

iT^ua 73 

arpayyaXla 24O 

aul^eiVj auTi/pia, aoiri/p c^^ 12Q 

raxh 60, 181, 184 

reAfioi 86 

Telerii 81, 85 f. 

ijiapftaKOTroila 84 

^vXaKTriprnv 44 

;i:pE'«' 51 



3n 



PLATES 



Prefatory Note 



The concave spherical surface on which the bowl texts are inscribed 
precluded their reproduction by photography. At the best only a half of the 
text can be obtained satisfactorily by the camera, as the pair of photographs 
at the end of the Plates will show. Accordingly the texts had to be copied 
by hand. 

Soon after the bowls came to the Museum, Professor Jastrow, of the 
University, and Professor Gottheil, of Columbia, undertook their publica- 
tion. They secured the services of Mr. Horace Frank, Architect, for auto- 
graphing the plates, a considerable sum of money being raised to meet this 
expense. Subsequently Drs. Jastrow and Gottheil gave up their plan of 
publication, and when Professor Hilprecht, then Curator, put the bowls into 
my hands, I fell heir to Mr. Frank's labors. I found he had prepared about 
75 plates, but of these I have been able to use only 23, covering my Numbers 
2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 16, 17, 24, 28, 31, 36, 37, 38, 40. His other plates were 
copies of broken and mutilated bowls which were not worth publishing (see 
Introduction, § i ) . It appears also that not all the good texts were placed 
in his hands, or else that he did not complete them all. 

There is only one drawback in Mr. Frank's excellent reproductions, 
cine which however does not impair their accuracy. Working without much 
direction and knowing nothing of the language, he often broke a word at 
the end of the line and carried it over to the next. I have seen no reason to 
repair this technical error in his copies, but have guarded against it in the 
work of the later copyists. 

There thus remained of the texts which came to be included in this 
publication twenty-five which still required autographing. Shrinking from 
this tedious mechanical labor, especially after an expert hand had preceded 
me, I was very glad to avail myself of the kind cooperation of Professor 

(319) 



320 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 

Gordon, Director of the Museum, who offered me the expert services of his 
staff. Consequently, under my direction, the remaining copies were 
prepared by Mr. WiUiam C. Orchard (Nos. i, 5. 7, 10-15, ^9- 21-23, 25, 
27, 29, 32, 34, 35). and by Miss M. Louise Baker (Nos. 20. 26, 30, 33. 
39)- 

The style of Mr. Frank's copies conditioned those for which I am 
responsible. He had abandoned the spiral arrangement of the originals and 
made his reproductions in straight lines. This method may be faulted as 
not giving the exact form of the original, but this demerit is small as com- 
pared with the advantage to the scholar of having the whole text lying 
before him at one glance without his being under the necessity of turning 
a bulky volume around and around to follow the spiral career of the text. 
I was therefore quite satisfied to retain this method of reproduction. 

It may be remarked that all my decipherment was made entirely from 
the originals ; only after my own work was finished did I compare Mr. 
Frank's copies. In a few cases I was able to improve his facsimiles, in 
several cases his copies, which were made when the texts were fresher and 
more legible (they have manifestly faded under exposure to light), have 
helped me correct or enlarge my readings. The other copyists also worked 
independently, and then we compared our respective results. The coopera- 
tion of others, expert copyists, with the author has thus tended to a full 
control of the accuracy of the facsimiles and transliterations. 

I have finally to speak in the highest terms of the artistic and pain.s- 
taking labors of these two gentleman and Miss Baker, whose assistance has 
afforded me so great relief. 



CATALOGUE 



TEXT PLATE CATALOGUE SIZE DESCRIPTION 

NUMBER ID ceDttmetres, 
heicbt by diameter 

1 I 8693 6.5 + 17 Broken and mended, with two 

holes. Written inside and out in 
large coarse script, .5 cm. average 
height, rude spiral design in center. 

2 2 2945 7.2 + 17.4 Broken and mended. Fair, 

large characters. .4 cm. in height. 
In center two large figures, one in 
reverse position to other; one of 
which appears to be making a sign 
with his hand (as against the evil 
eye?), probably the sorcerer, the 
other with feet hobbled, the de- 
mon. 

3 3-4 2963 10.3 + 20.5 Broken and mended, with a 

segment 6+12 cm. missing. Flat 
boss. The rim of the bowl has a 
double edge. Fair characters, 
.3 cm. high. In the center figure of 
a demon, armed with helmet and a 
sabre and spear in either hand, and 
his feet manacled. 

4 4-5 2923 7.5 + 17.3 Broken and mended, small seg- 

ment missing. Characters .4 cm. 
high. In the center figure of the 
sorcerer waving a magic bough. 

321 



322 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 



TEXT rUTE CATALOGUE SIZE 

NUMBER in ctntimctrM, 
height by diameter 

5 6 2952 7+18 



6 7 2916 6+15.8 



7 8 16007 5-6 + 157 



8 8-9 9013 8.5 + 16.6 



10 9010 6 + 17.7 



10 II 16014 6.9+14.2 



II 12 16022 6.3 + 16.1 



DESCRIPTION 

Slightly broken and mended, 
with small fragment missing. 
Characters .4 cm. high. In center 
rude figure of a demon with four 
arms and one leg. 

Perfect bowl but for a fracture 
which does not touch the text. 
Small circle in center. Characters 
.3 cm. high, rather crabbed. 

Broken and mended, with a 
square fragment of text missing. 
Fine, clear characters, .2 cm. high. 
In center circle with cross. 

Broken and mended, with two 
small fragments missing. Charac- 
ters .2 cm. high. In center obscene 
picture of a lilith with hands and 
feet bound. 

Perfect bowl. Characters much 
obliterated, .4 cm. high. Circle in 
center. On exterior four short 
lines in Hebrew. 

Broken and mended with seg- 
ment missing. Characters .4 cm. 
high. In center monstrous figure 
with owl-like head and apparently 
several breasts, presumably a lilith. 

Broken and mended, with three 
fragments of the text missing. 
Characters carelessly written, .3 cr 
.4 cm. high. In center rude design, 
probably of a lilith. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY — ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 323 

TEXT PUTE CATALOGUE SIZE DESCRIPnON 

NUMBER ia cratimitrei, 

keif ht bj dtamcttr 

12 13 9009 7.2 + 17-7 Perfect bowl. Characters .4 cm. 

high, coarse but distinctly formed. 
In center a demon, with beastlike 
face and arms and feet bound. 
Endorsement on exterior. 

13 14 8694 7 + 16.2 Broken and mended, with small 

piece missing. Coarse, clumsy 
characters, .6 cm. high. In the 
center a clumsy figure of a demon 
with caterpillar-like arms. Text 
continued on the exterior for 6 
lines. 

14 15 16017 6.8+18.7 Broken and mended, with miss- 

ing segment. Characters .4 cm. 
high, in a good hand. In center a 
lilith with hands and feet manacled. 

15 16 16087 7.3 + 17.2 Broken and mended. Characters 

.4 cm. high. In center figure of a 
serpent with its tail in its mouth. 

16 17 2920 6.8 + 16.3 Broken and mended. Characters 

coarse, .3 cm. high. Rough circle 
in center. 

17 18 2922 7 -}- 15.7 Broken and mended, with a seg- 

ment missing. Characters coarse, 
.4 cm. high. In the center the cir- 
cle and cross, formed in a peculiar 
way. 

18 19 8695 7.2 -f- 16. 1 Broken and mended, with frag- 

ment of about 5 cm. square miss- 
ing. Coarse characters, .4 cm. 
high. In center rude and faded 
design — of a demon? 



324 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 



TEXT PUTE CATALOGUE SIZE 

NUMBER io c*Btinetret, 

heifkt br diameter 



19 20 



6.6+ 17.6 



20 21 16023 7+^7 



21 22 16054 6.5 -f- 17 



22 22-23 16006 6.5 + 16 



23 22 16090 7 + 17.2 



24 23 2926 7 + 16.8 



DESCRIPTION 

Broken and mended. Characters 
crabbed and obscure, closely writ- 
ten, .3 cm. high. Circle and cross 
in center. 

Broken and mended, fragment 
missing. Large, coarse characters, 
.6 cm. high. Large figure of a de- 
mon manacled, with a circle in his 
breast bisected by two lines. For 
the magical words accompanying 
see commentary. 

Broken and mended, with two 
fragments missing, a small one in 
the text. Script large, .8 cm. high, 
and rude. In center a rectangjular 
figure divided into three squares, 
in one of those at the end two large 
markings like letters. 

Broken and mended, with two 
fragments missing. From the 
same hand as No. 21 and with the 
same design, the markings in the 
square suggesting a face. 

Broken and mended. From the 
same hand as Nos. 21, 22, and with 
similar design. 

Broken and mended, small frag- 
ment missing. Coarse script, .7 
cm. high. In the center a figure of 
rude concentric circles with radial 
lines. 



J. A. MONTGOMERY ARAMAIC INCANTATION TEXTS. 325 

TEXT PUTE CATALOGUE SIZE DESCRIFTION 

NUMBER IB ceDtimetres, 

heixM bj diameter 

25 24 16009 6.94-17-2 Broken and mended, with four 

fragments missing. Coarse script, 
.5 cm. high. 

26 24 3997 6.9 -(- 15.5 Broken and mended. Script 

.4 cm. high. In the center a rough 
circle bisected by two Hnes, in each 
segment a magical word. 

27 25 16041 5.6 -|- 16.6 Broken and mended with two 

considerable fragments missing. 
Script fine and fair, .2 cm. high. 
In the center a circle with cross. 

28 25 2972 6.5 + 16.5 Broken and mended, four frag- 

ments missing, the text much 
blurred or obliterated. A fair 
script,.3 cm. high. 

29 26 16055 6.8 + 17 Broken and mended, one frag- 

ment missing. Bold and well 
formed characters .5 cm. high. 

30 26 16096 6.5 + 16.S Broken and mended, small frag- 

ment missing. Script .3 to .4 cm. 
high. In center rude figure of a 
lilith with tresses flying and hands 
and feet bound. 

31 27 9008 6.6 + 16 Perfect. Syriac script, .3 cm. 

high. In center a circle divided 
into four squares each with a cross 
in it. 

32 28 16086 6.9^-17 Broken and mended, one large 

and one small fragment missing. 
Same script and design as in No. 
31- 



326 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYLONIAN SECTION. 



TEXT PUTE CATALOGUE SIZE 

NUMBER ii ctntbMtnt, 
hcifbt by dimatttr 

33 29 16019 6.2 + 15.5 



34 30 9012 7.5 + 17.5 



35 31 16097 6.5 + 16.1 



36 32 2933 6.3 + 15.4 



37 33 2943 6.5 + 17 



38 34 2941 7+17 



39 35 9005 6.8 + 17.2 



40 36-38 2972 7.3 + 17.2 



DESCRIPTION 

Broken and mended, with two 
considerable fragments missing. In 
center cross with circle. 

Broken and mended. Design as 
in Nos. 31, 32. 

Broken and mended, two small 
fragments missing. Design as in 
No. 33. 

Broken and mended, with about 
half of the two lines on the margin 
missing. 

Broken and frequently repaired, 
much of the margin missing and a 
large part of the text obliterated. 
The script the smallest in the 
Syriac bowls, .2 to .3 cm. high. In 
the center circle and cross, each 
segment containing presumably 
letters of the Tetragrammaton. 

Broken and mended, with sever- 
al small holes. Mandaic script 
average character about .2 cm. 
high. Small circle in center. A 
brief phrase written radially near 
the margin on the exterior. 

Broken and mended, some frag- 
ments missing. Script larger and 
coarser than in No. 38, .3 cm. high. 

Broken and mended, some large 
lacunae. Script as in No. 39. The 
text covers also most of the ex- 
terior. Circles in the center. 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. PLATE I. 

1 




y7n{ )n>-^^ H-i3o -nnv )n^ /<*inK 
R-^-bi^) ni^\lyti yitr^v n^3-)A< 

Kth^K >J?>JJ1»N,^ QlV/^!>') Kj\^\y ^'^'^^5 
*t>>) cij>3> 3>x, V^ y^^ P^i)Vi /^X^J-O 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. ill. 



PLATE II. 



'^yy^^n'^'^ h»f^'<v>^7>r>'infs.> ^«^r»-'U^ i*i5i>>^ ^^aA^ 




UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. PLATE III. 

3 

ji»i»*j ^ rtnjs*^ nt^*^ *^^Y>»*» im'^>i1*n/i v-j^t p^iN>J»*' A'/>bii;i5/<-»»^>*' 
3;^^ j^^^\y vw \S'vn-iA»j*'»>»>5'<' •^o> t^vj**^ Wi itji>^ *\»'N^ 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. 



PLATE IV. 




FIGURE FOR TEXT 3. 




FIGURE FOR TEXT 4. 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. PLATE V. 

4 

M^V ^ V^M>V>^«w^>>>>^ *TI^^ ^*V)) V^^'^t^ 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL, III. 



PLATE VI. 




& 



D>>J»^y^>nl »\V)rrl/ v^>o>f)T»3^) \i'^\ji)) >'0)»n^ n"»7/)A{^ 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. P'-*"''^ V"- 



7 !7/r«S>>'vn7)vn>;T?>;^>Vv t; vw^^viiTOJiwt ^ 



5 

6 

7 









UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. 

7 



PLATE VIII. 



5 ,^, , 4 









IS 



.^/•a 







FIGURE FOR TEXT 8. 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. PLATE IX. 

8 
_Vi(iipi»n»'jiv-,\j^^\,,j»#^*)«jS '>l*^v^ Vi!*'M)"nH>>> vS.V«i«;;:;.i.y;^ N\[i<lpn '»T«1J*J "i/hv^ 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. 1 1 1. PLATE X 

9 

>*<'^Hv'"^yi"^''^^^^ ^•>V>^ ) >V'^) <l>^1^ H*^^^ TN;^%t»V 

EXTERIOR 



I 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. 

10 



PLATE XI. 




\MN Win r»>n.^\» J-r>^:7 ^'^)'^3^r> 0^u> ^p^:!^ >l\-5t»>iV) 

7)%/^;?««g?r^>;\ IPSVS^ \\V'*»\^ -vfei^n 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYU SECTION VOL. III. 

II 



PLATE XII. 







UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. PLATE XIII. 

12 




2 / 

,N^'^ >f»c?io "^nn^ '\v-:j'p/V>^/5iM-^-7/y/5)-s^-T'r't^ V) p^a//^ 



EXTEBIOR 






UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. II I. PLATE XIV. 

13 




n"'^>^;\-n n'»>>>>v j')n^')bv j-in^b^ji •>'j^o 
J Ki 3 ">':.. ; >> i KV > o i> A< i>:> V K •» ^ n *» i 

-Kjio-^n j»j^>^ n^^or x^^-*^'^^^^^ 

tn>hV'i»v > Rjjn*f\ nii*7 ir^K n-»!i n)n, 
o-»r -noi*,*/ r^y*^ ^V7n ^>oA^ f:> 

nr *^>^) oJ>A>4 vss^> 

EXTERIOR 

N.Jtjn^>V K-n^i-n^ ^h^-h^a^V a^^ X» 

n9>>v >A{>» n'»-nt«? *^)At ^ws^x/ 

^'?'^'^i" '^^^^^ ^I^'r^bnijH 

^^K-> ^>>Ai i}»5i,>^ ^^j^j^c^P, ^l>^l^t> 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. 

14 



PLATE XV. 




\A^'»n-\ySx'»' )«TO-) V^-»>>^6r7 ^^<^"^<^^-^ 'nA^'O':^ 
K^^*> \'>'^r. Kity^7 ^it^^^W *lt?*1l>^**^ \^^<-^'»'3 \''V^1^^-'; 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. 1 1 1. PLATE XVI. 

15 




y;j3Mi>j y)ri>-7 p:>i\;# ^y.ijr)> ,/Y> r)^^^»3■>1V ^r>^n ^^ni^}i^ 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. PLATE XVII. 

16 

<^r^»x\->i-r^>^) ^^rf5''5■>^<'>^^ ;5»/^>on>>^»:r 



n 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. PLATE XVIII. 

17 

)-"»*%>ip y^'^n^^^i 9^j^^^'a>if yip^p^n^'^^ 

tl^S^ •iT)iJ> ^»d)^^*? )>^>^ >'^^^ V'''^''* 

dp 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. 

18 



PLATE XIX 







UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. PLATE XX. 

19 



ivy^>\\tftitnt^y\^ ^^^Hfty^-^t-n-i^ft'^^ftM, Kni^if^ <9i^^ vftv-iri pynTip'ft* 

-»n1f^'Jf«*iK'^^ t^\S^^W \»ifV -l-lVwS f^V)«i *>t^%f »>NM?jnp'>*JrtJ;'^D>*>«T>'Vi^ M*» 

»'»^jii O^i^/*^ /*/^i) S«^*>^ <^ inf -j-j^^rH*^ > Tr5c^nY'*5i( ♦rjpi'n^^^ i** ^^'' K-j i>y»ai 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. 



20 



PLATE XXI. 







UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. PLATE XXII. 

21 

iha^tdffitH p lb i/am ^3Wi\^p)^ iWA^-fT J 
IP/ ffl\piito/6/;#i V^/J/fa/f/nJ^i^b />}/ 

23 



UlNlVtKSIIY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. 



24 



PLATE XXIII. 








FIGURE FOR TEXT 24. 



FIGURE FOR TEXT 22. 



^ UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. PLATE XXIV. 

25 

^>^|\:toM \N^^i>i H\^v;\H »VJv^S3)^' /ivn ^\vr^»3»^j .v';.V/S 

26 




j>tn\fl»A^V;»*?)Nnt>*'n '0>Vi")>5^^ r)lJ3T)7a>>1> •>**^A>lli>Pn1'a 



'Vv--. 



^^- ;/^n«)t! >>>3\sD>»*>>A'/; 






> 

X 
X 

111 

I- 
< 















C C A *^ 

J^ < ^ r r f^ ''^ 

i^ r^ r r 1^ 

*^ i ^ n '^ ii '^ 



^^^ 






/- C ^ 






> > r J- r- 
r po - r 



^-^ t^ O a *i 5^ X. 






o 
> 



I- 

CO 



>- 
m 

< 



S 
3 
ux 

M 

3 

2 

>• 
I- 
oS 

K 
bJ 

> 



K ^ r R ^ * i- 
>» ■< ^ ^ X f ^ 



i^?^^^ 



^ * « ^ 3: r c 



^ - ^ 5 ^ r 

J- i. 



X 



C *- *• v: 



. r 



OO 



^ ^ t^ A '^ *" ^'^ /' r -c 

js> -r .^ ri* t; ^ ♦...-A p i^ 



r 






r 

r 



< r B ^. *^ ^ s^T ^^ p 

r- 'b' <r <^ V i^ in ^ A c ?^ 






"^ ?. ^ o^ ^ 






* >j t" ?^ £ j; *./^ 



/> y' T. ^ y ' 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. Ill PLATE XXVI. 

29 

yA3>M^-)^?'-)r^ y*^n/ /n^ r^Y> vh.^ ^ K^*3 ^N-^^ivS •^~n>\^ 
^ T'^l ^ j \v5ir^D) ih^^ 'yy:s -^n^ v> a<-3\:> > iso^^ ^SV> v>^ 

r\N>^>>> Kan Nn W yr\r\/>t -^^/^nn h^" yV ^V? ^ W D Vli 

30 







UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. PLATE XXVII. 

31 
VIS.:X^ x'^^iaKf ^\>lW>*^ 'S:!S>t^ H^^< -<-WUJ 

nJ!I^♦^•^ A€VSs-N* l^S'^** x^i^ *<G^ 

'4Ma\>iJ9A -<^iC*-«A.>^ ^A.*:»-<*^ — <»'C<«Oi^A 

; ^<*.^ ♦ '9^'\» xV^#< 'A-a*:» t^ '^^^ 

8 



- 4. --. . 




A^^j* >A«:^ -<4:ja. ><rj^ wiA>^^ 



!\ 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. PLATE XXVIII. 

32 




xTT 






UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. PLATE XXIX. 

33 



I 



e 



7^\,iK!.\»ri^ tV^6^*v H».l^b-i\ H5^^#V I*A»C*\ '■^•Os* 

\;:^H'^'^»i aW^'v^mV V*'^** ^'^^^^^ -J*^^^ 

MJtfl^SS-^ -<^a\^ »J^C»-i.^ f(X»S^ --<XSiV;5a' ,^A 

^^-<jyV'J^'WSo=JftM<a «53<**^'«; /^^i»-<w -(^>3^f<i^ 
c^o^ •••»cJ3*cuW«r'\ •Ci*«^«4A H*»j^»> j?.x>o»^ ""lis*** 

jtr*\jk#\t^ ' «A«» ->f.jcjM-Cuo.r^^^^*\, X»**<« X«X« *<•><• X. 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. 111. PLATE XXX. 

34 




-j3 At* xV^««49^V^^^.JO«i^><V^a..Xi^i>^^*:o'i3»»^><-^*"* 



-^k^ 



ri^^*^^ llVi ;^ i<f*^j>t*s^ 'K^Aj>» -X*< >^f^^ *xr/4 m <V^<Vj3^v^ 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. PLATE XXXI. 

35 




5 

''V io 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. 



PLATE XXXII. 



36 



*X5.V 



\tSr 



•StA/ A r? Ap AT /p tivV^-^ ' \^A^^n 

* r-A /^A <\ * j^s<^ v!^ V'SfTi \ ^V^ • <HA!> ^ JO 
•i <i:*7? * f/is eA>< <i\"3l •-fcr'^ yJI ///::5 . jC>h. i^^^ c^ * A ^^s?^^^ 



77\rriYJgA)MJ,* 



^>^!^-h -<• ^ JV < • « -^ 







r 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. PLATE XXXIII. 

37 









^6 



"•_V J^ \ ';^N»JaJ5:v^•^-•^•^ 



•>»• s- 






.•\*i 



••^ \o »- 










UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. PLATE XXXIV. 

38 

4 3 

0-/0 {Cfsts,^.^ » Q^J;!f -'Xs^ <i>N o-X.^****^^ o.Ot^ >J •J' 



» 



,^ » 



EXTERIOR i:^'.. •• • ALT>jiy^ 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. PLATE XXXV. 

39 




I 



( 



^' .-i <J ff»J aL% v^. ^^a^ I -\:J O .iJoV 







UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. PLATE XXXVI. 

40 



/VM \v*>**^ ^^rt i^iP ^, _^ ^^■oQ">^ 

<i4^ id>> *CJU^ V^^ <h<><^ «*-/\^\Jilfvi,^0 



r 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. PLATE XXXVII. 

40 CONTINUED 






EXTERIOR 



^ ^~- ^-<^<V^ >^»1J ^»J^ ^1^4 



I 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. 

40 CONTINUED 

.22 



PLATE XXXVI II. 






FRAGMENTS 






INSIDE 



r:-> 



OUTSIDE 

■ ~'W 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. 

ALPHABETIC TABLES. 



PLATE XXXIX. 







I Square Script. 










II 


Mandaic Script. 


7 4 16 19 21-23 26 25 Text Xumbera 38 


39 


40 


f< 


tt 


/i 


A/ 


A/ 


><- 


s. 






O^.cX 


O O- 


<s» o* 


:3 


^ 


zx 


^ 


.r> 


^ 


rj 






^3 


^ ^ 


^ 


A 


A 


A 


A 


-^ 


?p 


> 






X> 


J^ 


5- 


^ 


T 


1 


-1 


7 


1 


«-4 






-r-r:r 


^ 


^ 






7 


' 


n 










.^ o 


o 


a 


11 


1 > 


) 


1 


^ 


1 


1 






-'-.^ 


—r , 


-' -> 


^ 


r 




t 


/ 


t 








I 


/ 


; ( 


n 


n 


n 


n 


rr 


n 


n 






AA 


-^ 


n 


L3 


V3 


LD 






ui 


la 








'^f 


9 


1 A 


•> ■> 


1 


> 


/ 


■) 


1 






1 • •- 


« • ^ 


( f- 


^ n 


5 


23 


^1 


D 


:? 


3 






^ <7 


a 


:i 


V 


^ 


^ 


^ 


i 


\ 


( 






J i 


) J 


J 


'tlD 


'O 


>>a 


^o 


b;7 


s 


b D 






n A 


y-\ 


7-A 


-5 ? 


M\ 


/y 


^^ 


1 1 


J 1 


J 1 






<. 


-^ 


>i 


PV 


^ 


k; 


P 


J> 




^ 






A3 JO 


>o 


>s> 


y 


3/ 


y 


V 


V 


P 


-V 






j^ 


^ <^ 


^ 


J) 


9 


Ji 


£> 


M* 


J 


9 






3 


S> ^ 


-? 


y 










y 














r 


r 


/• 


P 


^ 




P 






J=> Jo 




yt> 


•7 


"1 


-r 


n 


7 


^ 


s 






.r> r> 


^ => ^ 


•3 


'O . 


^V 


vy 


V 


IV 


vy 


y 






c\-o 


c-D <a»P 


Qf> 


n 


/>y\ 


JT 


n 


in 


n 


^» 




n 


/7 J7 


n -n 


<-4 i-l 



UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. II 



PLATE XL. 



Estrsnghelo 
Syriao. 



III. COMPARATIVE TABLE FOR SYRIAO SCRIPT. 

Bowl Texts. ^^n ^'4™^*!'^'° BowlTexta. 

Turkish. Sy"'"- 



Mani- 

cbeean 

Turkish. 



r< 


A/ 


N 


-^ 


J^ J fimal V 


/=3 


^ 


CD^ ^ 


JJ 


J 


^ s 


J" 


^ 


<^ 


^ 


ditto 




< 


TV 


r 


Y 


QP 


^^ 


£>> 


<ro 


T^ >v 


7N 


- 


:>v .:-. 


^ 


ON 


A 


'N 


e 


o ::i 


-r^ 


1 


^ ) 


\ 


3 






4J 


-U JsJ 




JQ 


J^ J^ 


ya 


V 


ff G 


& 


-i 


K '< ^ 


• 

"7 


h 


• 


» 


» 


CO 


Cxy' 


Si 


^^ 


> 


^ 


V V 


V 


A 


^J 


J 









UNIVERSITY MUSEUM. BABYL. SECTION VOL. III. 



PLATE XLI. 




INTERIOR OF INSCRIBED BOWL PHOTOGRAPHED F rtOM OPPOSITE POINTS. 



o 



~-i.^ D^.-^T. APR 1 1956 



pj 

5208 
A2 

1913 



Montgomery, James Alan fed ) 



PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY